Skip to main content

Full text of "FBIPolychaeta"

See other formats


THE FAUNA OF INDIA 

INCLUDING 

PAKISTAN, CEYLON, BURMA AND 
MALAYA 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF THE 
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 

EDITED BY LT-COL. R B. SEYMOUR SEWELL 
C 1 E., Sc D . F.R S„ I.M S. (Retd.) 



ANNELIDA 
POLYCHAETA 

BY 

PIERRE FAUVEL, ScD. 

Doyen honoeaire de la 
Faculte Catholique DBS Sciences, Angers 



ALLAHABAB 

THE INDIAN PRESS, LTD. 
1953 



Printed by P. L. Yadava 
at The Indian Press, Ltd., Allahabad 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Editor's Prefaoe 
Systematic Index 
Introduction : 

Morphology 

Reproduction 

Habits 

Geographical Distribution 

Collection and Preservation 

Classification 
Systematic Account . 
Bibliography . . 

Alphabetical Index 



1 

3 

10 

11 

12 

13 

15 

23 

479 

499 



EDITOR'S PREFACE 

At its inception the series of volumes that were to 
be included under the title "The Fauna of British India" 
was limited to seven, which were to deal with the Verte- 
brata only. On the recommendation of the then Govern- 
ment of India the Secretary of State for India sanctioned 
the preparation of these volumes in 1883; but the first 
volume to be published, that on the Mammalia by W. T. 
Blanford, F. R. S., did not appear till 1888. 

The geographical limits of the fauna to be studied 
were defined in the preface to this fiirst volume as com- 
prising " the dependencies of India, with the addition of 
Ceylon, which, though British, is not under the Indian 
Government. Within the limits thus defined are com- 
prised all India proper and the Himalayas, the Punjab, 
Sind, Baluchistan, all the Kashmir territories, with Gilgit, 
Ladak, etc., Nepal, Sikkim, Butan, and other Cis-Hima- 
layan States, Assam, the countries between Assam and 
Burma, such as the Khasi and Naga hills, and Manipur, 
the whole of Burma, with Karennee, and, of course, 
Tenasserim and the Mergui Archipelago, and lastly the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Afghanistan, Kashgaria, 
Tibet, Yunnan, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula south of 
Tenasserim are excluded". 

When the volumes dealing with the Vertebrata were 
completed the series was extended to include the Lepidop- 
tera and thereafter the Insecta in general. A few years 
later it was realised that the series was in danger of becom- 
ing overloaded with works on the insects to the almost 
complete exclusion of all the other groups of animals, 
the only exception being the Arachnida, which were re- 
ported on by the late R. I. Pocock, F.R.S., in 1900. In 1908 
the first of a series of volumes on the Mollusca was pub- 
lished and this was followed at intervals by three other 
volumes on this group. In 1909 the sanction of the Sec- 



11 EDITOR S PREFACE 

retary of State for India was granted for the preparation 
of volumes on the Freshwater Sponges, Hydroids and Poly- 
zoa by the late Dr. Annandale, and on Leeches by Mr. 
Harding and Prof. J. Perq^ Moore. In the same year it 
was decided to extend the series so as to include the marine 
fauna of the Indian coasts, and sanction was accorded for 
the preparation of two volumes on the Brachyura by the 
late Lieut.-Col. Alcock, F.R.S.; but Alcock's retirement 
from India and pressure of work in other spheres prevent- 
ed the preparation of these volumes. In 1922 the Secretary 
of State for India was asked to sanction the preparation 
of a volume on the Madreporarian Corals, but he decided 
for financial reasons to postpone for a time consideration 
of any further volumes in the 'Fauna' series. 

When the consideration of further volumes was again 
taken up the marine fauna was not lost sight of and 
sanction was granted by the Secretary of State for India 
for the preparation of several volumes on groups of the 
marine fauna, and with the steady growfh ot our know- 
ledge of the deep-sea fauna of Indian seas it was decided 
that this should be included, thus widening very consider- 
ably the scope of such volumes. The volumes on the 
marine fauna, that have up to the present time been sanc- 
tioned, are:— 

Sponges . . by M. Burton. 

Echinoidea . . by Th. Mortensen.^ 

Polychaeta . . by P. Fauvel. 

Cirripedia . . by C. A. Nilsson-Cantell. 

Copepoda Calanoida . , by R. B. Seymour Sewell. 

Brachyura, Oxyrhyncha . . by B. N. Chopra, 

and Pelecypoda . . by Baini Prashad. 

The preparation of a 2nd Edition of the volumes 
on Fishes was also entrusted to Dr. S. L, Hora. 

With the extension of the series to include the deep- 
water fauna it has become necessary to define the bound- 
aries o£ the ocean within which the fauna may be con- 

iThe death of Dr. Mortensen, since this was written, has 
rendered the authorship of this volume vacant. 



EDITORS PREFACE 



111 



sidered to belong to Indian waters and the following 
limits have been accepted :— 

On the west the area shall be bounded by the meri- 
dian o£ lat. 60°E. as far north as Ras-al-Had, and thus 
includes the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. 

On the south by the latitude 1°S. so as to include the 
whole of the Maldive Archipelago. 




. On the .east by the coast of Burma, by a line drawn 
from Victoria Point to the northern tip of Sumatra and 
by the west coast of Sumatra as far south as Lat. 1° S. 

The area thus enclosed is shown in the accompany- 
ing map, which also indicates the various sub-marine 
ridges and basins that lie wholly or in part within the 
boundaries of the Indian region. It is, of course, well 
known that this area is populated by an Indo-Pacific 
fauna and hence a certain amount of latitude must be 
granted to Authors who wish, for one reason or another, 
to include in their account of the Indian fauna certain 
species that up to the present time have not been captur- 
ed within these waters but whose presence there may con- 
fidently be expected, and this is all the more necessary 



iv EDITORS PREFACE 

since the land region has now been extended beyond the 
original scope to include Malaya, where this is possible. 

As a consequence of the recent change in the Govern- 
ment of India and the division of this region into two new 
Dominions of India and Pakistan it has become necessary 
to change the title of the series. In future the series will be 
known as "The Fauna of India", and the Government of 
India have decided that the area to be covered shall in- 
clude India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma and, if possible, 
Malaya. It has also been decided that henceforth the 
volumes of the series shall be printed in India. The 
present volume thus becomes the first of a new series. 

Acknowledgment and the thanks of both Author and 
Editor of this volume are due to a number of Scientific 
Societies and other bodies for permission to reproduce 
illustrations that have previously been included in the; 
Journals and Memoirs published by them. First and fore- 
most among these is Dr. Chopard and the " Federation 
Francaise des Soci^t^s de Sciences Naturelles ", to whom we 
are indebted for permission to reproduce a large number 
of figures from Dr. Fauvel's Monographs on the 
" Polychetes errantes " and " Polychfetes s^dentaires " in the 
"Fauna de France": Other scientific bodies, to whom our 
thanks are due, are the Trustees of the British Museum 
(Natural History), the Royal Society of London, the 
Linnean Society of London, the Zoological Society of 
London, the Musdum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris and 
the Soci6t6 Zoologique de France, and to Messrs. Taylor 
and Francis, the Publishers of the " Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History ". Finally, our thanks are tendered 
to the Director of the Zoological Survey of India for per- 
mission to reproduce many figures that have been publish- 
ed in the "Records" and "Memoirs of the Indian 
Mtiseum ". 

R.B.Seymour Sewell 
The Zoological Laboratory Editor 

Cambridge, England 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 
ANNELIDA POLYCHAETA 



Pace 



ERRANTIA. 



I. Fam. Aphroditidae Savigny. . 23 

Subfam. Hermioninae Grube 23 

Gen. Aphrodita Linn 24 

\. aculeata Linn 24 

2. australis Baird 26 

3. talpa Quatrefages 26 

Gen. Aphrogenia Kinberg . 27 

1. alba Kinberg 27 

Gen. Hermione Blainville. . . 28 

1. hystrix (Savigny) 28 

Gen. Laetmatonice Kinberg. . 29 

\. product a Mcintosh 

var. benthaliana Mcintosh 29 

Gen. Pontogenia Claparfede. . 29 

1. indica Grube 29 

2. nuda Horst 30 

Subfam. Polynoinae Grube. . . 31 

Gen. Iphione Kinberg 32 

1. muricata Savigny 32 

' Gen. Lepidonotus Leach. . . 33 

1. carinulatus Grube 34 

2. jacksoni Kinberg 34 

S. cristatus Grube 35 

4. hedleyi Benham 35 

5. dictyolepis Haswell 35 

6. tenuisetosus (Gravier) . . 36 

7. melanogrammus Haswell 37 
Subgen. Thormora (Baird)... 37 

1. jukesi (Baird) 37 

Incertae sedis 

1. Lepidonotus fusicirrus 

(Schmarda) 38 

Gen. Hermenia Grube. ... 38 

1. acantholepis (Grube) ... 38 

Gen. Eunoe Malmgren 39 

1. pallida (Ehlers) 39 

Gen. Gattyana Mcintosh. . . 39 

1. deludens Fauvel 39 

Gen. Lagisca Malmgren 41 

1. flaccida Potts 41 

Gen. Harmothoe Kinberg 42 

1. imbricata (Linn) 42 

2. ampullifera (Grube) 43 

3. dictyophora (Grube) . . 44 

4. rftinuta (Potts) 45 

5. arabica Monro 46 

5. indica (Kinberg) 47 

7. boholensis (Grube) 47 



Pace 
Incertae sedis. 
1. sinagawensis (non Izuka) 

Fauvel 48 

Gen. Scahsetosus Mcintosh . . 49 

1. pellucidus Ehlers 49 

2. longicirrus (Schmarda). 50 
Gen. Castrolepidia Schmarda 51 

1, clauigera Schmarda 61 

Gen. Hyperhalosydna 

Augener 52 

I. striata (Kinberg) 52 

Gen. Almaniella Mcintosh. . 53 

1. ptycholepis (Grube) ... 53 

Gen. Admetella Mcintosh.. 53 

1. longipedata Mcintosh. . 64 

Gen. Drieschia Michaelsen . . 64 

1. pelagica Michaelsen 54 

Gen. Nectochaeta Marenzeller 55 

1. grimaldii Marenzeller.. 56 
Gen. Lepidasthenia Malm- 
gren 56 

1. microlepis Potts 57 

2. macutoa Potts 58 

var. striata Fauvel. . . 58 

Gen. Hololepidella WiUey.. 59 

1. commensalis Willey...^ 59 

Subfam. Sigalioninae Grube.. 60 

Gen. Sthenelais Kinberg. ... 61 

1. boa (Johnston) 61 

2- zeylanica Willey 62 

3. variabilis Potts 62 

4. calcarea Potts 64 

Gen. Euthalanessa Darboux .64 

I. djiboutiensis (Gravier). 64 

Gen. Eusigalion Augener 66 

1. stylolepis (Willey) 66 

Gen. Psammolyce Kinberg. . 66 

1. fijiensis Mcintosh 67 

2. antipoda (Schmarda) ... 67 
8. zeylanica Willey 68 

Gen. Leanira Kinberg ..... 69 

1. japonica Mcintosh 69 

Subfam. Acoetinae Grube. ... 70 

Gen. Polyodontes Renier. - . 70 

1. maxillosus Ranzani. .... 71 

2. melanonotus (Grube) ... 72 
Gen. Panthalis Kinberg. . / . 74 

1. oerstedi Kinberg .-. 74 

Gea. EupanthalisyLcLiitiaiiL. . 75 

1. edriophthalma (Potts).. 76 



F. B 



•VI 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



Page 

II. Fam. Pisionidae Levinsen. . 76 
Gen. Pisione Grube 76 

1. oerstedi Grube 77 

III. Fam. Chrysopetalidae 

Ehleis 78 

Gen. Chrysopetalun Ehlers.. 78 

1. ehlersi Gravier 78 

Gen. Bhemiania Sctmiarda. . . 79 

1. ctyptocephala Gravier. . 79 



IV. Fam. Amphinomidae 

Savigny 80 

Gen. Amphinome Bruguifere. 81 

1. rostrata (Pallas) 81 

Gen. Eurythoe Kinberg 82 

1. complanata (Pallas)... 83 

2. matthtsui Bindra 84 

3. panecarunculata Horst 85 
Gen. PseudeurytkoS Fauvd. 85 

1. paucibranchtata Fauvel. 86 

2. nicrocephala Fauvel... 88 
8. acarunculata Monro. . . 89 

4. ambigua Monro 90 

Gen. Paramphtnome Sars... 91 

1. indica Fauvel 91 

Gen. Benthoscolex Horst. . . 93 

I. caecits Horst 93 

Gen. Chloeia Savigny 94 

1. vtolacea Horst 95 

2.fl(ma (Pallas) 96 

$. paroa Baird 96 

4. amphora Horst 96 

5. fusca Mcintosh 97 

6. rosea Potts 97 

Gen. Notopygos Grube 98 

1. gjgos Horst 98 

2. labiatus Mcintosh 99 

3. hispidus Potts 100 

4. variabilis Potts 100 

Gen. Eaphrosyne Savigny 101 

1. myrtosa Savigny 101 

2. foliosa Aud. and M.- 
Edwards 'l02 

V. Fam. Hesionidae Grube 103 

Gen. Hesione Savigny 103 

1. pantherina Risso 104 

2. geMtta Grube 105 

3. intertexta Grube 105 

Gen. Leocrates Kinberg 106 

1. chparedii (tGosta) 106 

2. diplognathus Monro 107 

Gen. Ijeecmi^ Ehlers 107 

1. eMersi (Horst) 107 



l-AGE 

Gen. Podarke Ehlers 108 

1. angustifrons (Grube).. 109 

2. latifrons (Grube) 110 

Gea. Ancistrosyllis Mcintosh 110 

1. rigida Fauvel 110 

2. constricta Southern — 111 
Incertae sedis. 

Gen. Talehsapia Fauvel 112 

1. annandalei Fauvel... . 113 

VI. Fam. Phyllodocidae Grube. 114 

Subfam. Phyllodocinae 115 

Gen. Phyllodoce Savigny. . . 115 

1. castanea (Marenzdier) . . 115 

2. quadraticeps Grube 116 

3. malmgreni Gravier... 117 

4. gracilis K-inberg 117 

5. fristedti Bergstrom 118 

Incertae sedis. 

1. zeylanica Willey 119 

Subgen. Anaitides Gzemiavsky 119 

\. dissotyla Willey 119 

2. madeirensis Langerhans 120 

3. tenuissima (Grube) ... 121 
Gen. Bulalia Oersted 122 

1. viridis (Muller) 122 

2. alba-picta Marenzdier. . 123 
Subgen. Pterocirrus Claparide 124 

1. ma^lhaensis Kinberg.. 124 
Subgen. Eumida Malmgren.. 125 

1. sanguinea Oersted 125 

Gen. Notophyllum Oersted. . 126 

1. splendfns (Scfamarda).. 126 
Gen. Bteone Savigny 127 

1. barantollae Fauvel 127 

2. orriam Grutfe 128 

Gen. Paralacydmia Fauvel.. 128 

1. iveberi Horst 129 

Gen. Lopadorhynchus Grube 130 

1. uncinatus Fauvel 130 

Gen. Pelagpbia Greeff 131 

1. Jongtorrafa GreefE 131 

VII. Fam. Alciopidae Ehlers.. 132 
Gen. Astetvpe ClapirWe ... 132 
1. Candida. (Delle Ciilaje). 132 
Gen. Aidopa Aud. an*l 

M.-Edw 133 

1. cantrtArUi (Delia Chiaje) 134 

Gen. VanaAis Claparide 135 

1. formosa Claparide 135 

Gen. Gre^a Miilitosh 135 

1. celox (Greeff) 135 

Gen. Corynocephalm 

Levinsen * 137 

1. albamaculatus Levinsen. 137 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



vu 



Page 

Gen. RhynchonereMa Costa. . 137 

1. fulgens Greeff 138 

VIII. Fam. Typhoscoiecidae 

Wjaaia 139 

Gen. Tratdsiopsis Levinsen. . 139 

1. lobifera I<evinsen 139 

IX. Fam. Tomopteridae Grube 140 
Gen. Tomopteris Eschscholtz 140 

Subgen. Tomopteriss. str — 140 

1. mortenseni Augener 141 

2. caoalUi Rosa 141 

t. elegems Chun 142 

4. planktonis Apstein . . 142 

Subgen. JohnitoneUa Gosse. . 142 

1. heigolcm'dica Greeff. . . 143 

2. roUtsi Greeff 143 

$. ducii Rosa 143 

4. aloysi-sabaudiae Kosa. . 144 

5. dunkeri Rosa 145 

X. Fam. SylUdae Grute 145 

Gen. Syllis Sm^y 146 

Subgen. Hapl0syUis 

1. spongicoia Grube 147 

Subgen. Syllis s. star 

1. gracilis Grube 147 

Subgen. Typsosyibs 

1. varie^ita Grube 148 

2. prolifera Krohn 149 

3. krohnii Ehleis 150 

4. closterqbranchia 

Sekimtd9. 150 

5. exilis Gravier 151 

6. okadai Fauvel 152 

Subgen. VMermm L^t^eibans 

1. c&mv,t» ^R»tUe). .. 153 
Gen. Optsthosyllis 

Langerha»s 153 

1. longicirrata Mo«io 154 

2. brmntiea LangerliaDS — 155 

3. awtinalis Augeser 156 

Gen. Trypanosyllis Clapaxfede 156 

1. zebra Grube 157 

2. ^i^mtea (Mclnto^) 158 

$. misakiensis laoka 158 

'Gen. Eusyllis Malmgren.... 169 

1. ceylonioa Antgeaeic 159 

Gen. Odontosyllis Clapiixfede. 160 

1. gravelyi Fauvel 160 

Gen. PamsphaeresyUis 

Mooeo 162 

1. indica Monro 162 

Gen. Autolftus Grube 162 

1. orientalis WiHey 162 



Page 
Incertae sedis. 

1. Cirrosyllis zealanka 

Schmarda 163 

2. Pionosyllis sp. Fauvel . 163 

3. Exogone sp. Augener. . . 163 

4. Sacconereis sp. Fauvel.. 163 

XI. Fam. Nereidae Johnston.. 163 

Gen. Lycastis Savigny 166 

1. meraukensis Horst 16G 

2. indica Southern 167 

Gen. Tylonereis Fauvel. . . . 168 

1. bogoyawlenskyi Fauvel.. 168 

2. fauveli Southern 169 

Gen. Leonnates Kinberg. . . . 169 

1. jousseaumei Gravier 169 

2. decipiens Fauvel 171 

Gen. Dendronereis Peters 172 

1. arborifera Peters 172 

2. aestuarina Southern 173 

Gen. Dendronereides 

Southern 173 

1. heteropoda Southern... 174 

Gen. Nereis CuvieT 175 

Subgen. Nsjeis s. str. ICinberg 177 

1. anchylochaeta Hoist. . 177 

2. onychophora Horst 178 

3. chingrigh/ittensis Fauvel 179 

4. cricogfiatha Ehlers..... 180 

5. glandicincta Southern.. 181 

6. unifesciata Willey 182 

7. trifasciata Grube 153 

8. Uilehsapensis Fauvel... 184 

9. chilkaensk Southern 185 

10. indica Kmbeig 186 

11. coutierei Grayier 187 

12. zonata-persica Fauvel.. 187 

13. kaudemi Fauvel. .. . 188 

14. jacksani Kinberg 189 

15. reducta Southern 190 

16. gisserana Horst 190 

17. hngilingulis Mcmro . . . 192 

18. heteromorpha Horst... 193 
Subgen. Neanthes Kinberg. . 193 

1. capensis Willey 193 

2. megittii Monro 194 

Subgen. Ceratonereis Kinberg. 194 

1. costae Grube 194 

2. pachychaeta Fauvel i'96 

3. burmensis Monro 196 

4. tripartita Horst 197 

5. mtcrocepheda Grube... 198 

6. fk^Uipes Fauvd 199 

7. mirabSis JCiDbeiig 200 

Gen. Perinerm Kinberg 202 

1. maind/roni F^n^. . . . 203 

2. burhara Modhfo 204 



VIU 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



Page 

3. suluana Horst 204 

4. singaporiensis Grube . . . 205 

5. vancaurica (Ehlers) 205 

6. cultrifera Grube 206 

var. typica Grube — 208 
var. fioridana Ehlers.. 208 
var. perspicillata Grube 208 
var. helleri Grube . . . 208 
var. striolata Grube.. 209 

7. aibuhitensis Grube 209 

8. nigro-punctata Horst.. 210 

9. cavifrons Ehlers 210 

10. neocaledonica Pruvot.. 211 

11. nuntia (Savigny) 212 

var. typica (Savigny).. 213 
var. brevicirris 

(Grube) 214 

var. heterodonta 

Gravier 214 

var. vallata Grube.... 215 
Gen. Pseudonereis Kinberg . 215 

1. gallapagensis Kinberg.. 215 

2. anomala Gravier 217 

3. roHnestiana Augener... 217 
Gen. Platy nereis Kinberg. ... 217 

1. dumerilii (Aud. and 
M.-Edw.) 218 

2. fusco-rubida Grube ... 219 

3. pulchella Gravier 220 

4. polyscahna Chamberlin 221 

5. abnormis (Horst) 222 

Incertae sedis. 

1. Nereis sp. m. ezoensis 
Izuka, Gravely 223 

2. Nereis ehlersiana 

Grube, Willey 223 

3. Nereis f estiva Grube 223 

4. Nereis foliosa Schmarda 223 

5. Nereis sp. Fauvel 223 

XII. Fam. Nephthydidae Grube 223 
Gen. Nephthys Cuvier 223 

1. inermis Ehlers 224 

2. dibranchis Grube 225 

3. gravieri Augener 226 

4. malmgreni Theel 226 

5. polybranchia Southern. 227 

6. oligobranckia Southern. 228 
Incertae sedis. 

1. Nephthys dussumieii 
Valenciennes 228 

Xin. Fam. Eunicidae Grube . 228 

Subfam. Eunicinae Kinberg.. 230 

Gen. Eunice Cuvier 231 

1. tubifex Crossland 232 

2. aphroditois (Pallas) 233 

3. tentaculata Quatrefages. 234 



Page 

4. fioridana Pourtales — 235 

5. afra Peters '. 235 

var. paupera Grube 236 

6. coccmea Grube 236 

7. grubei Gravier 237 

8. savigny i Grube 238 

9. investigatoris Fauvel. . . 239 

10. antennata Savigny 240 

11. australis Quatrefages... 240 

12. indica Kinberg 241 

13. siciliensis Grube 241 

14. marenzelleri Gravier . . . 242 

15. gracilis Crossland 243 

Gen. Marphysa Quatrefages . 244 

1. sanguined Montagu . . 245 

2. macintoski Crossland . . 246 

3. gravelyi Southern 246 

4. mossambica Peters.. .. 246 

5. stragulum Grube... . 247 

6. fallax Marion and 

Bobretzky 247 

Gen. Paramarphysa Ehlers.. 247 

1. orientalis Willey 247 

Gen. Lysidice Savigny 248 

I. collaris Grube 248 

Gen. Nematonereis Schmarda 249 

1. unicornis Grube.. ..". 249 

Subfam. Lysaretinae Kinberg. 250 

Gen. Aglaurides Ehlers 250 

1. fulgida (Savigny) 250 

Subfam. Onuphidinae 

Levinsen 251 

Gen. Diopatra And. and 

M.-Edw. 251 

1. neapolitana Delle Chiaje 252 
Gen. Onuphis Aud. and 

M.-Edw 253 

1. dibranchiata Willey. . . 254 

2. furcatosetosa Monro 254 

3. conchylega Sars 265 

4. holobranchiata 
Marenzdler 256 

5. aucklandensis Augener. 257 

6. eiemita Aud. and 

M -Edw 257 

7. investigatoris Fauvel... 258 
Gen Hyalinoecia Malmgren 260 

1. tubicola (O. F. MiiUer) 261 

Ehlers 261 

Gen. Rhamphobrachium 
Ehlers 

1. chum Ehlers 261 

2. diveisosetosum Monro. . 262 
Subfam. Lumbriconereinae 

Grube 263 

Gen. Lumbriconereis 

Blainville 263 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



ix- 



Page 

1. simplex Southern — : . 264 

2. polydesma Southern. . . 264 

3. latreilU Aud. and 

M.-Edw 266 

4. sphaerocephala 

Schmarda 267 

5. impatiens Claparfede. .. 267 

6. heteropoda Marenzeller 268 

7. bifilaris Ehlers 269 

8. pseudobifilaris Fauvel. . 269 

9. notocirrata Fauvel... . 271 
Gen. Arabella Grube 274 

1. tricolor (Montagu) 274 

2. mutans (Chamberlin) . . 27S 
Gen. Drilonereis ClaparMe. . 276 

1. filum Claparfcde 276 

2. major Crossland 277 

Gen. Ninoe Kinberg 277 

1. ckilensis Kinberg 277 

Subfam. Staurocephalinae 

Kinberg 278 

Gen. Staurocephalus Grube. . 278 

1. incertus (Schmarda)... 279 

2. gardineri Crossland 280 

Incertae sedis 

1. Eunice teretiuscula 

Schmarda 280 

2. Diopatra phyllocirra 

Schmarda 281 

3. Diopatra malabarensis 

Quatrefages . 281 

4. Tradopia maculata 

Baird 281 

5. Notocirrus trigonoce— 

phalus Schmarda 281 

6. Lumbriconereis indica 

Kinberg 281 

XIV. Fam. Glyceridae Grube. . 281 
Subfam. Goniadinae Arwidsson 281 
Gen. Goniada Aud. and 

M.-Edw 282 

1. emetita Aud. and 

M.-Edw 282 

2. annulaia Mooie 283 

3. eximia Ehlers 285 

Subgen. Goniadopsis Fauvel. 285 

1. mceita Fauvel 286 

2. agnesiae Fauvel 287 

Gen. Glycinde Miiller 288 

1. oligodon Southern 288 

Subfam. Glycerinae Arwidsson 289 

Gen. Glycera Savigny 290 

1. tesselata Grube 291 

2. lancadivae Schmarda... 291 

3. longipinnis Grube 291 

4. alba Rathke 292 



Page 

5. prashadi Fauvel 294 

6. sagittariae Mcintosh. . . 295 

7. gigantea Quatrefages... 296 

8. rouxii Aud. and 

M.-Edw 297 

9. cirrata Grube 297 

10. manorae Fauvel 298 

SEDENTARIA 300 

XV. Fam. Ariciidae Aud. 

and M.-Edw 300 

Gen. Aricia Savigny 300 

1. cuvieri Aud. and 

M.-Edw 301 

var. persica Fauvel 302 

2. nuda Moore 303 

3. exarmata Fauvel 304 

Gen. Scoloplos Blainville... 306 

1. marsupialis Southern... 306 

2. kerguelensis Mcintosh.. 307 
S. chevalieri (Fauvel) 308 

4. latus (Chamberlin) 309 

Gen. Namereis Blainville. . . 310 

1 . laevigata (Grube) 310 

XVI. Fam. Spionidae Sars.... 311 
Gen. Nerine Johnston 312 

1. cirratulus Delle Chiaje. 312 

Gen. Scolelepis Blainville.. 313 

1. indica Fauvel 313 

Gen. Laonice Malmgren . . . 315 

1. cirrata Sars 315 

Gen. Polydora Bose 315 

Subgen. Carazzia Mesnil 316 

1. antennata ClaparMe... 316 

2. hempi Southern...- 317 

Subgen. Polydora Bose 318 

1. hornelli WiUey 318 

2. ciliata Johnston 319 

3. coeca Oersted 319 

4. armata Langerhans.. .. 321 

5. flava Claparfede 321 

Gen. Polydorella Augener... 322 

1. prolifera Augener 322 

Gen. Prionospio Malmgreh,. 323 

\. pinnata Ehlers 323 

2. cirrifera Wiren 324 

3. polybranchiata Fauvel. 324 

4. krusadensis Fauvel 326 

XVII. Fam. Disomidae Mesnil. . 327 
Gen. Disoma Oersted 327 

1. orissae Fauvel 327 

XVm. Fam. Magelonidae Cun- 
ningham and Ramage. . 329 



X 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



Page 
Gen. Maeelona (p. F. 

MuUer) 329 

1. sp. juv 329 

XIX. Fam. CirratuUdae Carus. . 329 

Gen. Audoumia Quatrefages. 330 

1. semicincta (Ehlers).... 330 

2. filigera (Delle Chiaje) 331 

3. anchylochaeta 

(Schmarda) 332 

Gen. Cirratulus Lamarck. . . 332 

1. filiformis Keferstein, . . 333 

2. chrysoderma ClaparMe. 333 

3. dasylophius Marenzeller 333 

4. cirratus (O. F. 

Mfiller) 334 

Gen. Tkaryx Webster and 

Benedict 334 

1. muUifilis Moore 334 

Gen. Heterocirrus Grube 334 

1. typhlops Willey 334 

Gen. Dodecaceria Oersted.. 335 
1. fistulkola Ehlers 335 



XX. Fam. Chaetopteridae Aud. 

and M.-Ediv 336 

Gen. Chaetopterus Cuvier. . 337 
1. mriopeaatus Renier ... 337 
Gen. Phyliochaetopterus 

Gxube 338 

1. socialis ClaparMe 339 

2. elioti Crossland 340 

3. gardineri Crossland 341 

4. acicuKgerus Crossland. . 341 

5. herdmani Willey 342 

Gen. "Mesochaetopterus Potts 342 

1. minutus Potts 342 

XKI. Fam. Chhraemidae 

Malmgrea 344 

Gen. FlabeUigera Sars 344 

1. diplochaitos (Otto) 344 

■Gen. Stylarioides Belle 

Chiaje 345 

1. hamocarens Monro 345 

2. parmatus Grube 346 

3 eruca ClaparMe, 

var. indica Fauvel 347 

4. bengalensis Fauvel 347 

5. bifidus Fauvel 349 

Geu. Srada Stlmpson 351 

1. talehsapensis Fauvel... 351 

2. mamillata Grube 352 

Gen. Diplocirrus Haase 352 

I. glaucus (Malmgren)... 353 



Page 

Incertae sedis 

1. Ilyphagus hirsutus 

Monro 354 

XXII. Fam. Scalibregmidae 
Malmgren 354 

Gen. Scahbregma Rathke 354 

1. inflatum Rathke 355 

Gen. Parasclerocheilus 

Fauvel 355 

1. branchiatus Fauvel 356 

Incertae sedis 

1. Oncoscolex microchaetus 
Schmarda 357 

XXIII. Fam. Ophehidae Grube 357 
Gen. Armandia Filippi 358 

1. lanceolata Willey 358 

2. leptoctrris (Grube).... 385 
Gen. Ammotrypane Rathke. 359 

1. auhgaster Rathke 359 

Gen. Polyophthalmus 

Quatrefages 359 

1. ptctus (Dujardin) 360 

Gen. TroKjiw Johnston 361 

1. arborifera Fauvel 361 

XXIV. Fam. CapiteUidae Grube 362 
Gen. Notomastus Sars 363 

1. latericeus Sars 364 

2. giganteus Moore 365 

Gen. Dasybranchits Grube. . . 365 

1. caducus Grube 365 

Gen. Heteromastus Eisig. .. 366 

I. similis Southern 366 

Gen. Heteromastides 

Augener 357 

1. bMut Aujgaaer $68 

Gen. Paraheteromastus 

Monro 358 

1. tenuis Monro 369 

Gen. Mastobranchus Eisig. . 369 

1. indicus Southern 369 

Gen. BarantoUa Southern... 370 

1. sculpta Southern 370 

Gen. Capitellethus 

Chamberlin 370 

1. dispar (Ehlers) 371 

Gen. Branchiocapitella 

Fauvel 371 

1. singularis Fauvel 371 

Gen. Scyphoproctus Gravier. 372 

1. djiboutiensis Gravier... 373 

Gen. PulUella Fauvel 374 

1. armata Fauvel 374 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



XI 



Page 

XXV. Fam. ArenicoUdae 
Johnston 375 

XXVI. Fam. Maldanidae 
Malmgren 375 

Gen. Clymene Savigny 376 

Subgen. Euclymene Venill.. 376 

1. annandalei Southern. . 377 

2. insecta (Ehleis) 377 

3. grossa Baird 378 

4. ajfltsoni Gravier .379 

5. santanderensis Rioja . . . 379 
Subgen. Praxillella Verrill.... 380 

I. gracilis Sars 380 

Gen. Axiothella Verrill 380 

1. obockensis (Gravier) . . . 380 

2. australis Augener. .'. . . 381 
Gen. Maldane Grube 382 

1. sarsi Malmgren 382 

Gen. Maldanella Mcintosh . . 383 

1. harai (Izuka) 383 

Gen. Petaloproctus 

Quatrefages 384 

1. terricola Quatrefages. . 385 

Gen. Asychis Kinberg 385 

1. theodori Augener 386 

2. gotoi (Izuka) 387 

3. disparidentata (Moore). 387 

4. trifilosa Augener 388 

B. gangeticus Fauvel 389 

Incertae sedis 

1. Nicomache truncate 

Willey 390 

XXVII. Fam. Oweniidae Rioja 390 
Gen. Owenia Delle Chiale.. 391 

1. fusiformis Delle Chiaje. 391 

Gen. M)inoc/!«/e Malmgren.. 391 

1. picta Southern 392 

Fam. Sabellariidae Johnston . . 393 

XXVm. Fam. Sabellariidae 

Johnston 393 

1. spinulosa Leuckart. . . . 394 
var. alcocki Gravier 395 

2. cementarium Moore. . . . 395 

3. pectinata Fauvel 396 

var. intermedia Fauvel 397 

Gen. Pallasia Quatrefages.. 398 
Subgen. Pallasia Quatrefages 

s. str 398 

I. pennata Peters 398 

Subgen. Lygdamis Kinberg.. 398 

1. indicus Kinberg 399 

2. porrectus Ehlers 400 

XXIX. Fam. Sternaspididae 

Malmgren 401 



Pace 

Gen. Sternaspis Otto 401 

1. scutata (Ranzani) 401 

XXX. Fam. Amphictenidae 
Malmgren 402 

Gen. PechnarM Lamarck. .. 402 
Subgen. Pectinaria Lamarck 

s. str. 403 

1. antipoda Schmarda . 403 

Subgen. Amphictene Savigny. 403 

1. crassa Grube 403 

Subgen. Lagis Malmgren . . 405 

1. abranchiata Fauvel . . . 405 
Incertae sedis 

1. Pectinaria panada 

Willey 406 

2. Pectinaria capensis 

Gmelin 406 

XXXI. Fam. Ampharetidae 
Malmgien 406 

Gen. Amphicteis Grube 407 

1. gunneri Sars 407 

2. posterobranchiata 

Fauvel 408 

Gen. Amage Malmgren ... 410 

1. bioculata (Moore) 410 

Gen. Schistocomus 

Chamberlin 411 

1. hiltoni Chamberlin 411 

Gen. Melinopsis Mcintosh , . 412 

1. dubita (Hoagland) 412 

Gen. Melinna Malmgren. . 413 

1. aberrans Fauvel. .. 413 



XXXII. Fam. TerebelUdae 

Grube 415 

Subtam. Amphitritinae 

Malmgren 416 

Gen. Loima Malmgren 416 

1. medusa (Savigny).. .. 416 
Gen. Lanice Malmgren.. .. 418 

1. socialis (WiUey) 418 

Gen. Polymnia Malmgren.. 418 
1. nebulosa (Montagu)... 419 

Gen. Nicolea Malmgren 420 

I. gracibbranchis (Grube) 420 

Gen. Terebella Linnaeus . . . 420 

1. ehrenbergi Grube. ... 421 

Gen. Pista Malmgren 422 

1. indica Fauvel 422 

2. typha Grube 424 

3. robustiseta CauUery. . . . 424 

4. fasciata (Grube) 425 

5. macrolobata Hessle.... 426 

6. herpini Fauvel 427 



Xll 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



Pace 
■ 7. pachybranchiata 

Fauvel 428 

Subfam. Thelepinae Hessle.. 430 
Gen. Thelepus Leuckart — 430 

1. plagiostoma Schmarda.. 430 

2. cincinnatus (Fabricius). 431 
Gen. Streblosoma Sars. . . . 432 

1. persica (Fauvel) 432 

2. cespitosa (Willey) 433 

Subfam. Polycirrinae 

Malmgren 434 

Gen. Polycimts Grube 434 

1. coccineus Grube 434 

Gen. Lysilla Malmgren , . . 433 
1. pambanensis Fauvel... 435 
Subfam. Canephorinae 

Malmgren 436 

Gen. Terebellides Sars 436 

1. stroemi Sars 436 

Incertae sedis. 

1. Polymnia labiata Willey 437 

2. Physelia viridis 

Schmarda 437 

3. Neottis gracilis Kinberg 437 



XXXIII. Fam. Sabellidae 

Malmgren 437 

Gen. Sabella Linnaeus 439 

1. porifera Grube 459 

2. melanostigma Schmarda 439 
Gen. Spirogrc^his Viviani . 440 

I. spallaraanii Viviani 441 

Gen. Dasychone Sars 442 

I. cingulata Grube 442 

Z. serratihranchis Grube.. 442 
Gen. Branchiomma Kolliker. 443 

1. pacificum (Johansson).. 444 

2. intermedium Beddard.. 444 
Gen. Sabellastarte KrSyer. . 445 

1. indica Savigny 445 

Gen. Laonome Malmgren.. 446 

• 1. indica Southern 446 

Gen. Hypsicomus Grube 447 

1. phaeotaenia (Schmarda) 447 
Gen. Potamilla Malmgren.. 448 

\. ehlersi Gravier 449 

2. leptochaeta Southern.. 449 

3. ceylonica Augener 449 

Gen. Jasmineira Langerhans. 450 

1. caducibranchiata Willey 451 

Gen. Manayunkia Leidy. . . . 452 

1. spongicola Southern... 452 



Pace 
XXXTi^. Fam. Serpulidae 

Burmeister 452 

Gen. Serpula Linnaeus . . . 454 
1. vermicularis Linnaeus. . 454 
var. granulosa 

Maren2ener 455 

var. watsoni Willey. 456 
Gen. Hydroides Gunneius.. 456 

1. pereti Fauvel 457 

2. homoceros Pixell . . . 458 

3. norvegica (Gunnerus) . . 438 

4. lunulifera (Claparide) . . 458 

5. heteroceros (Grubo) . . . 459 

6. monoceros Gravier 4G0 

7. minax (Grube) 460 

S. albiceps (Ehrenberg) . . 460 
9. exaltatus (Maren^eller) 461 

var. vesiculosus Fauvel. 461 

Gen. Pomatoleios Pixell 461 

1. crosslandi Pixell 461 

Gen. Spirobranchus 

Blainville 452 

1. giganteus (Pallas) 462 

Z. jousseaumei (Graviei).. 464 

3. maldivensis Pixell 464 

Gen. Pomatostegus Schmaida 464 
I. stellatus Abildgaard. . . . 465 

Z. polytremA Philippi 465 

var. indica Fauvel 463 

Gen. Vermiliopsis Saint- 
Joseph 465 

1. pypdialis (Willey) 466 

2. acanthophora Augener. . 407 

3. glandigerus Gravier. . . 467 
Gen. Omphalopomopsis 

Saint-Joseph 467 

1. langerhansi 

(Marenzeller) 468 

Gen. Pomatoceros Philippi. 469 

I. caeruleus (Schmarda) .. 470 
Gen. Ditrupa Berkeley 470 

1. arietina (O. F. MuUer) 470 

var. monilifera Fauvel.. 470 

Gen. Protula Risso 471 

I. tubularia (Montagu).. 472 
Gen. Ficopomatus Southern. 473 

1. macrodon Southern 473 

Gen. Mercierella Fauvel 474 

I. enigmatica Fauvel 474 

Gen. Salmacina ClaparMe. . 476 

I. dysteri (Huxley) 477 

Gen. Spirorbis Daudin 477 

1. foraminosus Moore. , . 477 



POLYCHAETA 

INTRODUCTION 

Previous to the year 1861 very little -ivas known con- 
cerning the Polychaetous Annelids of India. 

L. K. Schmarda, in the course o£ a journey round the 
world (1853—1857) , spent several months collecting in 
Ceylon and in his Report " Neue wirbellose Thiere " 
(1859—61) * he desaibed about a score o£ Polychaeta 
from that island. Unfortunately Schmarda's descriptions 
are generally too vague and too scanty to allow of an 
accurate identification. 

In Grube's short paper on the Ceylon Annelids (1874) 
only six species are described. In W. Michaelsen's 
" Polychaeten von Ceylon" (1892) fifteen species were 
recorded. 

By far the most important work on the subject is A. 
Willey's " Report on the Polychaeta collected by Prof. 
Herdraan at Ceylon" (1905) in which a large number 
of old and new species are described. It was followed 
by Southern's " Polychaeta of the Chilka Lake " (1921) ; 
Augcner's "Ceylon Polychaeten" (1926) and "the Lit- 
toral Fauna of Krusadai Island, in the Gulf of Manaar; " 
" Chaetopoda ", Part I, by Gravely (1927); Part II by 
Fauvel (1930). 

But all these papers are relative to Ceylon and its 
vicinity and the coasts of the Madras Presidency. As for 
the other parts of India, with the exception of S. S. Bindra's 
" Fauna of Karachi " (1927) , only casual mention, here 
and there, of a few species are scattered in papers not 
specially dealing with India. But later the collections of 
the Zoological Survey of India and of the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, have afforded us much more extensive know- 
ledge concerning the Polychaeta, not only from the coasts 
of India but also from the neighbouring Seas. Three 
hundred species were recorded in Fauvel's Report (1932) . 

* Foi full references concerning the papeis mentioned see the 
Index at the end of the volume. 

F. 3 



2 INTRODUCTION 

The range of the area dealt with in the present work 
extends from Long. 60° E, as far as Cape Ras-al-Hadd, 
on the western side; the whole of the Persian Gulf and 
the Baluchistan Coast forming the northern boundary; 
to the east, the region includes the Malacca Strait, as far 
as Singapore, whilst the Southern boundary is Lat. 1°S, 
so as to include the whole of the Maldive Archipelago. 

On the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of 
Oman, the Bay of Bengal, the Maldive and Mergui 
Archipelagoes information as regards the Polychaeta is 
very plentiful but is scattered in a large number of 
Reports oi various expeditions. 

Thus we have been able to record 450 species from 
the given area. Nevertheless, this rather high number 
hardly represents more than about one-half of the pro- 
bable total number of the Polychaeta, for, owing to the 
well known ubiquity of these worms, nearly every 
species of the Indian Ocean and of the warm parts of 
the Pacific is likely to be found in the area of the Indian 
Fauna, as delimited above. 

Having had the good fortune to be able to study 
three hundred species of the Indian Museum, one hun- 
dred and nine of the Madras Government Museum, and 
the material of several expeditions to the Red Sea, Per- 
sian Gulf, Indo-China, New Caledonia, Australia and 
Gambier Islands, nearly all of the 450 species here des- 
cribed have been in my hands, the few exceptions being 
some rare ones, the description of which I have taken 
from the original authors. 

The Polychaete Fauna of India does not materially 
differ from that of the Gulf of Siam, Malay Archipelago, 
China Sea, Philippines, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 
New-Caledonia, and a great part of the Pacific. It must 
also be borne in mind that many Polychaetes are really 
cosmopolitan. Out of the 450 species here recorded 108, 
nearly one-fourth, are also European species. 



MORPHOLOGY 3 

ANNELIDA POLYCH.ETA 

The Polychaeta and the Oligochaeta are two impor- 
tant divisions of the Chaetopoda, annulated worms en- 
dowed with locomotive bristles or setae. But the bristles 
of the Oligochaeta are few and directly set on the body- 
walls, which are destitute of parapodia or feet. Other 
appendages are also wanting. On the other hand, the 
bristles of the Polychaeta are usually very numerous and 
borne on clearly marked parapodia, lateral expansions, 
or feet, of the teguments. The body generally carries 
various appendages such as tentacles, palps, cirri, bran- 
chiae, etc. Moreover, the Polychaeta are very generally 
marine animals with separate sexes, whilst the Oligochaeta 
live in fresh water or damp earth and are hermaphrodite. 



MORPHOLOGY 

Fig. 1. 

The body is generally elongated, with numerous 
segments. It consists of a Prostomium or anterior cepha- 




Fig. l.—a, Lepidonotus Leach; b, Notopygos (Amphinomid); 

c, Calluona (Alciopid); d, Glycera (Glycerid); e. Nereis; 

f, Arenicola; g, Travtsta (Ophehid); h, Pectinaria; 

i, Terehella; k, Sabella; I, m, Mercierella 

and tube (Serpulid). 



4 INTRODUCTION 

lie lobe, a Metastomium including all the following seg- 
ments, and a Pygidium, the last segment. 

A few anterior segments, more or less modified, may 
be fused with the prostomium to form a kind of head with 
■various appendages such as antennae or tentacles, palps 
and tentacular cirri. 

In the Errantia, the segments of the metastomium are 
often very numerous and nearly all alike, as in the Nere- 
IDAE, Syllidae, Eunicidae, ctc, whilst in the Sedentaria the 
body, sometimes shorter, is often clearly divided into 
distinct regions such as thorax, abdomen, and tail. 

The prostomium, a cephalic lobe, the anterior part 
of the so-called head, is sometimes reduced to a mere 
cone, blunt or sharp, and destitute of any appendages, 
as in Lumbriconereis. It is a long annulated cone, 
with four small tentacles at the tip, in Glycera; square or 
scute-like in Nephthys; more or less complicated with 
several appendices in Nereids, Aphroditidae and Euni- 
cidae; or reduced to a mere ridge in Sabellids and Serpu- 
lids. 

The prostomium generally carries one, two or more 
pairs of eyes, mere eye-spots, single or compound, or 
sometimes highly differentiated organs such as the big 
red eyes of the Alciopids, with a cornea, a lens and a 
retina. 

Appendages (Fig. 2) . 

The appendages of the Polychaeta are various pro- 
cesses of the teguments which may be classed into two 
groups. The first are merely epidermic solid projections, 
as the styles and stylodes. The others are hollow and 
are formed by an evagination of the body wall. 

When the antennae, palps and cirri are borne on a 
hollow base, this last is termed ' phore '. Such an antenna 
is then divided into a solid distal part, or ceratostyle, and 
a basilar hollow part or ceratophore; a palp is divided 
into a palpostyle and a palpophore a cirrus into a cirro- 
style and a cirrophore. 

Amongst the cephalic appendages are: (1) the palps, 
innervated by a large nerve issuing from the anterior 
part of the brain. They may be simple, elongated, pre- 
hensile (Spionioae) or short, simple, or articulate (Sylli- 
dae, Nereidae) ; (2) the antennae or tentacles, innervated 
from the middle brain; (3) the tentacular cirri, borne on 



t> 



MORPHOLOGY 



the metastomium (buccal segment) , or on the segments 
fused with the prostomium to form the head. 

The Parapodia, or feet, are more or less complicated 
lateral processes of the body-wall. These organs, with the 




on. 



\J^if- 



Fig. 2—0, head and proboscis of Phyllodoce; b, head o£ Nereis; 

c, anterior part of Syllis; d, of Glycera; e, of Nephthys; f, of 

Lepidonoiui, g, of Ampharete; h, of Lumbnconereis; 

J, of Clymene; k, of Nerine; I, proboscis of a 

i'olynoid, front view with papillae and jaws 

{at, tentacles; br. gills; ct, tentacular cirri; 

el, elytrophore; p, palps; pp, palpophores; 

pr, piostomium; on, nuchal organs). 

bristles they carry, provide the most important features 
for the identification of the species. Typically, each 
segment carries one pair of parapodia divided into two 
rami, a dorsal one, or notopodium, and a ventral or neu- 
ropodium. When both rami are borne on a common 
base the biramous foot is said to be monostichous; when 
both rami are quite distinct and more or less apart, as in 
most Sedentaria, it is termed distichous. (Fig. 3) . For 
instance, in a biramous parapodium of Nereis there are; 
(1) two setigerous lobes (or chaetigerous sacks) carrying 
the setae and supported by a stout, enclosed, bodkin-like 
bi-istle or aciculum; (2) parapodial lobes, lips or fillets; 
(3) a dorsal and a ventral cirrus. Branchiae, or gills, 
simple or branched may be inserted upon the dorsal 
ramus or between the two rami. 



6 INTRODUCTION 

The parapodia are biramous when both rami axe 
nearly equally developed; subbiramous with a dorsal dr- 




Fig. 3.— Parapodia: a, subbiramous, of Podarke pallida Clapar^de; 

b, of Eunice; c—d, birainous, elytiogeious and umgeious o£ au 

Aphrcditid; e, biramous of Nereis; f, biramous of Nephthys; 

g, sesquiramous of Staurocephalus; ft, uniramous of Phyllo- 

doce; i, distichous of Amphicteis, dorsal ramus and ventral 

pinnule, k, of an Ancia; I, distichous of Arenicola 

(a.c. aciculum; br, gills; cd. dorsal cirrus; cVj ventral 

cirrus elj elytron; pi, pinnule; to, uncinigerous 

torus). 

rus but the dorsal setae-sack and setae more or less 
reduced; sesquiramous when the dorsal lobe is reduced 
to a few bristles or acicula; uniramous when the dorsal 
ramus is practically wanting, being reduced to the dorsal 
cirrus. 

In the Sedentaria the neuropodia, or ventral rami, are 
often reduced to mere transverse ridges, or uncinigerous 
tori, destitute of a cirrus and carrying short hooks or 
uncini. 

Setae (or chaetae) are chitinous bristles which are 
very important for the classification and are of very varied 
shapes and disposition. They may be divided into two 
groups: (1) the setae s. str., or bristles, and (2) the uncini, 
avicular or acicular hooks. 



MORPHOLOGY 7 

The setae are simple, jointed, or compound. They 
may be long, slender, filiform, hair-shaped, capillary, 
smooth or spinulose, curved, flat, limbate, or winged on 
one or both sides, with frills or transverse rows of spines, 
geniculate, trumpet-shaped, exceptionally forked at the 
tip, etc. (Fig. 4) . When they are short, stout, bodkin- 




Fig. 4.— Simple bristles X33— 66: a, aciculum; 6, barbed bristle; c, 
spinous capillary; d, brush-like; e, of Lagisca Malmgren; /, smootb 
capillary; g, camerated; h, lyriform; i, limbate or winged; 
k, bilimbate; I, Apomatus seta; m, Salmacina seta; n, bayo- 
net, of Serpulid; o, kneed, or geniculate; p, palea; q, styli- 
form; r, pectinate, or comb-seta; s, t, paleae of 
Sahellana. 



shaped, or flattened, paddle- or oar-shaped, they are called 
paleae. The articulated, or many-jointed setae of the 
Chloraemidae and SIGALIONINAE are a connecting 
link with the compound setae with a basal part, or stalk, 
and a terminal piece elongate, needle-like, or short, sickle- 
shaped. When both sides of the articulation are the 
same length it is termed komogomph, and heterogomph 
when they are unequal. 

The ventral uncini of the Maldanidae and Capi- 
TELLIDAE are sigmoid hooks with a rostrum, a guard, and 
a manubrium. The uncini of the Sedentaria are often 
short denticulate plates, such as the avicular hooks of 
the Sabellidae and Terebelledae, with a broad basal 
manubrium and a beak-like hook, crested with denticles 



INTRODUCTION 



on the vertex. They are set on the tori in one or two 
parallel rows. (Fig. 5) . 




Fig. 5.— Bristles: a, acicular seta; b, articulate; c, compound; d, caiae- 

rated; e, sickle shaped (falciger); /, g, aristate; h, paddle-shaped; 

I, bidentate falciger. Hooks and imcini X 100— 133; k, of 

Polydora; I, Arenicola; m, Maldanid; n, of Trichobranchus; 

0, Seipula; p, Amphicteis; q, Ampharete; r, Polymnia, 

front and side view; s, Amphitrite; t, Chaetopterus; 

u, acicular hook of Sabella; v, of Fiotula; x, 

of Mercieiella, % of Clione. 

Proboscis. Many Errantia are provided with an 

eversible proboscis armed with strong horny jaws, or 

beset with papillae, or with chitinous denticles, or 
paragnaths. 

The intestine is generally straight, rarely coiled, 
sometimes with glands or diverticula. 

Body cavity. In the Errantia the body-cavity, or 
coelom, is generally divided by numerous intersegmental 
septa, or diaphragms. In the Sedentaria these septa are 
few and generally restricted to the anterior part of the 
thorax. 

Muscles. The muscles are smooth, set in circular 
layers and stout longitudinal fascicles. Oblique muscles 
run from the sides to the middle of the ventral side. 

Nephridia, or excretory organs, are disposed in pairs 
on succeeding segments with lateral pores opening on 
the sides near the feet. In the Sedentaria, they are gene- 
rally reduced to a few thoracic pairs. The anterior ones. 



MORPHOLOGY 9 

in front of the diaphragm, are purely excretory organs, 
whilst the others are also used as genital ducts. 

The vascular system is generally closed and well 
developed, sometimes very complicated and offering many 
variations. The dorsal vessel is contractile, but special 
organs of propulsion, or hearts, may also exist. 

The blood is red, or emerald green in Sabellidae, 
Serpulidae, Chloraemidae, but is often uncoloured. 
The respiratory pigments, haemoglobin or chlorocruorin, 
are in solution in the plasma, only very exceptionally in 
corpuscles. 

Respiration is effected by means of branchiae or gills, 
of which there are two kinds: (1) genuine branchiae, 
with vascular loops, and (2) lymphatic gills destitute of 
vessels and filled with coelomic fluid. The gills exhibit 
very numerous and varied types. They may consist of 
simple filaments, straight or coiled, forked or pectinate, 
set on the dorsal rami of many feet, or branched or bushy 
and restricted to the anterior segments, disposed as a 
terminal funnel of many filaments on the head of Sabel- 
lids and Serpulids, etc. 

Sense organs. The sense organs are the eyes, the 
nuchal organs, the lateral organs and the statocysts or 
otocysts. The eyes are not always restricted to the 
prostomium. The branchial filaments of the Sabellids 
often bear dorsal or subterminal eyes. The Opheliidae 
have lateral eye-spots disposed on a number of segments 
and the pygidium of little Sabellids may carry several 
eye-spots. We have already mentioned the large eyes of 
the Alciopidae. The lateral organs are small ciliated 
cups, or knobs, present on a number of segments in the 
Capitellidae, Opheliidae, Aricudae, etc. 

Otocysts, or statocysts, exist only in very few species 
(ARENicoLmAE, Arichdae, Terebellidae and Sabellidae) . 

Colour. Many species are adorned with bright 
colours and variegated patterns. Unhappily, these colours 
do not keep well in the preservatives, formol or alcohol. 
They are due to the red, or emerald green, blood and 
to solid or dissolved pigments of the epidermis, such as 
Haemoglobin, Chlorocruorin, Haemerythrin, Tetronery- 
thrin. Melanin, Uranidin and various Lipochromes. 
These pigments, with the exception of Melanin and a 
few others, are either dissolved or altered by the preser- 
vative fluids. 

F. 4 



10 INTRODUCTION 

On the other hand, the splendid iridescence of the 
bristles of Aphrodita and ChloraemidaEj as well as of the 
body-wall oi Eunicids and others, displaying all the 
changing hues of the rain-bow, are permanent for they arc 
caused by diffraction of the light either by the numerous 
very fine striae of the setae or the very thin lamellae of 
the cuticle and these structures are not affected by the 
spirit. 

Phosphorescence is not restricted to the Syllids and 
other small pelagic species which abound in the plankton; 
it is also a property of many Annelids creeping on the 
rocks and algae, and even of tubicolous species. For 
instance, the luminescence o£ Chaetopterus, living on the 
bottom inside a thick parchment-like tube, is the most 
beautiful of all. 



REPRODUCTION 

The sexes of the Polychaeta arc usually separate and 
even sexual dimorphism may occasionally occur. Never- 
theless, a few species are hermaphrodite, especially amongst 
Sabellidae and Serpulidae. The ova and spermatozoa 
are discharged into the sea. The fertilised eggs give rise 
to a floating Trochophore larva, and then to post-larval 
stages dropping to the bottom or swimming for a long 
period. 

Asexual reproduction, Blastogamic or Schizogamic, 
is frequent amongst Syllids and a few other Polychaeta. 

Epitoky. A number of Polychaeta, especially amongst 
Syllidae, Nereidae and in a few Eunicidae, undergo a 
peculiar metamorphosis at the epoch of reproduction, ac- 
quiring new long swimming bristles, and developing large 
foliaceous lobes on the feet, whilst the eyes grow larger. 
For instance, in Nereis, the eyes become larger, a few of 
the anterior dorsal cirri grow thicker at the end, but the 
anterior segments are not otherwise materially altered; 
the middle and posterior segments, however, become 
flattened and crowded together, the enlarged feet develop 
broad foliaceous lamellae, and shed their bristles which 
are replaced by new oar-shaped swimming setae. When 
maturity is perfect and the metamorphosis complete, these 
Heteronerets stages rise in swarms to the surface of the 
sea, shed their sperm and ova, and then die. In the 
case of the " Palolo " (Eunice viridis) , an Eunicid of the 
Pacific, the posterior part of the worm, a little modified 
.and filled with genital products, breaks off from the ante- 



MORPHOLOGY 11 

rior part, which remains in the coral reefs, and rises in 
swarms to the surface where it is taken up for food by the 
natives. Singularly enough the rise of the " Palolo " is 
connected with lunar phases. It is very probably the only 
instance of an edible Polychaete. 

Autotomy and Regeneration. 

Autotomy is wide-spread amongst Polychaeta. The 
POLYNOINAE easily shed their elytra, the Spionidae their 
palps, the Ampharetidae and Terebellidae their gills or 
their tentacular cirri. Many Euniodae, Capitellidae and 
others are so brittle that it is but too often difficult to 
obtain a whole specimen. 

This propensity to autotomy is counterbalanced by a 
great facility of regeneration and may be turned into a 
mode of asexual multiplication as in Phyllochaetopterus 
and Dodecaceria. It is not uncommon to find a more or 
less long fragment of the mid-body of an Eunicid having 
regenerated both a head and a tail. In Procerastea and 
Dodecaceria a fragment composed of two segments, or 
even a single segment, may thus regenerate a whole worm. 

HABITS 

As already stated the Polychaeta are marine animals; 
nevertheless a few species can live in brackish water and 
even, though infrequently, in fresh water. In the brack- 
ish water of the Chilka Lake, the Salt Lakes near Calcutta, 
the Gangetic Delta, and the Taleh Sap, for instance, a 
few genuine marine species occur with several others 
more closely adapted to water of low salinity, such as two 
small Nephthys, Dendronereides heteropoda, two Capi- 
tellidaEj and two small Serpulidae, Ficopomatus macro- 
don and Mercierella enigmatica. But species living in 
fresh water, or water of so low a salinity as to be drinkable, 
are of much rarer occurrence. Such are however several 
Lycastis and a few other Nereidae, several Sabellidae of 
the Baikal Lake, Mercierella enigmatica of world-wide 
distribution in estuaries and rivers, and another little 
Serpulid, Marifugia cavaiica, found living in the deep 
caves of the Karst Region. 

The Polychaetes are plentiful on the shore between 
tide-marks, on coral reefs, and in the shallow littoral 
waters as far as 200 fathoms, but beyond this, as the depth 
increases, the number of species rapidly decreases and they 



12 INTRODUCTION 

become very scarce in the deep-sea dredgings. But, 
singularly enough, in the deep-sea faima many shallow- 
water species are found associated with rare genuine 
abyssal forms. For instance, Amphicteis gunneri, often 
collected between tide-marks, has been dredged by the 
Prince of Monaco in 1885 metres, and in 2750 £ms by the 
" Challenger ", and the common shore Serpulids, Hydro- 
ides norvegica and Pomatoceros triqueter, at 4808 m. 

Polychaeta are hence very little affected by depth and 
pressure. 

Genuine pelagic species, usually transparent, and 
numerous larval and post-larval forms are part of the 
plankton. 

For the most part, the others live on the bottom, 
boring in the sand or mud, fixed on stones or shells, creep- 
ing amongst algae, or burrowing in the crevices of rocks 
and corals, or amongst stones and shells incrusted with 
calcareous algae. Sponges, Ascidians and Polyzoa. Some 
are commensal or ectoparasitic on Hydroids and Echino- 
derms. 

Several of the so-called Errantia live nevertheless in- 
side tubes, whilst true Sedentaria are sometimes tubeless 
or vagabond. The limivorous species swallow mud or 
muddy sand, like the earthworms. The Sabellids and 
Serpulids, which cannot leave their tubes, feed by means 
of their branchial tufts, the radii or barbules of which 
collect the plankton and the small particles of food float- 
ing in the water and their cilia carry them to the mouth. 
Certain Errantia, the proboscis of which is armed with 
stout horny jaws, such as the Aphroditidae, Nereidae and 
EuNiciDAE are prowling and hunt living prey. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

Most of the species of Polychaeta have a very wide 
distribution and many are quite cosmopolitan, so that 
they cannot be grouped into Zoological Provinces. For 
instance, amongst the 450 species, here recorded from the 
Indian area, 108, nearly a fourth, are common on the 
western shores of Europe. 

A comparison of the genuine pelagic Annelids of the 
plankton of Indo-China shows a nearly complete identity 
with those of the Atlantic. 

Many of the Arctic circumpolar Annelids, with the 
exception of a few peculiar species, are also found in the 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION IS 

temperate Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the tropical 
area, whilst many disappear in the littoral zone, a number 
of them is still to be found in the deep-sea dredgings, and 
some of these northern species reappear on the temperate 
or cold shores of the south-hemisphere. 

Antarctic species reach to the south parts of America, 
Australia and Africa. 

Most of the intertropical species are also the same all 
round the world. 

In the Fauna of Japan both arctic and tropical forms 
are found. This is easily explained. Two streams run 
along the coasts of Japan: a cold one, the Oja-Siwo, runs 
down from the glacial Arctic Ocean along the coasts of 
Kamchatka, Manchuria, Korea and the North-West coast 
of Japan, bringing with its cold waters the northern species 
of Polychaeta, whilst the Kuro-Siwo brings to the Eastern 
coasts the warm waters of the tropical Pacific with part 
of their fauna. 

In short, the distribution of the Polychaeta is mainly 
regulated by the temperature. In the great depths of 
the Oceans the temperature is both very low and very 
uniform all over the world and the Annelidan fauna is 
also very uniform and contains moreover a number of 
arctic species which find there the same cold temperature. 
For the same reason, in the intertropical area the shore 
and shallow-water species, especially those of the coral 
reefs, finding the same conditions in the three oceans, are 
nearly all identical. 

The Polychaeta are indeed very sensitive to the 
temperature and an abrupt rise or fall of a few degrees 
sometimes kills them outright. 



COLLECTING 

Pelagic Annelids are easily procured by the towing 
of a plankton net. Night fishing with artificial light will 
thus procure a lot of Syllids, epitokous Nereids and many 
rare small species and larvae. Shore collecting will yield 
the most varied and abundant crops; 

The necessary implements are a stout spade, a crow- 
bar, a chisel and a canvas bucket, or a fisherman's basket 
with several glass jars and a number of glass tubes. 

Care must be taken to separate large predatory species 
such as Nereids, Eunicids and Aphroditians. These large 
and ravenous species, whilst being carried home, are 



14 INTRODUCTION 

better kept in damp sand or amongst algae than in water 
bottles. 

Many species burrowing in sand or mud are caught by 
turning it over with the spade. Each clod must be care- 
fully broken into small parts with the fingers, avoiding 
any injury to small and delicate species. The sand may 
also be washed through a sieve in little pools of water. 

Many Annelids are to be found creeping on stones 
or algae or in tubes incrusting them. Loose stones should 
be carefully turned over and examined, and should then 
be replaced in their previous position to avoid the decay 
of the fauna fixed on the upper surface. The crow-bar 
is used to rip open the crevices of rocks and corals in 
which a very rich and varied fauna is usually found. 

In dredging and trawling, when the dredge or trawl 
comes on board, and the contents are scattered on deck, 
it is easy to pick up the large specimens. To search the 
rubbish for small species, shells and stones coated with 
Serpulids, Polyzoa, Algae, etc., should be put into broad, 
shallow, glass vessels, or, better still, into white china 
wash-hand basins, with sea water. When the water be- 
comes putrid the small boring species and others ensconced 
in tubes or crevices come out and reach the edges of the 
vessel where they can easily be picked up. 

PRESERVATION 

The best preserving medium for Polychaeta is 70— 
75% alcohol. Formalin is very bad, quite detrimental to 
good preservation for the specimens rapidly become soft, 
sticky and nearly useless. Nevertheless, in an emergency, 
and for large species, it may be used for a short time pre- 
vious to spirit (5% of the commercial solution of forma- 
lin) . On the other hand, when specimens have been 
first hardened in strong spirit they may next be kept in 
formalin with less inconvenience. 

For histological purposes, Bouin, Brasil or Zenker 
fluids are amongst the best. 

Delicate and brittle species must be naroctised pre- 
viously to fixing in spirit. This is easily done by adding 
very gradually, small quantities of alcohol (up to 5% or 
10%) to the sea water. Other anaesthetics such as cocaine, 
chloral, etc., may also be used for the same purpose. To 
avoid too great a contraction of large species they may 
first be put into very weak spirit (30—40%) and be 



IDENTIFICATION 15 

kept well stretched with pincers; or bamboo or horn 
spatulae, and as soon as they cease to react they should 
be immersed in 70—90% alcohol. To ensure a good 
preservation the volume of alcohol must be gi-eater than 
the specimen's and it must be renewed after a few days. 
Preserved specimens should be kept separate in glass 
tubes, the smaller ones, in small tubes with a cotton-wool 
stopper, are packed together in larger vessels filled with 
70—75% alcohol. The paper, or parchment, labels must 
be put inside the tubes with inscriptions, in pencil or 
permanent Indian-Ink, carefully noting the date and 
locality, the colour of the living animal and other parti- 
culars. 



IDENTIFICATION 

To identify a specimen it is necessary carefully to note 
the divisions of the body, if any, the form of the prosto- 
mium, the eyes, the tentacles, tentacular cirri, gills, and 
the proboscis with its jaws and denticles, when there is 
one. Next in importance are the parapodia or feet with 
their bristles of high specific value. But as the structure 
of the feet and the form of the setae often vary materially 
in the anterior, middle and posterior parts of the body 
it is always necessary to examine a number of them. This 
is easily done by tearing, or cutting, with sharp pincers, 
or scissors, a whole series of feet, say nine for a Nereis, 
and disposing them in three rows on a slide, three ante- 
rior, three median and three posterior ones, the relative 
numbers of the segments they belong to being carefully 
noted on the label. 

If a permanent preparation be wanted, rapidly drain 
the alcohol from the slide and before the parapodia get 
dried drop on them a small quantity of melted gelatm- 
glycerin, put on a cover-slip and warm slightly, if neces- 
sary; the preparation will then keep for years. 

Mounting in Canada balsam is not recommended, the 
setae— unless previously coloured— becoming too trans- 
parent and the fine structures indiscernible. 



CLASSIFICATION 

Annelida Polychaeta. 

Annulated worms with numerous specially differen- 
tiated chitinous bristles carried on parapodia, or feet. 



16 INTRODUCTION 

lateral processes of the segment's body-wall. Various 
appendages present, antennae, palps, cirri, gills. Marine 
animals, very exceptionally living in fresh water. Sexes 
usually separate. 

I. ERRANTIA. 

Body usually vermiform, very long, segments numer- 
ous, nearly all alike, the first near the mouth excepted. 
Generally with cephalic appendages, antennae, palps, 
tentacular cirri; feet uniramous or biramous, with both 
rami hardly different; acicula present; frequently gills 
above the feet. 

II. SEDENTARIA. 

Body divided into distinct regions. Head small, 
hardly distinct or greatly modified. Feet generally simple, 
the ventral rami are often tori, or pinnules, with hooks 
or uncini; gills usually limited to a part of the body. 
Usually tubicolous. 

According to Benham, the families may be grouped 
as follows: 



A. PHANEROCEPHALA 
(Head distinct) 

Sub-Order I. Nereidiformia (Errantia auct. and Ariciidae) . 

Antennae and palps. Peristomium with special cirri. 
Eversible proboscis often with jaws. 

Families: Sylledae, HesionidaE;, APHRODrriDAE, Phy- 

LLODOCIDAE, ToMOPTERIDAE, NeREIDAE, NePHI HYDIDAE, 
AMPHINOMmAE, EUNICIDAE, GlYCERIDAE, SpHAERODORIDAE, 

TYPHLOscoLEcroAE and Arioidae. 

Sub-Order 11. Spioniformia. 

Prostomium reduced to a mere knob, neither tentacles 
nor palps. Eversible proboscis without jaws. The peri- 
stomium usually carries a pair of long tentacular cirri 
and extends forwards at the two sides of the prostomium. 

Families: Spionidae, ChaetopteridaEj Magelonidae 
and Ammocharidae. 



CLASSIFICATION 17 

Sub-Order III. Terebelliformia. 

Prostomium destitute of appendages. The achaetous 
peristomium may carry cirri and tentacles. Proboscis not 
eversible, unarmed. 

Families: Cirratulidae, Terebellidae, Amphare- 
riDAE and Amphictenidae. 



Sub-Order IV. Capitelliformia. 

No prostomial processes. Peristomium without ap- 
pendages. Proboscis unarmed. An accessory gut. No 
blood vessels. Lateral sense-organs. 

Family: Capitellidae. 

Sub-Order V. Scoleciformia. 

Antennae and palps wanting. Pei-istomium without 
appendages. Proboscis unarmed. Blood vessels present. 

Families: Opheuidae, Maldanidae, Arenicolidae, 
ScALiBREGMiDAE, Chloraemidae and Sternaspididae. 



B. CRYPTOCEPHALA 
(Head indistinct) 

Sub-Order I. Sabelliformia. 

Prostomium entirely hidden by the forward exten- 
sion of the peristomium. Palps greatly developed, 
branched and acting as respiratoiy organs. Tube mem- 
branous or calcareous. 

Families: SabellidaEj Eriographiuae, Amphicor- 
inidae and Serpulidae. 

Sub-Order II. Hermelliformia. 

Peristomium enormously developed and forming a 
bilobed hood capable of closing over the mouth 

Family: Hermellidae. 
F. 5 



18 



INTRODUCTION 

Key to the Families. 
Errantia 



1. Elytra on a certain number of 

feet, the rest carrying cirri . 

Without elytra 

2. A fan-shaped group of broad 

flattened setae (paleae) on all 
segments 

No such groups of setae 

3. Prostomium not distinct; pedal 

cirri globular or absent 

Prostomium distinct 

4. Feet biramous but without setae, 

prostomium fused with the 
following segments, flanked by 
two long cirri containing aci- 
culi; pedal cirri absent 

Feet uniramous, with globular 
cirri 

6. Pharynx armed with four teeth; 
prostomium fused with buc- 
cal segment, which is emargi- 
nate in front 

Pharynx unarmed; prostomium 
indistinct; tegument covered 
with small papillae and typi- 
cally bearing in addition a 
certain number of large sphe- 
rical capsules in transverse 
rows 

6. Prostomium conical, without 

tentacles or palps; dorsal and 
ventral cirri foliaceous; setae 
rare, simple, acicular 

Prostomium with tentacles and 
usually with palps 

7. Prostomium small, with five ten- 

tacles; caruncle almost always 
present; mouth situated some- 
what far back on ventral sur- 
face; gills well developed; 
pharynx unarmed 

Prostomium well developed 

8. Pharyngeal armature complex . 
Pharyngeal armature simple or 

absent 

9. Tentacles not more than three 
Tentacles more than three 



Apuroditidae, p. 23. 
2 



Chrysopetalidae, p. 78. 
3 

4 
6 



TOMOPTERIDAE, p. 140 
5 

PiSIONIDAE, p. 76. 



Sphaerodoridae. 

TYPHLOSCOLECmAE, p. 139. 

7 



Amphinomidae, p. 80. 

8 
EuNicmAE, p. 228. 

9 
10 
12 



CLASSIFICATION 



19 



Syixidae, p. 145. 



11 



Nereidai, p. 163. 



10. Palps simple, but often united 

together so as to be hardly 
recognizable; pharynx armed 
with one large tooth or a 
crown o£ denticles, and fol- 
lowed by a more strongly mus- 
cular gizzard; tentacles three, 
parapodia uniramous except 
in the sexually mature form 
of certain species 

Palps biarticulate, sometimes ab- 
sent; pharynx armed or un- 
armed; gizzard absent 

11. Dorsal cirri short or of moderate 

length, not moniliform; phar- 
ynx armed with a single pair 
of strong toothed jaws; ten- 
tacles two; parapodia almost 
always biramous 

Dorsal cirri long and more or 
less distinctly moniliform; 
pharynx cylindrical, armed 
with at most a small pair of 
jaws (Magaha), usually only 
with stylets or unarmed; tenta- 
cles two or three; parapodia 
sesquiramous or biramous 

12. Palps small; prostomium conical, 

slender, aimulate, terminated 
by four small tentacles arrang- 
ed in the form of a cross; 
pharynx large, covered with 
papillae, armed with at least 
four teeth; parapodia bira- 
mous {Hemipodus excepted) Glycewdae, p. 281. 

Palps absent; prostomium more 
or less normal 

13. Parapodia biramous, with nor- 

mal cirri and a sickle-shaped 
gill between the rami; tenta- 
cles four; pharynx with soft 
papillae; all setae simple 

Parapodia with foliaceous cirri, 
without sickle-shaped gill, 
generally uniramous 

14. General appearance (including 

the single pair of eyes) nor- 
mal; tentacles four or five . . 

Prostomium flanked by a pair of 
large globular eyes; tentacles 
four; tissues transparent; pela- 
gic worms 



Hesionidae, p. 103. 



13 



NEPHTHYDmAE, p. 223. 



14 



PhyllodocidaEj p. 114. 



AlciopidaEj p. 132. 



20 



INTRODUCTION 



Sedentaria 

1. Body clearly divided into regions 

Body not clearly divided into 
regions 

2. Segments numerous, without anal 

gills, without broad ventral 
shield 

Body short, swollen; segments 
few; filiform anal branchiae. 
A large ventral shield boider- 
ed with stiff setae 



3. Palps elongated, tentacle-like 
Without tentacle-like palps 

4. Two large tentacular palps on 

the prostomium 

One or more pairs of palps in- 
serted on the anterior seg- 
ments. Branchiae simple, fili- 
form, inserted above the feet. 
Capillary setae and acicular 
setae. Prostomium conical, 
without processes 

5. Two palps and two bundles of 

subulate branchiae retractile 
into a buccal funnel. The 
protracted setae of the first 
feet forming a cephalic cage 
Body thickly covered with 
papUlae 

Two long canaliculate palps, not 
retractile into the mouth. 
Without cephalic cage 

6. Palps without suckers. Para- 

podial lamellae erect, dorsal 
branchiae cirriform. Hooded 
hooked setae 

Palps with sucker-like papiUae. 
Without branchiae, Prosto- 
mium. oval, broad and flat- 
tened (spoon-shaped) 

Anterior dorsal and ventral ciiri 
flask-shaped or friUed. Thread- 
like lateral branchiae. Nu- 
merous kinds of setae 

7. One median tentacle. Doisal 

cirri. Dorsal foliaceous bian- 
chiae. Capillary setae and 
hooded setae 
Prostomium with, or without 
two short tentacles; both para- 
podial rami more or less con- 
spicuous. Capillary setae and 
forked setae. No hooks 



Stern ASPiDiDAEj p. 401. 
4 



ClRRATULIDAE^ p. 329. 



Chloraemidae, p. 341. 



Spionidae, p. 311. 
Magelonidae, p. 329. 
DisoMroAE, p. 327. 

PARAONroAE. 
SCALIBREGMTDAE, p. '554. 



CLASSIFICATION 



21 



Prosiomium blunt, without ap- 
pendages or with a crown of 
laciniated lobes. Without 
branchiae. Ventral tori with 
many rows of very small un- 
cini. Sandy tube 



OWENIDAE, p. 390. 



Prostomium with a keel, or a 
rimmed cephalic plate, with- 
out process. An anal plate 
or an anal funnel with cirri. 
Without branchiae. Dorsal 
setae capillary. Ventral ton 
with elongated sigmoid hooks Maldanidae, p. 375. 

A terminal branchial tuft with 
numeious filaments beai'ing' 
secondary processes. Prosto- 
mium indistinct. Uncini ven- 
tral in the Ihoracic region, dor- 
sal in the abdominal region. 
Tube membranaceous or cal- 
careous . . . . 17 

Without terminal branchial tuft 9 



9. Modified setae (paleae) forming an 
operculum closing the tube . . 

Without opercular setae 

10. Prostomium conical or blunt, 

without process. Branchiae 
on many segments 

Prostomium more or less dis- 
tinct. One pair of tentacle- 
like palps or nuraerous tenta- 
cular filaments 

11. Prostomium vnth or without two 

small tentacles. Two long can- 
aliculated palps. 2-3 strikingly 
dissimilar regions, the anterior 
short, with uniramous feet bear- 
ing peculiar setae in the 
fourth setigerous segment. 
Posterior notopodia erect. Unci- 
ni comb-like 

Without tentacles. A cephalic 
veil and numerous tentacular 
filaments. Ventral tori with 
pectinate uncini 

12. Tentacular cirri retractile into 

the mouth. Prostomium dis- 
tinct. 3-4 pairs of subulate 
branchiae inserted on the 
first segments 

Tentacular cirri not retractile in- 
to the mouth. Prostomium 
indistinct. Branchiae arbore- 
scent, or rarely subulate, one, 



16 
10 

13 
11 



Chaetoptewdae, p. 336. 



12 



Ampharetidae, p. 406. 



22 



INTRODUCTION 



two or three pairs in number, 
inserted on the first segments; 
they are sometimes wanting Terebellidae, p. 415. 



13. With uncinigerous tori 
Without uncinigerous tori 

14. Serrated capillary setae and aci- 

cular hooks. Feet and bran- 
chiae conspicuous and erected 
on the back. o£ the abdominal 
region 

Only capillary setae. Feet without 
lobes. Branchiae lateral and 
ligulate. Prostomium sharp, 
conical 

15. Prostomium blunt. Anterior re- 

gion abranchiate; middle re- 
gion with dorsal arborescent 
branchiae not retractile; often 
an achaetous and abranchiate 
caudal region 

Prostomium conical. Anterior 
region abranchiate; posterior 
region with branchiae simple, 
rudimentary or wanting; or 
sometimes multifid and then 
retractile into lateral pouches. 
In the abdominal region dorsal 
and ventral tori with sigmoid 
hooded hooks 

16. An operculum of one anterior row 

of large golden setae (paleae). 
Posterior region (scapha) very 
small, leaf-like and with hooks 
at the base. Two pairs of an- 
terior foliated branchiae. A 
free tube of sand-grains, 
slightly conical, open at both 
ends 

Two large opercular stalks bear- 
ing a crown of paleae. Bran- 
chiiae dorsal and numerous. A 
narrow smooth achaetous and 
abranchiate caudal region. 
Fixed tubes of sand grains 
often clustered in big reef- 
like masses 

17. Without operculum. No thora- 

cic membrane. Tube mem- 
branaceous or mucous 

Usually with an operculum. A 
thoracic membrane. Tube 
calcareous 



16 
14 



AwonDAE, p. 300. 



Opheliidae, p. 357. 



Arenicolujae, p. 375. 



CAprrELUDAE, p. 362. 



AMPHICTENmAE, p. 402. 



Sabeixaridae, p. 393 



SABELLmAE, p. 437 



Serpuudae, p. 452. 



APHRODITIDAE 25 

POLYCHAETA ERRANTIA 

Family APHRODITIDAE Savigny. 

Body short, ovate, or long and vermiform. Prosto- 
mium rounded or bilobed. One, or three, tentacles, 2 
palps, 2 pairs of tentacular cirri with setae. Proboscis 
cylindrical bordered with soft papillae and with 4 chitin- 
ous jaws. (HERMIONINAE excepted) . Dorsally round- 
ed, flattened pairs of elytra alternating, more or less 
regularly, with dorsal cirri. Feet biramous. Dorsal setae 
simple, ventral setae simple or compound. 

Remarks. The chief character of the family is the pre- 
sence of elytra which are flattened discoidal organs borne 
on the dorsal surface of the feet, usually imbricated, often 
fringed and covered with papillae. 

Key to Subfamilies. 

1. Elytrigerous and cirrigerous seg- 

ments alternating more or less 
regularly .. .. 2 

In the anterior part of the body, 
elytrigerous segments alternat- 
ing; in the posterior part all 
the segments bear elytra. 
Compound setae. Body long Subfamily 
and cylindrical . . SIGALIONINAE, p. 60. 

2. In the anterior part of the body, 

a cirrigerous segment between 
two elytrigerous; in the poste- 
rior part, all the cirrigerous 
segments are inserted between 
two elytrigerous. Without 
compound setae .. 3 

Only one cirrigerous segment be- 
tween two elytrigerous. Body 
vermiform. Without compound Subfamily 
setae .. .. ACOETINAE, p. 70. 

3. Eyes pedunculate (rarely sessile). 

A single tentacle. Facial tuber- Subfamily 

cle very conspicuous .. HERMIONINAE, p. 28. 

Eyes sessile. 3 tentacles. Facial Subfamily 

tubercle wanting or obsolete . . POLYNOINAE, p. 31. 

Subfamily HERMIONINAE Grube. 

Body oval, depressed, a pair of eyes, a median tentacle 
under which is a papillose facial tubercle. No lateral 
tentacles. Probosas devoid of horny teeth. Elytra 15 
pairs. 



24 APHRODITIDAE 

Key to the genera. 

1. Harpoon-shaped dorsal spines 

present . . . . 2 

Without harpoon-shaped dorsal 

spines . . . . 3 

2. Ventral bristles with spurs . Hermione Blainvillc, p. 28. 

Ventral bristles with a fringe 

of hairs . . . . Lastonatonice Kinberg, p. 29. 

3. Dorsal bristles smooth . . 4 

Dorsal bristles flattened, serrated Pontogenia ClaparMe, p. 29. 

4. Dorsal bristles acicular. A thick 

dorsal felt . . . . Aphrodita Linn., p. 24. 

Dorsal bristles sabre-like; no dor- 
sal felt present . . Aphrogenia Kinberg, p. 27. 

Genus APHRODITA Linnaeus. 

Eyes sessile. Elytra hidden under a thick, close felt. 
Ventral bristles acicular, disposed in 3 tiers. Dorsal setae 
of two kinds, (1) stout, smooth, piercing the felt, (2) very 
long and slender, iridescent. 

Key to the species of Aphrodita. 

1. Dorsal bristles long, golden, curv- 

ing backwards, tluttch-like . . australis Baird, p. 26. 
Dorsal bristles, short, erect, dark 

coloured . . . . 2 

2. Dorsal bristles with a slender 

end. Ventral bristles very 

hairy .. .. talpa Quatrefages, p. 26. 

Dorsal bristles straight, blunt. 
Ventral bristles smooth in the 
adult . . . . aculeata Linn., p. 24. 

1 Aphtodita acttleata Linnaeus (Fig. 6, a—g) . 

Aphrodita aculeata, Mcintosh, 1900, p. 247; Fauvel. 1923, p. 33, 
fig. 10. Aphrodita japonica, MarenzeEer, 1879, p. 3, pi. I, fig. 
2: Izuka, 1912, p. 74, pi. IX, fig. 1-3. 

Dorsal setae short, erect, blackish, protruding very 
little over the dorsal felt. Slender lateral setae beautifully 
iridescent. Ventral setae smooth, without lateral hook. 

Length: 100-200 mm. 

Occurrence: Santapalli, Madras Presidency. 

Distribution: Japan, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean 
Sea, Atlantic Ocean, North Sea and English Channel. 




Fig. 6.—Aphrodita aculeata Linn, a, natural size; b, head; e, i 
gerous foot; d, bipinnate seta from an anterior foot; 
e, spinous bristle from one of the last segments; 
j, stout dorsal bristle X35; g, hairy ventral seta of the young 



X40. 




Fig. 'J.—Aphrodita australis Baird: a, b, ventral bristle x47; c, d, in- 
ferior ventral bristles from two hind feet X109; e, ventral from 
mid-body X47; f, g, bipinnate setae from the 2nd foot 
X109; h, ventral ramus of a pqsterior foot x8 
I, middle part of the same X270; ft, inferior 
ventral seta of ^ hind foot X109; I, capillary 
bristle of the last feet X2S0. 

F. 6 



26 



APHRODrriDAE 



2. Aplirodha aostealis Baird (Fig. 7, a-T) . 

Aphrodita australis, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 34, pi. VII, fig. 6—7: 
Fauvel, 1917, p. 165, fig. 1; 1923a, p. 136, fig. 3 (Synonymy). 
Aphrodita terrae-reginae, Haswell, 1883, p. 271. 
Aphrodita haswelli, Johnston, 1908, p. 241, pi. LIX, fig. 1—8: 
Aphroditella malayana, Horst, 1917, p. 48, pi. XI, fig. 1—3. 

Large dorsal setae, golden, long, curving backwaids 
over the back, with a slender end. Ventral setae smooth. 
Dorsal felt rough and thick. Lateral slender setae faintly 
irridescent. 

Length: up to 100 mm. by 60 mm. 

Occurrence: Laccadive Sea, 637 fms; West of Comorin, 
670 fms. 

Distribution: Japan, Australia, Indian Ocean. 

3. Aphtodita talpa Quatrefages (Fig. 8, a— J) . 
Aphrodita talpa, Quatrefages, 1865, 1, p. 196. pi. Ill, fig. 24 (non 

Ehlers, nee Benham, Fauvel 1917, Augener): Fauvel, 1925, p. 

140. fig. 4. 
i Aphrodita castanea, Moore, 1910, p. 380, pi. XXIII, fig. 85-97. 
} Aphrodita longipalpa, Essenberg, 1917, p. 403, pi. XXI, fig. 1— 




Fig. 8.— Aphrodita talpa Quatrefages: a, b, ventral hairy bristles 

from mid-body XI09; c, d, bipinnate and hastate bristles from 

2nd foot XI 09; e, f, g, superior and inferior ventral bristles 

of a posterior foot X109; h, i, k, upper median and lower 

bristles from a hind foot X109; I, dorsal capillary 

coated with mud X47. 



APHROGENIA 



27 



Dorsal bristles with a slender end. Lateral capillary 
setae lustreless, or very faintly iridescent, more or less 
densely coated with cylinders of mud. Ventral setae hairy, 
without any hook or spur. 

Length: 15—30 mm. by 13—25 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal, Orissa 
Coast, Malabar Coast, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Oman. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, China, New Zealand, 
South Australia, Indian Ocean. 



Genus APHROGENIA Kinberg. 

Sabre-like dorsal bristles. Ventral setae bifurcated. 
Without dorsal felt. 

4. Aphrc^enia alba Kinberg (Fig. 9, a—h) . 

Aphrogenia alba, Kinberg, 1857, p. 6, pi. II, fig. 6: Fauvel, 

1932, p. 9. 
Aphrogenia villosa, Horst. 1917, p. 63, pi. XIV, fig. 10—12: 

Augener, 1926, p. 439. 




v\f /^Y\' V.' 



Fig. ^.—Aphrogenia alba Kmberg: a, big doisal bristle coated with 

parasitic Algae X47; b, dorsal knobbed seta X47; c, end of same 

XI 17; d, sabre-like dorsal bristle X47; e, f. g, three ventral 

furcate setae; h, bipinnate seta from the first setigerous 

segment x230. Lepidonotus melanogrammus Haswell 

a', foot X8; b', posterior ventral seta X62; c", anterior 

bidentate seta X62; d', e', bristle front and 

side view, X117. 



^8 



APHROOrriDAE 



Elytra IS pairs, uniformly white, with a faint mother- 
of pearl gloss and with scattared minute papillae. Dorsal 
cirri long, with a clavate tip. Dorsal bristles stout and 
curved. Ventral setae with two unequal limbs, sometimes 
villose with a parasitic growth. Elytra uniformly white 
or pearly, sometimes with a faint pattern. 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andamans; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago, Indian Ocean, West 
Indies. 

Genus HERMIONE Blainville. 

Harpoon-shaped dorsal bristles. Ventral setae bifur- 
cated and toothed, but not fringed. Dorsal felt absent. 

5. Hctmione hystrix (Savigny) (Fig. 10) . 

Hermione hystnx, Fauvel, 1923, p. 35, fig. 11 (Synonymy); 1932, 

p. 10. 
Hermione malleata, Grube, 1878, p. 17: Willey, 1905, p. 245, pi. 

I, fig. 3—4; Potts, 1909, p. 329; Horst, 1917, p. 52, pi. XII, fig. 11 

-13. 




Fig. Id.— Hermione hyslrix (Savigny): a, dorsal view, natural size; 

b, elytron X4; c, d, elytrigerous and cirrigerous feet; e, head; 

/, dorsal sabre-like bristle; g, h, harpoon-shaped bristles; 

i, ft, ventral bristles. 

Body oval, flattened. Median tentacle very variable 
in length. Elytra smooth. Dorsal bristles erect, diverg- 
ing, spear-like, with lateral recurved fangs at the tip which 
is often enclosed in a sheath. Ventral setae bifurcated 



LAETMATONICE 29 

with a short limb and a longer one curved, smooth (or 
toothed in the anterior and posterior feet) . 

Length: 50—60 mm. 
Colour: pale brown. 
Occurrence: Nankauri, Nicobar Islands; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands, Malay Archipelago, 
Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic. 

Genus LAETMATONICE Kinberg. 

Harpoon-shaped dorsal bristles. Ventral setae bifur- 
cated, with a fringe of hairs at the distal end. A dorsal 
felt, sometimes very little developed. 

6. Lactmatonice prodttcta Grube, var. benthaliaaa 
Mcintosh. (Fig. 11, f—g). 

Laetmatonice producta, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 45, pi. A^I, fig. 4—6, 
pi. IV, fig. 12: Moore, 1903, p. 420: Izuka, 1912, p. 89, pi. IX, 
fig. 7-10; Fauvel, 1932, p. 10. 

Elytra 15—18 pairs, delicate, finely granular with 
radiating lines. No dorsal felt (?) . Dorsal spines very 
large, with 3-4 fangs on each side. Slender bristles from 
the inner dorsal tuft overlapping the elytra. Vencral 
setae with a spur and a long fringe of hairs. Ventral cirri 
small, filiform, inserted about the middle of the foot, 
which is long and slender. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Japan, Indian Ocean. 

Genus PONTOGENIA Claparede. 

Dorsal bristles (paleae) golden yellow, slightly bent, 
arranged like a fan. Ventral setae few, bifid. A dorsal 
felt usually present. 

Key to the species of Pontogenia. 

1. No dorsal felt .. .. nuda Horst, p. 30. 

A dorsal felt . . . . indica Grube, p. 29. 

7 Pontogcnia indica Grube. 

Pontogenia indica, Grube, 1878, p. 19, pi. I. fig. 4; WUley, 1905. 
p. 246, pi. I, fig. 5. 

Elytra 18 pairs. 43—45 segments. Back covered by 
the bent dorsal setae (paleae) . A dorsal felt. Palps be- 
set with longitudinal rows of delicate recurved papillae. 
A granulated facial tubercle. Two pairs of eyes on om- 
matophores. Paleae rather narrow, denticulated on each 
side. Ventral setae short, stout, bidentate. 



30 



APHROMTIDAE 



Length: 20 mm.— 26 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Singapore. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands, Indian Ocean. 

8. Pontogenia nttda Horst. (Fig. 1 1, a and b) . 
Pontogenia nuda, Horst, 1917, p. 62, pi. XIV, fig. 5—7. 




Fig. 11.— Pontogenia nuda Horst: a, ventral bristle X80; b, dorsal 

bristle XSO. Lepidonotus dictyolepis Haswell: c, upper 

ventral seta X240; d, lower ventral seta X240; e, dorsal 

bristle X290 (after Augener). Laetmatonice 

producta Grube: f, dorsal harpoon seta, 

g, ventral bristle, enlarged. 

No dorsal felt. Long skin papillae. 15 pairs of ely- 
tra. Paleae rather broad, faintly curved, showing two 
rows of cusps, lying at some distance from one another 
and cup-shaped. A dorsal fascicle of capillary setae. 
Teeth of the bifurcated apex of the ventral setae obtuse 
and short. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Off Cape Negrais, 
Burma, 40 fms. 

Remarks: P. nuda differs from the European P. 
chrysocoma in the absence of a dorsal telt and 
with its paleae more boldly serrated. They 
may be only varieties. 



t'OLYNODJAE SI 

Subfamily POLYNOINAE Grube. (Fig. 12) . 

Body short, or rarely elongate. Elytra 12—18 pairs, 
inserted on segments, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 23, 26; 29, etc. 




Fig. 12.— POLYNOINAE. Prostomium: a, type Lepidonotus; 

b, type Harmothoe; c, type Halosydna; d, fringed and 

tuberculate elytron; e, smooth elytron; f, front view 

of the proboscis with papillae and 

four jaws. 

For explanation of at, ct, el, and pp. see fig. 2, p. 5. 

Prostomium bilobed, with 4 sessile eyes, 3 tentacles, 2 long 
palps. Proboscis with a row of terminal papillae and 4 
horny jaws. Feet biramous. Setae all simple. 2 anal 
cirri. 



Key to the genera. 



1. Only two tentacles. 13 pairs of 

elytra 
Three tentacles 

2. Lateral tentacles inserted ter- 

minally 
Lateral tentacles inserted ventrally 

3. Elytra 12 pairs 

Elytra more than 12 pairs .. 

4. Elytra very small and tough. 

Ventral setae trifurcate 
Elytra normal. Ventral setae uni- 
dentate or bidentate 

5. Elytra, 30 pairs or more 
Elytra less than 30 pairs 

6. Cirrophores very large 
Cirrophores normal 



Iphione Kinberg, p. 32. 
2 

3 

8 
4 
5 

Hermenia Grube, p. 38. 

Lepidonotus Leach, p. 33. 
Lepidasthenia Malmgren, p. 56. 
6 

Drieschia Michaelsen, p. 54. 

7 



32 APBRonrriDAE 

7. Elytra with longitudinal dark 

stripes. Dorsal setae few or 

absent . . Hyperhalosydna Augener. p. 62. 
Elytra soft, translucent. Dorsal 

setae stout . . . . Allmaniella Mcintosh, p. 53. 

8. Fifteen pairs of elytra . . 9 
More than fifteen pairs of elytra 13 

9. Elytra covering the whole body 10 
Elytra leaving the posterior seg- 
ments of the body uncovered Lagisca Malmgren, p. 41. 

10. Ventral setae bidentate .. 11 
Ventral setae unidentate . . 12 

11. Setae transparent as crystal, with 

spinous pouches . . Scalisetosus Mcintosh, p. 49. 

Setae without spinous pouches Harmothoe Kinberg, p. 42. 

12. Dorsal setae capillary . . Gattyana Mcintosh, p. 39. 
Dorsal setae stouter than the 

ventral setae . . Euno'e Malmgren, p. 39. 

13. Eyes absent. Dorsal and ventral 

setae similar, flattened, vitre- 
ous . . . . Admetella Mcintosh, p. 53. 
Eyes conspicuous, donsal and 

ventral setae unlike . . 14 

14. Tentacles and cirri long and 

club-like. Very conspicuous 

ventral lamellae . . Gastrolepidia Schmarda, p. 51. 

Tentacles and cirri tapering. 

Dorsal tubercles conspicuous HoloUpidella Willey, p. 59. 

Genus IPHIONE Kinbeig 

Body short, oval. 13 pairs of elytra. Only two ten- 
tacles which are inserted laterally; facial tubercle present. 
Dorsal setae more slender than the ventral, which are 
unidentate. 

9 Iptione maricata Savigny (Fig. 13, a— e) . 

Iphione muricata, Seidler, 1922, p. 75 (Synonymy); "Willey, 1905, 
p. 246, pi. I, fig. 6; Gravely, 1927, p. 4, pi. IX, fig. 1; Pruvot, 
1930, p. 3. fig. 1. 

Iphione spinosa, Michaelsen, 1892, p. 6. 

Body oval, flattened, entirely covered by the overlap- 
ping elytra. Prostomium square, with a deep anterior 
median notch; 4 eyes, 2 tentacles with a large basal part 
and a filiform tip. A facial tubercle. 13 pairs of elytra, 
uniform, deeply notched, their surface divided up into 
polygonal areas and these again into numerous secondary 
areoles. The posterior margin bears large spinous tuber- 
cles. Dorsal setae extremely fine, in dense clusters. 
Ventral setae stout, with a smooth curved tip. 



LEPIDONOTUS 



33 




Fig. 15.— Iphione muricata Savigny: a, dorsal view, slightly enlarg- 
ed, b, head; c, lateral papillae of the elytron; d, elytron's 
surface divided into areas; e, dorsal and f, ventral 

seta (after Gravier). Lepidonotus carinulatus 

Gnibe: A, g, dorsal and ventral bristles, enlarged; 

i, elytron's papillae (after Grube). L. jacksoni 

Kinberg. k, carinulate elytron's papillae; I, m, 

echinulate and stellate papillae (after WiUey). 

L. atstatus Grube: n, dorsal view (after 

Grube). L. jukesi Baird: o, p, two kinds 

of dorsal setae; q, ventral seta; r, 

elytron's papillae (after Pruvot). 

L. hedleyi Benham: s, elytron's 

papillae; t, dorsal, u, ventral 

setae (after Pruvot). 

Length: 10-20 mm, by 6-10. 

Colour: in life, pale fawn with deep blue border. 
Brown in spirit. 

Occurrence: Mergui; Andaman Islands; Ceylon; 
Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific and Indian oceans, the coasts 
of India, Red Sea. 



Genus LEPIDONOTUS Leach. 

Body short. Prostomium bilobed. 4 eyes. Paired 
tentacles short, terminally inserted. Twelve pairs of ely- 
tra. Dorsal setae spinous, more slender and shorter than 
the ventral, which are unidentate or bidentate, with a 
spinous enlargement at the base of the tip. 

1\7 



34 



APHRODITIDAE 



Key to the species of 

1. Without dorsal setae 
With dorsal setae 

2. Two kinds o£ dorsal setae 
One kind of dorsal setae 

3. Ventral setae bidentate 
Ventral setae unidentate 

4. Elytra fringed 
Elytra without fringe 

6. Elytra with echinulate papillae 
Elytra with carinulate papillae 
6. Elytra fringed 



Lepidonotus. 
melanogramrmis Haswell, p. 37 

2 
jukesi Baird, p. 37. 

3 

4 

6 

5 
hedleyi Benham, p. 35. 
jacksoni Kinberg, p. 34. 
carinulatus Grube, p. 34. 

7 



Elytra without 
tumid more 
crest 

7. Elytra divided 



fringe, 
or les 



with a 
bilobed 



into polygonal 



areas with star-like papillae 
Elytra without polygonal areas 



cristatiis Grube, p. 35. 

dictyolepts Haswell, p. 35. 
tenuisetosus (Gravier), p. 36. 



10. Lepidonot«s carinalatos Grube (Fig. 13, g-i) . 
Lepidonotus carinulatus, Grube, 1878, p. 26, pi. HI, fig. 2; Horst, 

1917, p. 69, pi. XV, fig. 10: Fauvel. 1919, p 330; 1932, p. 13; 
Seidler, 1924, p. 72 (Synonymy)- Augener, 1922, p. 8. 

Elytra round, next oval and elliptic, fringed, covered 
v^fith flat or carinulate tubercles. Dorsal setae slender, 
spinulose; ventral setae stout, bidentate. 

Length: 15—30 mm. On coral reefs and shells. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Tuticorin, Pamban, Shingle Is- 
land, Kilakarai. 

Distribution: Japan, Philippine Islands, Indian 
Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Madagascar. 

11. Lepidonotus jacfcsoni Kinberg. (Fig. 13, k—m) . 

Lepidonotus jacksoni, Kinberg, 1857, p. 11, pi. HI, fig. 11; pi. 

VIH, fig. 48: Augener, 1922a, p. 11; 1927. p. 99: Seidler, 1924, 

p. 74. 
Lepidonotus carinulatus (non Grube), Willey, 1905, p. 248, pi. 

I, fig. 7-11. 
Lepidonotus willeyi, Benham, 1915, pi. XXXVIII, figs. 8-15. 

Elytra fringed, with flat, carinulate and large sphero- 
idal echinate papillae, dorsal setae slender; ventral setae 
bidentate. Elytra more conspicuously echinate or stellate 
than in L. carinulatus, but in both species there is a large 
range of variation in the number and size of the spinous 
tubercles. Both are also closely allied to L. squamatus 
of Europe. 



LEPIDONOTUS 35 

Occurrence: Port Blair Harbour, Andaman Islands; 
Ganjam Coast; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, New Zealand, Australia, 
Indian Ocean. 

12. Lepidonotcs cfistattts Grube. (Fig. 13, n.) 

Lepidonotus cristattis, Grube, 1878, p. 27, pi. II, fig. 3: Gravier, 
1901, p. 270, pi. VII, figs. 104-110: Fauvel, 1919, p. 329, 1932, 
p. 15: Gravely, 1927, p. 3, pi. I, fig. 2. 

Lepidonotus oculatus Baird, Seidler, 1924, p. 43, figs. 3—8. 

Elytra soft, large, entirely covering the back: they are 
rounded or slightly emarginate, without fringe, covered 
with small stellate tubercles and bearing a large tumid, 
more or less bilobed crest. Dorsal setae stout, crenulated; 
ventral setae with a short smooth apex and a few rows 
of small spines. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Gulf of Mannar, 
Ceylon. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands, Amboina, West 
Australia, Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Zanzibar, Red Sea. 

13. Lepidonotcs hedleyi Benham. (Fig. 13, s, t and ii) . 

Lepidonotus hedleyi, Benham, 1915, p 181, pi. XXXVIII, figs. 
1-7: Seidler, 1924, p. 77: Pruvot, 1930, p. 7, pi. I, figs 6-10. 

Elytra oval, without fringe, smooth in appearance, 
pale grey, translucent, thin, slightly overlapping, sparse- 
ly covered with uniformly arranged low conical tubercles, 
which have an oval base. Dorsal setae pale, all alike, 
with incomplete spiral frills. Ventral setae with a sub- 
apical tooth and from 9 to 15 pectinate frills. Tentacles 
smooth. Dorsal cirri stout with a slight subterminal 
swelling, (Benham) 

Length: 20 mm. 

Colour: Dorsal cirri brown, with a dark band below 
the enlarged tip. 

Occurrence: Manora shore, Karachi. 
Distribution: New Caledonia, South Australia, 
Indian Ocean. 

14. Lepidonotus dictyolepis Haswell. 

Lepidonotus dictyolepis, Haswell, 1883, p. 287, pi. IX, figs. 7, 8. 
Seidler, 1924, p. 25: Augener, 1927a, p. 94, fig. 3. 

Elytra oval, overlapping, entirely covering the back, 
and with a thick fringe and cylindrical papillae along 



36 



APHRODITIDAE 



the margins; the surface is divided into polygonal areas, 
which may bear in their middle a round papilla with 
star-like diverging ridges and a central pore. Dorsal 
setae slender and spinulose. Ventral setae stout, with a 
short unidentate apex and a few spines. 

Colour: A black triangular spot pointing forwards 
on the elytra. 

Occurrence: Shingle Island, Gulf of Mannar. 

Distribution: India, South Australia. 

15. Lepidonotos tenttJsetosus (Gravier) . (Fig. 14, c-f) 
Lebidonotus tenuisetosus, Fauvel, 1919, p. 330; 1930, p. 8; Seidler, 

1924, p. 25. 
JEuphione tenuisetosa, Cravier, 1901, p. 122, pi. VIII, figs. 123— 

125: Fauvel, 1911, p. 368. 




Fig. H.—Hermenia acantholepis (Grube): a, elytron, enlarged; *, 

ventral, trifurcate seta. Leptdonotus tenuisetosus; c, d, 

elytron's papillae; e, f, dorsal and ventral 

setae (after Gravier). 

Elytra oval, slightly reniform, with a small fringe; 
covered with a few large and a number of smaller rounded 



LEPIDONOTUS 37 

papillae, and also very small calicinate papillae on the 
outer edge. Dorsal setae slender, nearly capillary and 
spinulose. Ventral setae with a rather long smooth tip 
and a few fringes. Closely allied to L. squamatus, differs 
only in having more slender dorsal setae, smaller tuber- 
cles -on the elytra and more closely placed eyes. 

Length: 15—30 mm. 

Occurrence: Jack and Una Islands, Mergui Archi- 
pelago; Port Canning; off Pari, Orissa; Madras. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, 
Madagascar. 

16. Lepidonotas melanogtammas Haswell. (Fig. 9, a'— e') . 
Lepidonotus mekmogrammus, Haswell, 1883, p. 284, pi. VIII, 
fig. 13: Fauvel, 1917, p. 176, pi. IV, figs. 18-19: Seidki, 1924, 
p. 84. 

Elytra rounded, then oval, overlapping but leaving 
the middle of the back uncovered. They are smooth, 
without papillae or fringe, and are divided into poly- 
gonal areas. Dorsal ramus reduced to a small conical 
tubercle, with an aciculum.. Ventral setae stout, biden- 
tate, or unidentate in the posterior feet. Dorsal cirri 
short, with a large cirrophore. Dorsal setae rare or 
wanting. 

Colour: Elytra dark, with two round spots. Dark 
spots on the ventral surface. 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Andaman Islands, South Australia. 

Sub-genus THORMORA Baird. 

Two kinds of dorsal setae. 

17. Lcpidonotas (Thormora) jokcsi (Baird) . (Fig, 13, 
o—r) . 

Thormora jukesi, Baird, 1865, p. 199. 

Lepidonotus (Thormora), jukesi, Seidler, 1924, p. 88: Fauvel, 

1930, p. 508: Pruvot, 1930, p. 9, pi. I, figs. 11-15. 
Lepidonotus trissochaetus, Grube, 1878, p. 26, pi. II, fig. 4: 

Fauvel, 1919, p. 332 (Synonymy). 

Two kinds of dorsal setae: (1) short, curved, spinu- 
lose, (2) long, straight, smooth, slightly hastate. Ventral 
setae unidentate, with a few rows of spines. Elytra tough, 
rounded, overlapping, but leaving the middle of the back 
bare. They are destitute of any fringe and bear a few 
cylindrical, more or less starry, tubercles and smaller 
rounded ones. 



38 APHRODITIDAE 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago, 3 fms; Andaman 
Islands. 

Distribution: New-Caledonia, Australia, Malay Archi- 
pelago, Indian Ocean, Red Sea. 

Incertae sedis. 

18. Lepidonottis f«sici)*ftjs (Schmarda) . 

Lepidonotus jusicirrus, Seidler, 1924, p. 85. 

Polynoe fusicirra, Schmarda, 1861, p. 152, pi. XXXVI, fig. SU. 

Back convex. Elytra 12 pairs, round, red, with 
brown and dark spots. Tentacles and cirri smooth, fusi- 
form, brown. Dorsal setae long, capillary, sharp, with 
a tooth. "Ventral setae, broad, with 2-3 spines under the 
unidentate tip. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

The description is too incomplete for an accurate 
identification. 

Genus HERMENIA Grube. 

Body short. Prostomium bilobed. 4 eyes. Tentacles 
short, inserted terminally. Twelve pairs of elytra, small, 
not overlapping. Dorsal division of the foot rudimentary. 
Ventral setae trifurcate. 

19. Hemienia acantholepis (Grube) . (Fig. 14, a, b) . 

Hermenia acantholepis, Seidler, 1924, p. 94: Pruvot, 1930, p. 11, 

pi. I, 6g. 27-33. 
Lepidonotus acantholepis, Grube, 1878, p. 24, pi. II, fig. 1: 

Fauvel, 1922, p. 990, fig. 1; 1932, p. 16. 

Segments rough and warty. Elytra, with the excep- 
tion of the first 2-3 pairs, very small, rounded, covered 
and bordered with large, brown ovoid tubercles and a few 
cylindrical papillae. Only a few dorsal setae, small, 
slender, serrated. Ventral setae with two large conical 
teeth at the base of their large, faintly bent, tip. 

Although nearly related to the genus Lepidonotus 
the general appearance of the animal is very striking. 

Length: 30 nam by 10 mm. 

Colour: uniformly milky with chestnut elytra. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Samoa, New Caledonia, 
Australia, Annam, Philippine Islands, Malay Archipelago; 
Indian Ocean, Ceylon, Madagascar. 



EUNOE 39 

Genus EUNOfe Malir^en. 

Prostomium bilobed, with frontal peaks. Lateral 
tentacles inserted ventrally. Fifteen pairs of elyUa, cover- 
ing the whole body. Dorsal setae stout, with transverse 
rows of minute spines. Ventral setae unidentate. 

20. Eonoe pallida (Ehlers) . (Fig. 17, c-g) . 
Eunoe pallida, Fauvel, 1931, p. 7, pi. I, figs. 1—5. 
Gattyana pallida, Ehlers, 1908, p. 49, pi. I, figs 1—9. 
Harmothoe pallida, Horst, 1917, p. 91. 
fHarmothoe holothuncola, leaks., 1912, p. 56, pi. VI, figs 2—7. 

Prostomium bilobed, with two small, short, pointed 
peaks. Median tentacle with a large, short ceratophore. 
Lateral tentacles filiform, shorter. 4 small pale-coloured 
eyes. Elytra 15 pairs, overlapping, large, soft, smooth, un- 
fringed. Dorsal cirri with papillae. Dorsal tubercles 
present. Both divisions of the feet elongated, pointed. 
Dorsal setae stout, curved and serrated on the convex side. 
Ventral setae with a long, faintly spinulose, enlarged 
part and a smooth unidentate tip. The upper ventral 
setae are long, slender, straight, nearly capillary. 

Parasitic on Echinoderms. 

Length: about 30 mm, by 9 mm. 

Colour: in spirit brownish. 

Remarks: It has sometimes been described with 16 
pairs of elytra (Ehlers and Izuka) . 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea; Travancore; Persian 
Gulf. 

Distribution: Japan (?), Malay Archipelago, Indian 
Ocean, Persian Gulf. 

Genus GATTYANA Mcintosh. 

Prostomium with frontal peaks. Lateral tentacles 
inserted ventrally. Fifteen pairs of elytra covering the 
whole body. Dorsal setae numerous, spinulose, capillary. 
Ventral setae stout, unidentate. 

21. Gattyana dehsdens Fauvel. (Fig. 15, 16) . 
Gattyana deludens, Fauvel, 1932, p. 18, figs. 1, 2. 

Body elongate oval, nearly uniform in breadth, much 
flattened; 36—38 setigerous segments. Prostomium bilob- 
ed, frontal peaks blunt, 4 small black eyes. Elongate 
median tentacle, borne on a large ceratophore. Lateral 
tentacles filiform, much shorter, ciliated, inserted beneath 



40 



APHRODITIDAE 



the base of the median tentacle. A nuchal fold. Paips 
tapering. Tentacular cirri and tentacles with clavate 




Fig. 15— Gattyana deludens Fauvel: a, anterior end, dorsal view, the 

head is supposed to be seen through the elytra which are really 

opaque, X7; b, elytron, areolate patterns not figured X7; 

c, areolate part of the elytron on the smooth border, 

near the side X48; d, areolate part of the elytron near 

the fimbriate border X48; e, polygonal areas with 

raised cuticle and stomatiform spots XI 10; 

fj ventral cinus XUO; g, cirrigerous 

foot X22. 

papillae. Dorsal cirri little exceeding the setae. Ventral 
cirri short. Cirrigerous feet provided with a long gill- 
like dorsal process. 15 pairs of elytra, yellow, tough, cross- 
ing and overlapping, covering the whole body. The first 
pairs orbicular, next reniform; fringed on the outer 
edge, upper surface smooth, divided into conspicuous 
polygonal areas, without any spines or papillae and with- 
out any secondary areoles in the meshes. Dorsal ramus 
small, conical, with an enclosed aciculum and a number 
of white setae, long, slender, hair-like, with transverse 
rows of delicate spines and a finely tapering, undulating 
tip. The superior dorsal setae are shorter, stouter, bent 
and denticulate. Ventral ramus larger, conical, with an 
enclosed aciculum and yellowish setae, larger, with a longer 
spinulose part slightly enlarged and a smooth unidentate 
tip. 2 long papillated anal cirri. 

Length: 12—19 mm. by 5—7 ram. 



LAGISCA 



41 



Colour: in spirit: elytra yellow, dorsal setae pale and 
ventral setae pale yellow. 




Fig. 16.— Cattyana deludens Fauvel: a, dorsal bristle X120; b, 

upper dorsal bristle; c, d, tip of upper ventral seta, side and 

front view X380; e, inferior ventral bristle X380 f, inferior 

ventral bristle Xl.50; g, median ventral bristle X150; 

h, upper ventral bristle X130. 

Remarks: This species has externally the appearance 
of an Iphione, Iphionella cimex, but it is really a Gattyana. 
Harmothoe iphwnelloides Johnson (1901), which is also 
a Gattyana, is a closely allied species. 

Occurrence: Annam; Poulo Condore, Mergui Archi- 
pelago; Gangetic Delta, Ghandipore; Balassore, Orissa ; 
Pondicherry, Madras. 

Genus LAGISCA Malmgren. 

Head as in Harmothoe, with lateral tentacles inserted 
ventrally. Fifteen pairs of elytra, leaving the posterior 
segments of the body uncovered. Dorsal setae stout, 
ventral setae bidentate. 

22. L^isca fkccida Potts. (Fig. 18, a-c) . 

Lagisca flaccida. Potts, 1909, p. 339, pi. XVH, fig. U. pi. XXI, 
figs. 49-50; Horst, 1917, p. 94. 

F. 8 



42 APHRODITIDAE 

Body much flattened, breadth fairly uniform, taper- 
ing slightly just before the posterior end. Head hexa- 
gonal, with small distinct eyes and two tiny lateral peaks. 
Median tentacles long; lateral tentacles shorter, sparsely 
ciliate. A slight nuchal fold behind the head. Elytra 
soft, gelatinous, with the margins entire; the inner half 
covered with tiny tubercles. Dorsal setae with acute 
tip and a rather long smooth portion between it and 
the spiniferous area. Ventral setae long, with rather short 
spiniferous area and a short, rather blunt, spine under the 
incurved apex. 

Length: 20 mm, by 6 mm. 

Colour: in spirit: elytra white. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago; Indian Ocean, 
Ceylon, Zanzibar. 

Genus HARMOTHOfi Kinberg. 

Prostomium bilobed, often with lateral peaks. 4 
eyes. Lateral tentacles inserted ventrally. Fifteen pairs 
of scales, covering the whole dorsum. Dorsal setae stouter 
than the ventral, which are bidentate. 

Key to the species of Harmothoe. 

1. Elytra without fringes . 2 
Elytra fringed .. .. 3 

2. Elytra with tiny tubercles . . minuta (Potts), p. 45. 
Elytra smooth . . . . arabica Monro, p. 46. 

3. Elytra divided into polygonal 

areas with bifurcate tubercles dictyophora (Grube), p. 44. 

Elytra not divided into polygo- 
nal areas .. .. 4 

4. Elytra densely covered with sharp 

spines .. .. indica (Kinberg), p. 47. 

Elytra with conical tubercles . . 5 

5. Elytra divided crosswise into 2 

pale and 2 dark areas . . boholensis (Grube), p. 47. 

Elytra with conical tubercles and 
a posterior row of large papi- 
llae .. .. 6 

6. Ventral lamellae conspicuous . ampuUifera (Grube), p. 43. 
Without ventral lamellae . . imbricata (Linn.), p. 42. 

23. Harmothoe imfeticata (Linn.) (Fig. 19) . 

JJarmotkoe imbricata, Fauvd, 1923, p. 55, fig. 18, f— 1: Gravely, 
1927, p. 4, pi. IX, fig. 4. 



HARMOTHOE 



43 



Prostomium bilobed, with frontal peaks. 4 eyes, the 
anterior pair partly under the frontal peaks. Lateral 




Fig. 17.— Harmothoe minuta (Potts): a, b, ventral and dorsal setae. 

Eunoe pallida (Ehlers): c, foot X30; d, inferior; e, median 

and /, superior ventral setae X140; g, dorsal 

seta X140. 

tentacles very short and slender. Tentacles and cirri 
papillated. 15 pairs of elytra, oval-reniform, sparsely 
fringed, with small conical tubercles and, often, a row 
of large globular papillae on the posterior border. Dor- 
sal setae stout, slightly curved, serrated, with a smooth 
apex. Ventral setae spinulous, curved, the apex of which 
is smooth, bidentate with the secundary tooth curved 
outwards. 

Length: 30—40 mm; by 10 mm. 
Colour: very variable, rather dark, sometimes pale 
with brown streaks. 

Occurrence: Krusadai Island. 

Distribution: North Pacific, Japan, Petchili; Indian 
Ocean; Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic Ocean; Arctic Seas. 

24. Harmothoe ampullif era (Grube) . (Fig. 18, d). 

Harmothoe ampullifera, Fauvel, 1911, p. 368; 1932. p. 22. 
Polynoe ampulhfera, Grube, 1878, p. 35, pi. Ill, fig. 5. 



14 



APHRODITIDAE 



Lepidonotus ampulliferus, Gravier, 1901, p. 214, pi. VII, figs. 

111-113. 
Paralepidonotus ampulliferus, Horst, 1917, p. 76. 

Prostomium without frontal peaks, tentacles, and 
cirri papillated. Lateral tentacles inserted somewhat 




Fig. IS.— Lagisca flaccida (Potts): a, posterior elytron; b, dorsal 

seta from the 6tli segment X340; c, ventral seta of 

the 22nd segment X340 (after Potts). 

Harmothoe ampullifera (Grube); 

d, elytron (after Gravier). 

ventrally. Elytra fringed, with small papillae and large 
vesicles in concentric rows. Dorsal setae arching, verti- 
cillate spinulose. Ventral setae bidentate. Long nephri- 
dial papillae and conspicuous ventral lamellae. Closely 
related to H. imbricata. 

Length: 20—30 mm. 

Occurrence: Singapore, Camorta Island, Rameswaram 
and Pamban coral reefs. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Annam; India; 
Persian Gulf; Red Sea. 

25. Harmothoe dictyophofa (Grube) . (Fig. 20, a—b, m.) 
Harmothoe dictyophora, Willey, 1905, p. 251, pi. I, figs. 14—16; 

Fauvel. 1911, p. 370; 1932, p. 22; Gravely, 1927, p. 4. 
Polynoe dictyophora, Grube, 1878, p. 44, pi. XV, fig. 9. 



HARMOTHOE 



45 



Tentacles and cirri papillated. 15 pairs of elytra 
covering the back. They are divided into polygonal areas 
carrying chitinous spines, simple or bifurcated, and fili- 
form papillae. Dorsal setae numerous, verticillate, spmu- 
lose. Ventral setae conspicuously bidentate. Very close- 
ly allied to H. areolata of Europe. 

Length: 20—25 mm. 

Occurrence: Ganjam Coast, Madras Presidency, Kila- 
karai, from coral reefs. 

Distribution: Australia; Malay Archipelago; Annam; 
Bay of Bengal; Ceylon; Red Sea; Persian Gulf; Madagas- 
car. 

26. Harmothoe mintita (Potts) . (Fig. lla-b) . 

Polynoe (?) minuta. Potts, 1919, p. 337, pi. XIX, fig. 12, pi. XX, 

fig. 31, pi. XXI, figs. 42, 43. 
Lagisca minuta, Horst, 1917, p. 97. 




Fig. 19.—Harmothoe imbricdta Linn.: f, venttSl Setd XlOO; 

g, dorsal seta XlOO; h. head, enlarged; i, elytron; /, ft, 

elytron's papillae; I, foot. 

[a-c refer to Eunoe nodosa not from India.] 

Prostomium bilobed, with acute frontal peaks. 4 
very small eyes. Lateral tentacles very minute and slen- 
der. 15 pairs of elytra, almost circular, translucent, with 
entire margin, smooth surface with delicate veins and 
occasional tiny chitinous tubercles. Dorsal setae broad. 



46 



APHROOrriDAE 



slightly curved with a rather blunt apex and serrations 
near the tip. Ventral setae numerous, with apex rather 
faintly serrated. Ventral setae numerous, with apex 
rather faintly serrated near the tip, not bearing recog- 
nisable spines; upper setae with a very long serrated 
region, a short incurved tip and projecting tooth just 
under it. 

Commensal on Crinoids. 

Length: 5 mm by 1.5 mm. 

Colour: Dark red or black. 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Andaman Sea; Maldive Archipelago; 
Red Sea; Suez. 

27. Harmothoe arabica Monro. (Fig. 20, c—g) . 
Harmothoe arabica, Monro, 1937, p. 257, fig. 5. 




Fig. 2,0.— Harmothoe dictyophora (Givbt): a, elytron; b, elytron's 

marginal papillae, much enlarged; m, medio-dorsal seta. 

H. arabica Monro; c, head; d, foot; e, dorsal bristle; 

/, middle ventral seta; g, lower ventral 

seta (after Monro). H. indica Kinberg: 

h, ij ventral setae; k, dorsal seta (aftei 

Kinberg). H. boholensts (Grube); 

I, elytron, enlarged. 

Prostomium bilobed, with acute frontal peaks. 4 
small eyes, the anterior pair on the sides of the head. 



HARMOTHOE 47 

Median tentacle very short, piriform. Lateral tentacles 
stout. Subulate palps slightly longer. Tentacles and 
tentacular cirri papillated. 15 (?) pairs of elytra, round, 
smooth, with two patches of brown pigment. Dorsal bris- 
tles slender, slightly cui-ved and quite smooth. Upper 
ventral bristles long, slender, unidentate and smooth; 
middle ones slender, spinous, faintly bidentate; lower ones 
shorter, faintly denticulated, with tip either simple or 
faintly notched. Differs from most Harmothoe in having 
dorsal and upper ventral setae smooth. 

Length: 7 mm. by 1 mm. 36 setigerous segments, 
ripe female. 

Occurrence: Maldive area. 

28. Harmothoe indica (Kinberg) . (Fig. 20, h-k) . 

Harmotho'e indiea, Augener, 1922, p. 6, fig. 2; 1926, p. 442. 
Lepidonotus indicus, Kinberg, 1857—1910, p. 15, pi. IV, fig. 19. 
Lagisca indiea. Potts, 1910, p. 338. 

Prostomium without frontal peaks. Tentacles and 
cirri slender, papillated. Lateral tentacles inserted some- 
what ventrally. A distinct nuchal fold. Elytra oval, 
entirely covering the back, overlapping considerably, firm, 
with granular appearance, with a broad crescentic mark 
of black pigment, covered densely with short, sharp spines 
and intermediately placed cilia and with short cilia on 
posterior and outer borders. Dorsal setae long, straight, 
anteriorly pointed, with numerous rows of spines. Ventral 
setae slender, with acute incurved tip, with a long slender 
spine situated just under it. 

Length: 20 mm. by 7 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: East Indies, Banka Strait; Ceylon; 
Chagos Archipelago, Salomon Island; Amirante Islands, 
280 fms. 

29. Hatmothoe boholensis (Grube) . (Fig. 20 I) 

Harmothoe boholensis, Fauvel, 1911, p. 369; 1919, p. 332. 
Polynoe boholensis, Grabe, 1878, p. 41, pi. Ill, fig. 4. 
Paralepidonotus boholensis, Horst, 1917, p. 77, pi. XVIII, figs. 

Prostomium bilobed, with frontal peaks. 4 small 
eyes, the anterior pair slightly lateral. Median tentacle 
longer than the lateral which are shorter than the palps. 
Tentacles papillated, dark brown, faintly enlarged under 
the filiform tip. 15 pairs of elytra, first rounded, then 



48 



APHRODITIDAE 



oval and next reniform, fringed, with conical or blunt 
tubercles and divided crosswise into two pale and two 
dark areas. Dorsal setae numerous, stout, verticillate, 
spinulose. Ventral setae bidentate. Nephridial papillae 
and ventral lamellae variably conspicuous. 

Length: 30—35 mm. by 11 mm. 

Colour: the dark maltese cross of the elytra is pre- 
served in spirit. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Annam; Malay 
Archipelago; Persian Gulf; Red Sea; Madagascar. 

Incertae sedis 

30. Harmothoe sinagawensis {non Izuka) , Fauvel, 1932, 
p. 23. Fig. 3, pi. I, Fig. 1-2. (Fig 21, a, b) . 

Under this doubtful name I have described a broken 
Polynoid, incomplete posteriorly. The elytra that remain 




Fig. 21.—? Harmothoe sinagawensis Fauvel, non Izuka: a, elytron, 

X40. b, elytrigerousfoot, X40 (from 

Fauvel, 1932). 



SCALISETOSUS 49 

are white with a transvferse black streak, soft, destitute of 
fringe or tubercles. Tentacles and cirri papillated. The 
lateral tentacles, short, nearly piriform, are subterminally 
inserted, somewhat as in Halosydna. The feet are long 
and tapering, with a dense cluster of very slender long 
capillary dorsal setae. The upper ventral setae are long, 
straight and spinous, the inferior ones have a short en- 
larged part with only few spines and a long smooth uniden- 
tate tip. Owing to the absence of the posterior part, the 
genus remains doubtful. I have since had the opportunity 
to observe H. sinagawensis specimens from Japan, which 
is a different species, with two kinds of dorsal setae and 16 
pairs of elytra. 

Occurrence: Rameswaram Island, Madras Presidency. 

Genus SCALISETOSUS Mcintosh. 

Body long, very brittle. Prostomium without frontal 
peaks. 4 eyes, three tentacles, the lateral ones inserted 
ventrally. Fifteen pairs of elytra: thin, delicate, pellu- 
cid, not covering the whole body. Setae having the trans- 
parency of crystal. Dorsal setae, faintly curved, with some 
blunt spines on the convex border. Ventral setae hook- 
ed, bidentate with rows of semilunar cusps. 

Key to the species of Scalisetosus. 

Ventral setae bidentate . . pellucidus Ehlers, p. 49. 

Venttal setae unidebtate . . tongtctmii Schmarda, p. 60. 

31. ScaIisetos<is pelfccidtJs Ehlers. (Fig. 23, il-/) . 

Scalisetosus pellucidus, Fauvel, 1923. p. 74, fig. 37 (Synonymy); 
1932, p. 24. 

Scalisetosus spec, Horst, 1917, p. 10, pi. XXI, figs. 8-10. 
Body of moderate length. Elytra and cirri very easily 
detached. The anterior pair Of eyes larger and wide 
apart. Tentacles and cirri with filiform tip and clavate 
papillae. Elytra round or oval, very transparent and 
delicate, with small cylindrical or clavate papillae; not 
fringed. Dorsal setae shorter than the ventral ones, 
curved, with several cusps on the convex side, and tip 
faintly bifid. Ventr4l setae with a sWl enlargement, a 
semilunar cusp, or spinous pouch> arid a bidentatfe tip. 
On Echinoderms. 

Length: 12—30 nmi. 
F. 9 



50 



APHRODITIDAE 



Colour: Body translucent, yellowish, with a chequered 
brown pattern on the back. Elytra dotted with white, 
yellow, pink or purple. 




Fig. 22—Scaltsetosus longicirrus (Schmarda): o, dorsal seta X363; 

b, inferior ventral seta X363; c, superior ventral seta X363 (a£tei 

Marenzeller). Gastroleptdia clcangera Schmarda: d, head and 

first segment x9; e, dorsal seta Xl48; /, median ventral seta 

X148; Allmaniella ptycholepis (Grube): g, elytron X20; 

h, elytron's papillae, m.uch enlarged (after Grube). 

Hyperkalosydna striata (Kinberg): i, elytron X8 

(after Grube); k, ventral seta. Admetella longi- 

pedata Mcintosh: I, 28th foot X6; m, 

flattened seta x78; n, ventral seta 

X390 (after Ehlers). 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andaman Islands; Kilakarai, 
S. India; Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Annam; Malay Archipelago; Bay of 
Bengal; Arabian Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic Ocean. 

32. Scalisctosos longidrrtjs (Schmarda) . (Fig. 22, a—c) . 
Scalisetosus ZongiVirnw, Marenzeller, 1902, p. 574, pi. Ill, fig. 10. 
Polynoe longicirra, Schmarda, 1861. p. 152, pi. XXXVI, fig. 309. 
Polynoe crinoidicola. Potts, 1910, p. 337, pi. 18, fig. 10, pi. 21. 
figs. 39-41. 
fHalosydna ceylonica, Willey, 1905, p. 250, pi. I, figs. 12—13. 

Body long, extremely fragile. Prostomium composed 



GASTROLEPlDtA 51 

of two distinct halves. 2 pairs of eyes, the anterior pair 
lateral. Lateral tentacles inserted ventrally, slender and 
short. Elytra circular, smooth save for very minute tuber- 
cles, red or colourless in spirit (black when alive) , cover- 
ing the back, easily detached. Dorsal cirri long. Dorsal 
setae sabre-like, broad, slightly curved, with 2—3 serrations 
on the convex side under the acute tip. Ventral setae 
with a semi-lunar cusp, apex incurved, with a small tooth; 
ventralmost setae stouter, with sharp incurved unidentate 
apex. All setae with the transparency of crystal. 
Commensal on Astropecten and Crinoids. 
Length: 13 mm. 

Remarks: Though Willey attributes 24 pairs of ely- 
tra to his species, his description and figures fit 
very well with Scalisetosus longicirrus. As the 
elytra were all wanting on his specimen he may 
have made an error regarding the number of 
elytra bearing segments. 
Occurrence: Ceylon; Maldive Archipelago. 
Distribution: Japan; Indian Ocean. 

Genus GASTROLEPIDIA Schmarda. 

More than 21 pairs of elytra, the arrangement of the 
posterior pairs irregularly alternating wifli the cirri. 
Tentacles and cirri club-like, with a filiform tip. The 
sternum of the segments is provided with a foliaceous 
appendage on each side. 

33. Gastfolepidia clavigem Schmarda. (Fig. 22, d-f) . 
Gastrolepidta clauigeraj Schmarda, 1861, p. 159, pi. XXXVII, 

fig. 315: Waiey, 1905, p. 258: Potts, 1909, p. 341: Horst, 1917, 

p. 84, pi. XVI, fig. 5: Seidler, 1924, p. 142, figs. 19, 20: Fauvel. 

1919, p. 335; 1932, p. 25; 1942, p. 25: Pruvot, 1930, p. 13, 

pi. I, figs. 16-19. 
Gastrolepidia amblyphyllus, Grube, 1878, pi. Ill, fig. 7. 

Prostomium without frontal peaks. Lateral tentacles 
inserted ventrally. Tentacles and dorsal cirri long and 
much enlarged distally, with a small filiform tip. Elytra 
soft, without fringe or tubercles, semi-transparent, cover- 
ing the whole back. Dorsal setae few, stout, slightly 
curved and spinulose. Ventral setae with unidentate 
tip. Ventral lamellae very large and conspicuous. 
Ectoparasitic on Holothurians. 

Length: 25—30 mm. 

Colour. Elytra all black or mottled dark brown and 
white. 



52 



AFOTonrrmAE 



Occunencr. Audaman and Nicobar Isla^tjs; Ceylon; 
Rameswaram Island; Maldive Archipelago. 




Fig. a.—Scalisetosvs pellticidus Ehlers: d, head, enlarged (after 

Clapar^de), b, foot X20; c, elytron X12; d, elytion's 

papillae Xl09; e, ventral seta X310; /, dorsal 

seta X310 (after Mcintosh); g. h, i, Sc. 

assimilis. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, New Caledonia, New 
^ealqnd; Indian Oce^p, lEiay o| Bengal, Ceylon, Madagas- 
car, Zambar. 



Genus HYPERHALOSYDNA Aug^ner. 

About 50 segments. More than 18 pairs of elytra. 
Lateral tentacles inserted terminally. Dorsal' setae few or 
absent. Ventral setae bidentate. Without ventral lame- 
llae. 

34. Hypefhalosydna stwata (Kinberg) . (Fig. 22, i—k) . 

Hyperhalosydna striata, Seidler, 1924, p. 136 (Synonymy): Fauvel, 

1932, p. 26. 
Halosydna fulvovittata, Horst, 1917, p. 80. 
Polynoe fulvovittata, Grube, 1878, p. 33, pi. Ill, fig. 1. 
Polynoe platyctrrus, Mcintosh, 1885, p. Ill, pi. Ill, fig. 4. 
JLepidonotus striatus, Kinberg, 1857, p. 14, pi. IV, Hg. 18. 
Halosydna striata, Monro, 1924, p. 41, fig. 4. 



ALLMANIELLA S3 

Lateral tentacles as in Lepidonotus. Elytra 21-22 
pairs, oval, with longitudinal dark stripes and 1-2 keels 
near posterior edge. Dorsal division of the foot reduced 
to a small process with only a few short, curved, serrated 
setae, often wanting. Ventral setae all alike and bidentate. 

Colour: Four or five longitudinal brown stripes on the 
elytra. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Japan; Australia; Malay Archipelago; 
Indian Ocean. 

Genus AL|-HiVNIELLA Mcintosh. 

Prostomium bilobed, with lour large eyes. Lateral 
tentacles terminal. Fifteen (or more) pairs of elytra. 
Dorsal setae stouter than the ventral, which are bideqtate. 

35. AlmanicIIa ptycholepis (Grube) . (Fig. 22, g—h) . 

Almaniella ptycholepis, Horst, 1917, p. 79, pi. XXII, figs, fr— 9; 

Seidler, 1923, p. 151; Fauvel, 1932, p. 26 
Polynoe ptycholepis, Grube, 1878, p. 39, pi. II, fig. 6. 

Head broader than long, divided into two rounded 
lobes with four large black eyes. Median tentacle long 
and slender, inserted on a ceratophore between the two 
lobes. Lateral tentacles filiform, shorter than the median 
and inserted on the frontal border. Palps twice as long 
as the lateral tentacles. Elytra 15—17 pairs, large, soft, 
translucent, smooth and without fringe. Parapodia w,th. 
a long pointed ventral lobe. Dorsal lobe with a few 
setae, stout, curyed, blunt, smooth, or very finely serrated. 
Upper ventral setae slender, nearly smooth, unidentate; 
median and lower setae enlarged, bidentate, nearly smooth 
or very finely serrated. Dorsal cirri long and slightly 
enlarged under the tip. Dorsal tubercles present. The 
shape of the head is very characteristic. 

Colour: Back striped brp-v^^n aud white, head 
brown. 

Occurrence: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nanka- 
uri Harbour. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Malay Archipelago; 
Bay of Bengal. 

Genus ADMETEL,LA Mcintosh. 

Body elongated, with 75 segments. 30 pairs pf 
elytra. Head with the lateral comers elongated, triaiigu- 
lar. Eyes absent (?) . BQth lobes of the parapodia with 



54 APHRODltlDAE 

an elongated distal extremity. Bristles long, vitreous 
(Horst) . 

36. Admetella longipedata Mcintosh. (Fig. 22, l-n) . 

Admetella lonmpedata, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 124, pi. XIV, fig. 5, 
pi. XX, fig. 6, pi. XIIA, fig. 17: Augener, 1906, p. 123: Ehlers, 
1908, p. 40, pi. n, figs. 10, 11, pi. Ill, figs. 1-5: Horst, 1917. 
p. 101: Seidler, 1923, p. 153: Fauvel, 1932, p. 27. 

Prostomium with two rounded lobes and two thin 
triangular processes. Lateral tentacles inserted under the 
prostomial lobes. Eyes absent. Elytra 24—30. Parapodia 
very long, ending in a slender tip. Dorsal and ventral 
setae long, delicate, translucent, flattened out in their 
distal part, finely serrated along both edges and ending 
in a smooth elongated tip. Nephridial papillae very 
conspicuous. 

Length: 50—60 mm by 28 mm. 

Colourless in spirit. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea, 279—569 fms. 

Distribution: Andaman Sea, Pater Noster Island; 
Indian Ocean, Somali Coast; West Indies. 

Genus DRIESCHIA Michaelsen. 

Body short with about 28 setigerous segments. Head 
and tentacles as in the genus Lepidonotusj lateral ten- 
tacles inserted terminally. Elytra thirteen pairs, on the 

segpients 2, 4, 5, 7 21, 23 and 26. Parapodia ses- 

quiramous. Dorsal ramus reduced to an aciculum and a 
small achaetous lobe. Ventral ramus with an aciculum 
and setae of two kinds. Setae of the first kind veiy 
slender, long, capilliform; other setae stouter, enlarged, 
and ornamented beneath the pointed tips. 

37. Drieschia pel^ica Michaelsen. (Fig. 24) . 

Drieschie pelagica, Michadsen, 1892, p. 6, figs. 15—18: Seidler, 

1923, p. 173: Fauvel, 1932, p. 28; 1939, p. 260. 
Nectochaeta caroli, {non Fauvel), Monro, 1937, p. 261. 

Prostomium divided into two long rounded lobes, 
with four small eyes, the anterior pair lateral. The three 
tentacles are slender, with short ceratophores; the median 
is twice as long as the lateral ones; they are inserted ter- 
minally, somewhat resembling those of Halosydna. The 
palps are curved and thick. The two pairs of tentacular 
cirri are equal and elongated. Elytra small, rounded, 
soft, translucent, with a few yellow grains, but without a 
fringe. Dorsal cirri very variable in length but with en- 



NECTOCHAETA 



55 



ormous cirrophores. Feet long, ending in two unequal 
triangular lips. Ventral cirrus filiform, shorter than the 




Fig. 24.— Drteschia pelagica Michaelsen; var. caroli: a, anterior region 

X5; b, footxl6; c, d, e, f, ventral setae, upper one X109; 

middle ones, front and side view xl87. 

foot. Dorsal setae absent. A dorsal aciculum and a 
small rudimentary knob. Ventral setae very long and 
slender accompanied by 2—4 much shorter and stouter 
setae with a short enlargement under the tip and a few 
rows of spines. 

Length: 5—10 mm by 2—5 mm. 

Colourless, translucent, pelagic. 

Remarks: Nectochaeta caroli Fauvel is but an Atlan- 
tic variety of Drieschia pelagica with still larger 
cirrophores and more conspicuous dorsal knob. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Oman; Ceylon: Bay of Bengal. 

Distribution: Indo-China; Indian Ocean, 



Genus NECTOCHAETA Marenzeller. 

Body short, 15—35 setigerous segments. Head and 
tentacles as in Lepidonotus. Elytra 5—15 pairs on the 
segments 2, 4, 5, 7,.... 23, 26, 29, 32. Parapodia sub- 
biramous or sesquiramous. Dorsal setae few, short. Ven- 
tral setae long, spinous, unidentate or bideniate. Pelagic 
and bathypelagic. 



36 



APHRODITIOAE 



. Nectochaeta gfimaldu Maremeller. (Fig. 25) . 

Nectochaeta gnmaldii, Fauvel, 1923, p. 90, fig. 34, a~i: Monro 
1937, p. 261. 




Fig. Z5— Nectochaeta gnmaldii Marenzeller: a, anterior region 

X8; b, foot X23; c, elytron X23; d, tentacular seta X233; e, 

aciculum and dorsal seta X233; /, g, h, i, medium, 

inferxor and upper ventral setae Xl09, 233, 109. 

Prostomium bilobed. 4 small black eyes. Tentacles, 
tentacular cirri and palps very long and slender. Dorsal 
cirri much longer than the feet. Dorsal ramus reduced 
to an aciculum and a small knob with 1 or 2 very short 
dentate setae. Ventral ramus long, with an anterior cir- 
riform and posterior conical lips and dorsal and ventral 
rows of globular papillae. Upper ventral setae slender, 
spinous, capillary; the inferior ones enlarged, bidentate. 
Translucent, planktonic. 

Length: 3—15 mm by 1—4 mm. 

Remarks: Very likely a young stage of Lepidasthenia. 

Occurrence: Central Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: Arabian Sea; Mediterranean Sea; 
Atlantic Ocean. 



Genus LEPIDASTHENIA Malmgren. 

Body elongated, worm-lite, segments numerous. Lat- 
eral tentacles inserted terminally, as in Lepidonotus. 
Elytra-bearing segments up to the end of the body. Elytra 



LEPIDASTHENIA 



57 



minute leaving the greater part of the back naked. Dor- 
sal ramus reduced to an aciculum and occasionally a few 
setae. Ventral setae bidentate. 



Elytra rather large. Upper ven 
tral setae slender 



Key to the species of Lepidasthenia. 

maculata Potts, p. 68. 
Elytra very small. Ventral setae 

all alike equally stout .. microlepis Potts, p. 51. 

39. Lepidasthenia micfolcpis Potts. (Fig. 26, e—f) . 

Lepidasthenia microlepis. Potts, 1910, p. 343, pi. XIX, fig. 17, pi. 
XIX, fig 52: Fauvel, 1930, p. 610. 

Ventral setae large, yellow, all about the same 
size, the upper ones unidentate, the lower ones bidentate, 
at least in a variable number of segments. Dorsal setae 




Fig. ZB.—Hololeptdella commensalts, Willey: a, 6, c, dorsal, upper 

and inferior ventral setae; d, head and proboscis (after Willey), 

Lepidasthenia microlepis Potts: e, head and anterior segments; /, 

ventral seta of the 15th segment X340 (after Potts). 

absent. Elytra very small, hardly as broad as the elytro- 
phore, with the exception of the first pair. They are 
marked by edging of brown or chocolate pigment. Dor- 
sum yellowish or, sometimes, with dark segments alter- 
nating with paler ones, somewhat as in L. elegans. 
Dorsal cirri stumpy. 

F, 10 



58 



APHRODITIDAE 



Length: 28—30 mm by 5 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands, on coral stones; 
Hulule, Male Atoll, Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: New Caledonia; Malay Archipelago; 
Andaman Islands; Maldive Archipelago; Durban. 

40. Lepidastheniamaculata Potts. (Fig 27, h-k) . 

Lepidasthenia maculata. Potts, 1909, p. 344, pi. XX, fig. 33; pi 
XXI, fig. 51: Fauvel, 1914b, p. 71; 1923a, p. 38, fig. 33, l-k; 
1932, p. 29. 

Upper setae of the ventral bundle more slender than 
the rest. Elytra relatively large, soft, destitute of fruige 




Fig. 21 —Lepidasthenia elegans, Grubc: a, head; b, dorsal view, 

nat. size; c, elytron X20; d, foot X20; e, stout -ventral bristle 

X194; fj g, median and upper ventral setae X187 (Red Sea). 

L. maculata Potts: h, foot X23; i, k, median and upper 

ventral setae X187. 



and papillae, 31 pairs. Dorsal setae absent. The dorsum 
is provided with black pigment flecks 

var. striata Fauvel. 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 29. 

Tentacles slender, slightly unequal, a little enlaijjed 
under the tip. Nuchal told conspicuous. Anterior pair 
of eyes large, the posterior pair smaller. The first dorsal 



HOLOLEPIDELLA 59 

cirri are longer tiian the following ones. The rather large 
elytra leave about a third o£ the back naked and are 
rounded, soft, delicate, translucent, smooth, without either 
fringe or tubercles. Feet elongated, with two vertical, 
parallel, nearly equal, fillets. Dorsal cirri with big and 
short cirrophore, and cirrostyles slightly enlarged distal iy. 
In the median and posterior feet, the dorsal cirri are 
shorter, conical or fusiform. The dorsal ramus is reduc- 
ed to a small knob with an enclosed aciculum. There are 
no giant setae in the venlral bundle. Two or three of 
the upper setae are more slender, with a long spiniferous 
area. The others are shorter and stouter, with transverse 
rows of spines and a bidentate apex. 

Length: 25—36 mm. 

Colour: In the anterior part of the body a wliite 
segment is followed by three marked with seven dark 
stripes; further on a colourless segment is followed by two 
with five stripes. Each elytra bears a large dark spot. 

Occurrence: Mergui, enclosed in tubes of Fhyllochae- 
topterus. 

Distribution: of typical form Zanzibar; Morocco; 
Azores. 



Genus HOLOLEPIDELLA Willey. 

Antennae arising at a lower level than the unpaired 
tentacle; segments and elytra numerous. Posterior elytra 
irregularly inserted. Parapodia biramous. 

41. Hololepidella commcnsalis Willey. (Figs. 26, a-d) . 
Hololepidella commensalis, Willey, 1905, p. 251, pi. I, figs. 17— 
20: Fauvel, 1932, p. 30. 

Body elongated, fifty segments or more. Prostomium 
bilobed, with short frontal peaks. Anterior eyes lateral, 
posterior eyes dorsal. Median tentacle slender, inserted 
on a short and broad ceratophore. Lateral tentacles 
small, piriform, inserted ventrally as in Harmothoe. 
Nuchal fold not conspicuous. Dorsal cirri smooth, long, 
tapering; ventral cirri short. Elytra large, rounded, pale, 
delicate, translucent, overlapping and covering the 
back; they are destitute of either fringe or tubercles. 
There are at least 25-26 pairs, the last very irregularly 
alternating with the cirri. Dorsal tubercles conspicuous 
on the cirrigerous feet. Dorsal setae few, curved, smooth 
or partly serrate, much shorter than the ventral setae. 



60 APHRODmDAE 

Superior ventral setae slender, seirated, unidentate; in- 
ferior short; median with a faint subterminal spur and 
normal fringes of spines. 

Length: 8 mm. by 5 mm. 

Colour: The back is brown and on the ventral side 
there are four longitudinal rows of brown spots. Elytra 
colourless. 

Occurrence: Mergui; Ceylon. 



Subfamily SIGALIONINAE Grube. 

Body long and narrow, segments numerous. 4 sessile 
eyes. One or three tentacles. Two palps. Proboscis with 
a row of terminal papillae and four homy jaws. Elytra 
numerous, inserted on alternate segments: 2, 4, 5, 7, etc., 
and on each segment from the 23rd— 29th up to the end 
of the body. Cirriform dorsal gills. Feet biramous. 
Dorsal setae simple, ventral setae simple or compound. 
Two anal cirri. 



Key to the genera 

1. Gills absent. Only one tentacle Pholoe Johnston. 
Cirriform gills. 2-3 tentacles , . 2 

2. Only two lateral tentacles .. Sigalion 

Audouin & M.-Edwards. 

Three tentacles .. 3 

3. Three very small subequal ten- 

tacles . . . . Eusigalion Augener, p. 66. 

Tentacles normal .. 4 

4. Third setlgerous segment with a 

dorsal cirrus . . . . 5 

No dorsal cirrus on third seti- 

gerous segment . . 6 

5. Median tentacle inserted on a 

ceratophoie. Elytra coated with 

sand . . . . Psammolyce Kinberg, p. 66. 

Median and lateral tentacles in- 
serted on the prostomium with- 
out ceratophore or ctenidia Euthalanessa Darbour, p. 69. 

6. Ventral setae falcigerous, with 

simple or jointed bidentate 

tip . . , . Sthenelais Kinberg, p. 61. 

Ventral setae spinigerous, with 
terminal piece pectinate-cana- 
liculate .. Leanira Kinberg, p. 69. 



STHENELAIS 



61 



Genus STHENELAIS Kinberg. 
A pair of ctenidia at the base of the median tentacle 
Lateral tentacles fused with the first foot. Two long 
subulate palps, with ctenidia at the base. Scales cover- 
ing the back, fringed. A branchial process on every foot 
from the fourth setigerous segment. Dorsal setae simple, 
capillary, tapering and spinous. Ventral setae compound, 
falcigerous and, sometimes, a few simple setae. 

Key to the species of Sthenelais. 

1. Spine-like simple setae generally 
absent in upper part of the 
neuropodium 
Spine-like simple setae in upper 
part of the neuropodium 
2 Upper ventral setae only simple, 
spine-like 
Upper ventral setae simple and 
compound 
3. Elytra variable in ciliation 

Elytra partly covered with cal- 
careous concretions 

42. Sthenelais boa Johnston. (Fig. 28, a-k) . 

sthenelais boa, Mcintosh, 1900, p. 408, pi. XXVI, figs. 7-8: 
Fauvel, 1923a, p. 110, fig. 41; 1932, p 31. 



xeylanica Willey, p. 62. 

2 
boa Johnston, p. 61. 

3 

variabilis Potts, p. 62. 

calcarea Potts, p. 64. 




Fig. 2^.— Sthenelais boa Kinberg: a, head, enlarged; b, elytron from 

mid-body X8; c, foot X23; d, upper simple ventral seta X8; 

e, i, middle ventral falciger seta XI 09; g, upper ventral seta 

with spinous shaft and articulate sickle-shaped end X109; 

h, I, lower ventral setae X140; k, dorsal seta; I, slightly 

reduced animal. St. minor Pruvot & Racovitza: 

m, n, 0, p, q: St. ctenolepis Claparfede; r, elytron. 



62 APHRODrriDAE 

Sthenelats idunae Sars, Saint Joseph, 1888, p. 187, pi. VUI, fig. 
55. 

Sthenelais orientalis Potts, 1910, p. 348, pi. 21, fig. 62. 

Scales mostly reniform, crossing and overlapping over 
the bade, with numerous minute papillae and a fringe on 
the outer border. Ventral ramus of the feet with 2—3 
simple bipectinate setae. Compound setae with a short 
sickle-shaped appendix and a smooth shaft, others with a 
pluri-articulate appendix and, on the anterior feet, a few 
compound setae with a spinulose shaft. Three cup-shaped 
ctenidia above the dorsal division of the foot. Ventral 
division with stylodes and three bracts and a papillose 
ciliated frill. Ventral cirrus subulate. 

Length: 100-200 mm. 

Colour: Very variable, grey, yellow, brown, red. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Galle; Cape Comorin; Krusadai; 
Amiranti. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean; Mediterranean Sea; 
Atlantic Ocean. 

43. Sthenelais xeylanica Willey. (Fig. 29, a) . 

Sthenelais zeylanica, Willey, 1903. p. 258, pi. II, fig. 48: Fauvel. 
1927b, p. 416; 1932, p. 32. 

Differs from Sth. boa in its ventral cirrus with two 
long tapering stylodes giving it a trifurcate appearance, 
in the absence of the parapodial frilled collars and in the 
compound bristles with fewer joints and shorter sickle- 
shaped tips. Simple bipectinate setae in the upper part 
of the ventral ramus are not always entirely absent, some- 
times one may be found on a few posterior feet. 

Length: 100—200 mm. by 5 mm. 

Colour: Elytra dotted with small red-brown specks. 

Occurrence: Trincomalee; Kilakarai. 

Distribution: India. 

44. Sthenelais vatlafcilis Potts. (Fig. 29, b~d). 

Sthenelais variabilis Potts, 1910, p. 349, pi. XIX, figs. 22-23, pi. 
XXI, fig. 68. 

" Head with two pairs of eyes, both anteriorly placed, 
foremost and smaller quite lateral. Palps very long and 
slender, contrasting with shorter structures in Slh. orien- 
talis (=:Sth. boa). Head closely surrounded by succeed- 
ing segments, the first three having revolved almost at 
right angles. Elytra close, overlapping, uniform in shape. 



STHENELAIS 



63 



except the first which is oval, and of a thin translucent 
nature. Only in one specimen from the Maldives (Hululu, 
Male, 25 fms) were any markings preserved on their sur- 
face; in this example a spot of white pigment over the 
elytrophore, and further inward a brown crescent sur- 
rounding a white spot. Male specimens, first elytron 
beset with a large, thick anterior margin. In succeeding 
elytra, margin ciliate, but degree of ciliation differing 
greatly in various forms. In some, cilia on greater par't 
of border, and even developed on surface (var. hirsuta) ; 
in others, outer border only ciliate, and tubercles confined 
to small area of surface (var. glabra) . Ventral setae 



m 




Fig. 2,9.-Sthenelais zeylanica Willey: a, foot (after WiUey). St. 

variabilis Potts, var. glabra: b, posterior elytron, c, d, spinous 

ventral setae of the 15th segment X140, Sth. calcarea Potts, 

e, elytron (after Potts). 

following succession: (1) Spinose simple setae; (2) slen- 
der type of compound setae, with long jointed appendix 
and spinose shaft; (3) stronger setae with smooth shaft 
and short appendix; (4) slender setae with smooth shaft 
and long jointed appendix. In first few segments all setae 
elongated, with long jointed appendices and setae of type 
(2> absent." (Potts) 

Length'. 28—37 mm. by 3.5—4 mm. 
Occurrence: var. hirsuta: Hululu, Male Atoll, Mal- 
dives, var. glabra: idem. 



64 APHRODITIDAE 

Distribution: Maldive Archipelago; Zanzibar. 

45. Sthcnelais calcarea Potts. (Fig. 29, e) . 
Sthenelais calcarea. Potts, 1910, p. 349, pi. XIX, fig. 24. 

" Head provided with two pairs of eyes, both very 
small, anterior placed underneath on anterior border. 
Ctenidia at sides of tentacle small. Elytra, save for the 
first which is oval, reniform, provided with cilia, which 
are moderately long on the outer border, very short on 
the posterior edge, alternation of shorter and longer tak- 
ing place in a curiously irregular way. The surface cover- 
ed with small equal tubercles, flat topped, with chitinous 
rims thickened on one side. In anterior region of ely- 
tron calcareous concretions cover surface; grains of all 
sizes occurring in connection with tubercles already men- 
tioned, their curious granular nature indicating that they 
are true concretions. First elytron alone not possessing 
grains, though the tubercles more thickly placed there 
than in any other of the series. Parapodia rather resem- 
bling those in Sth. variabilis in character. Upper divi- 
sion of ventral setae comprising spinose individuals both 
simple and compound." (Potts) 

Length: more than 57 mm. by 3.5 mm. 

Remarks: The encrusting particles are not foreign, 
but appear to be formed in situ, 

Occurrence: Goidu, Goifurfehendu Atoll, Maldive 
Archipelago. 

Genus EUTHALENESSA Darboux. 

Median tentacle inserted between the prostomial lobes 
without ceratophore or ctenidia. Lateral tentacles in- 
serted on the frontal margin. A dorsal cirrus on the 
third setigerous segment. A branchial process on every 
foot from the fourth setigerous segment. Elytra over- 
lapping but leaving the middle of the back uncovered; 
they are fringed with multifid papillae. Dorsal setae 
spinous, simple. Ventral setae compound, falcigerous. 

46. Euthalenessa djiboaticnsis (Gravier) . (Fig. 30, a, b) . 

Tkalenessa dpboutiensis, Gravier, 1901, p. 231, pi. VII, figs. 114— 

117. 
Euthalenessa dpboutiensis, Fauvel, 1918, p. 331; 1919, p. 345; 

1922, p. 492; 1932, p. 32- 

Three small conical tentacles all alike. Anterior pair 
of eyes large, posterior pair small. Dorsal cirrus on the 
third setigerous segment, with a large ceratophore and 



EUTHALENESSA 



65 



a small tapering ceratostyle. Elytra reniform, with long 
digitiform multifid papillae on the outer margin. 
Three ctenidia on the dorsal division of the feet; numer- 
ous digitiform stylodes on the anterior feet, and foliace- 
ous parapodial bracts on the others. A dorsal tuft of 




Fig. 30 —Euthalenessa djiboutiensis (Gravier). a, elytron; h, elytron's 

papillae, enlarged Rafter Gravier). Eusigalion stylolepis (Willey): 

c, head; d, elytron's marginal fimbriae; e, compound seta of 

the 60th segment (after Willey). 

slender simple setae. Ventral setae compound, with a 
bidentate end-piece, simple or multi-articulate. 

Length: About 150 mm. by 7—8 mm. 

Colour: In life pale yellow, marked with pigment 
spots. In spirit, elytra with rusty spots. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; oflE Puri, Orissa, Madras Coast; 
Mergui; Pedro Shoal. 

Distribution: Australia; Mergui; India; Persian 
Gulf; Red Sea. 

F. 11 



66 APHRODITIDAE 

Incertae sedis. 

Thalenessa digitata Mcintosh, is an Euthalenessaj 
very close to E. djiboutiensis (Gravier) , but the 
descriptions of Willey and Potts are too scanty 
to enable one to ascribe the specimens from 
Ceylon and the Maldives either to E. digitata or 
to E. djiboutiensis. 

Genus EUSIGALION Augener. 

Prostomium subtrapezoidal, with three subequal ten- 
tacles, a pair inserted near the anterior margin and a 
median tentacle posterior to, or between the eyes. Four 
minute eyes dispersed in a rectangle on the dorsal side 
of the prostomium. Elytra pedunculate, like those in 
Sigalion, with plumose fimbriae. Cirriform branchiae 
under the elytra: they are wanting on the intervening 
segments. 

47. E«sigaIion stylolepis (Willey) . (Fig. 30, c—e) . 

Thalenessa stylolepis, Willey, 1905, p 261, pi. Ill, figs. 43-56. 

Prostomium large, flattened, shield-shaped, with thiee 
notches, two on the frontal border from which the paiied 
antennae arise; one on the occipital border from which 
the tentaculum impar arises. Two eyes, two pairs of 
tentacular cirri with setae and two long smooth filiform 
palps. Elytra pedunculate. Cirriform branchiae under 
the elytra; absent on intervening segments which have 
only a small tubercle. No dorsal cirri. The elytra ca^ry 
12—13 plumose fimbriae on the outer border and a small 
ctenidium on the inner side of each elytrophore. Two 
dorsal ctenidia on each foot. Dorsal setae long, simple, 
fringed. Ventral superior bundle of simple whorled 
setae. All the remaining ventral setae compound falci- 
gerous with very long, many jointed, tapering bidentate 
appendices. In the posterior feet, two stout setae with 
short sickle. 

Length: 35 mm. by 3 mm. 

Occurrence: Modragam Paar, Ceylon, out of coral 
block. 

Genus PSAMMOLYCE Kinberg. 

Body narrow and long, segments very numerous. 
Median tentacle inserted on the anterior margin of the 
prostomium, without ctenidia. Lateral tentacles fused 
yfith the first foot. A dorsal cirrus on the third setiger- 



PSAMMOLYCE 67 

ous segment. A branchial cirriform process on every 
foot. Elytra and back with adhesive papillae, densely 
coated with sand grains. Dorsal setae simple, slender. 
Ventral setae compound, falcigerous. 

Ker^ to the species of Psammolyce. 

1. Elytra without any large club- 

like lobe . . . . fi]iensis Mcintosh, p. 67. 

Elytra with club-like lobes . . 2 

2. Elytra with two club-like lobes xeylanica Willey, p. 68, 
Elytra with one club-like lobe . . antipoda Schmarda, p. 67. 

48. Psammolyce fijiensis Mcintosh. 

Psammolyce fijiensis, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 148, pi. XXI, fig. 6, 
pi XXII, fig 4, pi. XXIV, fig. 6, pi. XIIIA, fig 28: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 33. 

First pair of elytra very large, prow-shaped, the 
others elongate oval, with anterior margin concave and 
slightly bilobed, but without any large club-like process, 
and anterior border beset with long adhesive papillae. 
Dorsal cirrus of the third setigerous segment small and 
conical and tentacular cirri not swollen at the tip. A 
transparent collar above the foot. Dorsal setae plentiful, 
long, slender and serrated. Ventral setae large, strai^t, 
all compound, differing very little from one another, 
with shaft more or less spinous, a terminal piece more 
or less elongate and always conspicuously bidentate. 
Ventral cirrus filiform. Ventral papillae filiform, veivpty. 
Deeply incrusted with sand grains. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago; 40 fms. 

Distribution: Fiji Islands; Mergui Archipelago. 

49. Psammolyce antipoda (Schmarda) . (Fig. 31, a-h) . 

Pelogenia antipoda, Schmarda, 1861, p. 160, pi. XXXVII, figs. 
320-322. 

Psammolyce antipoda, Ehlers, 1904, p. 13: Augener, 1913, p. 96; 
Fauvel, 1917, p. 186, pi. IV, figs. 12-13. 

Psammolyce rigida, Grube, 1878, p. 55 (pro parte): Willey, 1905, 
p. 256, pi. 11, figs. 44-47. 

Elytra more or less rounded with anterior margin 
straight, or slightly concave, and a single club-like pro- 
cess, and posterior border beset with long adhesive papil- 
lae. Dorsal cirrus of the third setigerous segment rather 
long and bi-articulate and tentacular cirri not swollen at 
the tip. A semi-circular collar above the foot. Dorsal 



es 



APHRODITIDAE 



setae slender, serrated. Ventral setae large, yellow, all 
compound, differing from one another; the upper ones 
with a spinose shaft, the upper and median with a short 
unidentate or bidentate terminal piece; the inferior ones 
with a long slender one. Ventral cirrus slightly enlarged 
below the tip. Filiform and rounded ventral papillae 
mixed. 




Fig. Sl.—Psammolyce antipoda (Schmarda): a, compound venttal seta 

ol the 2nd segment X150; b, c, dorsal bristle from middle of body, 

front and side view XlSO; d, superior ventral compound seta 

X80; e, f, g, two median ventral setae from the same foot, 

one unidentate, the other bidentate X80; h, elytron XI5. 

Ps. zeylanica WiUey, i, elytron (after WiUcy) 

Length: 95 mm. by 9 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, 10 miles off West Cheval Paar. 

Distribution: Australia; New Zealand; Philippine 
Islands; Ceylon. 

50. Psammolyce zeylanica Willey. (Fig. 31, i) . 

Psammolyce zeylanica, Willey, 1905, p. 255, pi. I, IT. figs. 33—43. 
Psammolyce rigida, Grube, 1868, p. 631, pi. Vtl, lig. 1 (p'o 
parte). 



LEANIRA 69 

Elytra triangular, with a straight anterior margin and 
two large club-like processes and a posterior border beset 
with long adhesive papillae. Dorsal cirrus of the third 
segment with terminal portion more slender and shorter 
than its peduncle; tentacular cirri shorter and not swollen. 
Dorsal setae capillary, finely plumose. Ventral compound 
setae with sub-elongate appendices, then a central group 
of stout setae with short appendices and an inferior group 
of slender setae with elongate appendices. Acuminate 
.md globular papillae are mixed on the ventral surface, 
which is hairy. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Dishibution: Red Sea (?) ; Ceylon. 

Remarks: This species is very likely a variety of 
Ps. antipoda (Schmarda) . Under the name of 
Ps. rigida Grube has described two different 
forms of Psammolyce. 

Genus LEANIRA Kinberg. 

Body narrow and long, segments very numerous. 
Median tentacle with a ceratophore and ctenidia. Lateral 
tentacles fused with the first foot. No dorsal cirrus on 
the third setigerous segment. A branchial cirriform pro- 
cess on every foot, from the fourth backwards. Elytra 
smooth or fringed. Dorsal setae simple, slender, serrated. 
Ventral setae compound, spinigerous, and, sometimes, a 
few simple bristles. 

51. Leanita japonica Mcintosh. (Fig. 33, a, b) . 

Leanira japonica, Mcintosh, 1885, p 154, pi. XXn, fig. 8, pi. 
XIVA, figs. 1-2; Fauvel, 1932, p. 33. 

Leanira sibogae, Horst, 1917, p. 115, pi. XXIV, figs. 1—3. 

Sthenolepis japonica, Izuka, 1912, p. 88, pi. X, figs. 3—7; Willey, 
1905, p. 259, pi. 11, fig. 49. 

Prostomium with four black eyes and antennal cteni- 
dia. On the third setigerous segment a small conical 
tubercle, but no true cirrus. Elytra smooth, unfringed, 
overlapping, leaving the mid-dorsum exposed. Dorsal setae 
numerous, long, slender and transversely fringed. Ventral 
setae compound, spinigerous, with a long, sharp pectinate- 
canaliculate terminal piece, and, occasionally, one or a 
few superior simple bristles provided with whorls of 
spikes. 

Length: 30—50 mm. by 2 mm. 



70 APHRODITIDAE 

Occurrence: Mergui; Andaman Islands; Bay of 
Bengal, Ceylon; Arabian Sea; Gulf of Oman. 

A deep sea inhabitant, sometimes in shallow waters 
(Galle, in 7 fms.). 

Distribution: Japan; Annam; Malay Seas; Indian 
Ocean. 



Subfamily ACOETINAE Grube. 

Body elongate. Prostomium bilobed, with two large 
ommatophores (stalked eyes) , or four sessile eyes. Three 
tentacles, the medium sometimes reduced to a small tuber- 
cle. Two long palps. Proboscis with papillae on the 
margin; median dorsal and ventral ones are tentaculi- 
form. Elytra on segments 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 and on every alter- 
nate succeeding segment. Feet biramous. Bristles 
simple. A spinning gland in the dorsal division of the 
feet. 



Key to the genera. 

1. With two tentacles . . Eupolyodontes Buchanan, 
With three tentacles . . ? 

2. Eyes sessile . . . . Eupanthalis Mcintosh, p. 75. 
Two eyes borne on ommatophores 3 

3. With branchiae. True btpenna- 

to-peniallate setae absent . Polyodontes Renier, p. 70. 

No branchiae. Btpennato-peni- 

cillate setae present . . Panthalis Kinberg, p. 74. 

Genus POLYODONTES Renier. 

Segments very numerous. Two large ommatophores 
(eye-stalks) and two small posterior sessile eyes. A 
median tentacle. Lateral tentacles inserted beneath the 
ommatophores. Two long palps. Four horny jaws. 
Proboscis bilobed. Two pairs of tentacular cirri with 
basal setae. Spinning glands in the feet. Branchial 
tubercles present on the feet. First foot little or not 
at all modified. Elytra leaving the back uncovered. 
Feet biramous; dorsal ramus small, with capillary setae. 
Ventral ramus large, thick, with three kinds of setae: 
(1) serrulate, (2) aristate, (3) serrulate subspiral; genuine 
bipennato-penicillate setae absent. 



POLYODONTES 



71 



jSTey to the species of Polyodontes. 

maxilloius Ranzani, p. 71. 
melanonotus Grube, p. 72. 



Without dorsal tubercles. No 
penicdlate setae. First foot 
short 

Dorsal tubercles present. Pseudo- 
penicillate setae. First foot 
elongated 



52. Polyodontes maxiflosus Ranzani. (Fig. 32) 

Polyodontes maxillosus, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 97, fig. 37; 1932. p. 35. 
Panthalis lacazii, Pruvot and Racovitza, 1895, p. 441, pi. XIX, 

figs. 84-104. 
Polyodontes oculea, Monro, 1928, p. 572, figs 27—30. 
1 Panthalis bicolor, Grube, (partiiri) 1878, p. 517. 
} Eupompe australiensis, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 135. 
?Eupompe mdtca, Beddard, 1887, p. 256, pi. XXI, figs. 1, 3. 
? Polyodontes oculea, Treadwell, 1902, p. 188, figs. 14-18. 

Body reaching a very large size. Stout dark omma- 
tophores ending in pale lenses. Median tentacle about 
the same length as the ommatophore. Lateral tentacles 




Fig. 32 —Polyodontes maxillosus Kanzani: a, anterior end, slightly 

reduced (after R. Saint-Loup); b, head, enlarged; c, anterior 

foot X2; d, branchiate foot X2; c, foot, front view x2; 

f, g, anterior and folded elytron X2, h, i, aristate setae 

XlOO; k, dorsal seta X80; I, inferior seta {serrulate 

subspirat) X80; m, superior ventral seta X80; n, 

inferior jaw (after Pruvot and Racovitza). 



Ti APHRODITIDAE 

short, filiform. Tentacles and cirri smooth. Proboscis 
flattened dorso-ventrally, each lip provided with a long 
median, cirriform papilla and 8—10 short ones. Bases of 
the "fangs denticulate. Facial tubercle absent. First 
elytra large, rounded, smooth, without fringe; the others 
with posterior margin often folded, pocket-like. Anterior 
elytra overlapping in front. Branchial tubercles on the 
feet, but no dorsal processes. Spinning glands from the 
8th foot backwards, and a flattened dorsal ramus with a 
few spinulose capillary setae; posteriorly the ramus is re- 
duced to a short conical lobe. Ventral ramus large, 
thick, with two vertical lips enclosing: (1) a bundle of 
slender setae enlarged above, the shaft finely serrated, 
(2) a vertical row of large, yellow, aristate setae, blunt, 
or bearing a long hairy process, and a bundle of serrulate- 
suhspiral setae. A felt tube. 

Length: Up to 1 metre by 20—25 mm. 

Colour: In life, body yellowish with transverse brown 
or purple streaks. Elytra pale brown or edged with dark 
violet and more or less pale dots. 

Remarks: Sometimes caught on fish hooks. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea, 53 fms; Mergui. 

Distribution: Australia (?) ; Indian Ocean; Red Sea 
(?) ; Mediteranean; Atlantic Ocean. 

53. Polyodontes melanonotits (Grube) . (Fig. 33, c-g) . 
Polyodontes melanonotus, Buchanan, 1894, p. 441; Fauvel, 1914, 

p. 472; 1932, p. 37. 
Panthahs melanonotus, Grube, 1878, p. 48; pi. IV, fig. 1; Willey, 

1905. p. 254, pi. I, figs. 21-27. 
Polyodontes sibogae, Horst, 1917, p. 131, pi. XXVIII, figs. 4-10. 
Acoetes magmfica, Treadwell, 1929a, pp. 1—4, figs. 1—7. 

Ommatophores large, with black subspherical eyes 
on the extremity of clavate peduncles. Two small eye- 
spots on each side of the prostomium. Tentacles and 
palps with pigment spots. First pair of elytra large, 
crossing and overlapping in front, flat, smooth, without 
fringe or pouch: others with a narrow posterior pouch. 
First foot slightly modified, elongated and pointing for- 
wards. Bladder-like branchial tubercles on a number of 
feet. A dorsal geniculate, or sub-cylindrical, process 
above the base of the dorsal cirrus. Spinning glands 
from the 8th foot backwards. Dorsal ramus flattened, with 
a few capillary setae. Ventral ramus large, thick, with 



LEANIRA 



73 



four kinds of setae: (1) a bundle of slender setae enlarg- 
ed above the shaft and serrulate, (2) pseudo-penicillate 
setae, (3) a vertical row of large yellow aristate '^setae, and 
(4) a bundle of serrulate-subspiral setae. 




Fig. S3.~-Leanira japonica Mcintosh: a, camerated seta; b, bipec- 
tinate seta. Polyodontes melanonotus Ranzani: c, Jiead and pro- 
boscis; d, anstate seta; e, penicillate seta; /, supeiior ventral 
seta; g, inferior ventral seta (after Willey) Eupanthalis 
ednophthalma Potts, h, anterior end; z, head (after 
Willey). 

Length: Breadth, about 6 mm. (incomplete speci- 
mens) . 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Burma, ofiE Tenas- 
serim, and Arakan Coast; Ceylon; Gulf of Oman, 230 fms. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Malay Archipelago; 
Indian Ocean; Ceylon; Madagascar; Jamaica. 

F. 12 



74 



APHRODITIDAE 



Genus PANTHALIS Kinberg. 

Body elongated. Two large ommatophores (eye- 
stalks) . A median tentacle. Lateral tentacles inserted 
beneath the ommatophores. Two long palps. Four 
horny jaws. Proboscis bilobed. Two pairs of tentacular 
cirri. Spinning glands in the feet. Branchial tubercles 
absent. First foot modified. Elytra flat, or with a pos- 
terior pouch. Feet biramous; dorsal ramus small, with 
capillary setae; ventral ramus with setae of several types: 
(I) serrulate; (2) bipennato-peniciUate, (3) aristate, 
(4) serrulate-subspiral. A felt-like tube. 

54. Panthalis oefstedi Kinberg. (Fig. 34, a-h) . 

Panthahs oerstedi Kinberg, 1857, p. 25, pi. VI, fig. 34: Watson, 
1893, p 169, pis. IX-X: Fauvcl, 1914b, p. 78; 1932, p. 39; 1923, 
p. 98, fig. 38, a-h. 




Fig. U.-Panthahs oerstedi Kinberg: a, head, enlaiged (after McIntoi.h), 

b, first foot (after Pruvot and Racovitza); c, foot x5; d, infeiior 

ventral seta (serrulate-subspiral) X109; e. superior ventral 

penxciUate seta X109; /, aristate seta x80, g, inferior 

ventral seta Xl09; h, elytron X4. Eupanthalis kin- 

bergt Mcintosh : i, head, enlarged ; h, jaw ; I, m, 

middle and posterior feet X5; n. penicillatc 

seta X109; o, aristate seta X109; p, inferior 

ventral sigmoid seta XI 09; q, upper and 

lower proboscis' papillae, enlaiged. 

(This species is veiy like E edrin- 

pkihalma Potts, if not conspccific). 



EUPANTHALIS 75 

Panthahs marenzelleri, Pruvot and Racovitza, 1895, p. 442, pi 
XIX, fig. 105; pi. XX, figs. 106-110. 

Panthahs jogasimae, Izuka, 1912, p. 68, pi I, fig. 6; pi. VIII, fio-s. 
1-6: Monro, 1928, p 568. 

Size comparatively small. About 80 segments. Two 
large oval, or qflindrical, colourless ommatophores. 
Tentacles subulate. Two long tapering palps. Tenta- 
cles and cirri smooth. Proboscis with the median papilla 
elongated. Bases of the fangs denticulate. Facial tuber- 
cle absent. First elytra large, rounded, smooth, without 
fringe, overlapping in front; the others with posterior 
margin folded pocket-like. Branchial tubercles and dor- 
sal processes absent. First foot modified, elongated, 
pointing forwards, with a heart-shaped foliaceous ventral 
ramus. Spinning glands from the 8th foot backwards. 
Dorsal ramus flattened, achaetous; ventral ramus com- 
pressed. Ventral setae of three kinds: (1) bipennato- 
penicillate, (2) a vertical row of aristate bristles, and 
(3) a bundle of serrulate-subspiral setae. In the anterior 
segments, preceding the spinnmg glands, setae similar to 
the lower ones take the place of the brush-shaped setae. 
A felt-like tube secreted by the spinning glands and coat- 
ed with mud is always present. 

Length: 40-100 mm. by 8-10 mm. 

Colour in life: Back pearly-white anteriorly, flesh 
coloured posteriorly. Elytra uncoloured, translucent. 

Remarks: From deep dredgings on muddy or sandy 
bottom: 34—810 fms. 

Occurrence: Off Burma; Andaman Islands; Bay of 
Bengal; Laccadive Sea;; Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Japan; Indian Ocean; 
Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic Ocean. 



Genus EUPANTHALIS Mcintosh. 

Body narrow, size moderate. Four sessile eyes, no 
ommatophores. A median tentacle. Lateral tentacles 
inserted at the end of the prostomial lobes. Two palps. 
Proboscis bilobed. Median dorsal and ventral papillae 
somewhat larger and lobed. Two pairs of tentacular 
cirri. Spinning glands in the feet. Branchial tubercles 
absent. Elytra flat. Feet biramous. Dorsal ramus achae- 
tous (first feet excepted) ; ventral ramus thick, with three 
kinds of setae: (1) serrulate; (2) aristate; (3) serrulate- 
subspiral. A felt-like tube. 



76 PISIONIDAE 

55. Ettpanthalisedriophthalma (Potts). (Fi§. SS, h, i) . 

Panthahs edriophthalma. Potts, 1910, p. 345, pi. XIX, fig. 19; 
pi XXI, figs. 56-57: Fauvel, 1932, p. 41. 

Panthahs nigromaculata {non Grube), WiUey, 1905, p 255, pi. 
I, figs. 28-32. 

Head spherical, divided by a median longitudinal 
line. Eyes, two pairs, sessile, anterior pair rather larger, 
both distinct, pigment masses situated on lateral border. 
Median tentacle slender, filiform. Lateral tentacles fili- 
form, longer than the median. Palps stout, rather long, 
ending abruptly in acute tip. Elytra translucent. The 
anterior ones larger and overlapping forwards, whilst the 
others overlap backwards and show a slight posterior flap. 
Ventral setae of tour kinds: (1) slender gibbous setae 
with close-set spines placed irregularly; (2) similar setae 
with spines arranged in whorls, occurring after the 
eleventh segment; (3) aristate setae with long appendix; 
(4) slender gibbous setae differing slightly from (1) . 

Length: 26 mm. by 3 mm. 

Elytra colourless. 

Occurrence: Burma, ofE Akyab; Ceylon, North of 
Negombo, 9 fms. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Ceylon, Akyab. 

Family PISIONIDAE Levinsen. 

Prostommm without tentacles, fused with the buccal 
segment, the two pairs of cirri of which aie directed for- 
wards. Proboscis with four jaws. Feet uniramous. 
Dorsal and ventral cirri globular. Two anal cirri. 
Simple setae and compound falciform setae. 

Genus PISIONE Grube. 

Body vermiform, segments numerous. Prostomium 
reduced, with eyes. Buccal segment with a pair of stout 
denticulate acicula, dorsal and ventral tmequal cirri 
directed forwards: the dorsal ones looking like tentacles 
and the ventral ones, stouter and longer, mimicking palps. 
Dorsal and ventral cini globular. Feet long, with two 
lobes and two spines. Upper setae simple, lower ones 
compound, falciform. 



PlSIONE 



77 



66. Pisione oerstedi Grube. (Fig. 35) 

Pisione oentedt, Grube, 1857, p. 175: Levinsen, 1886, p. 292. 

Ehlers. 1900, p. 257; 1901b. p. 61, pi. VI, figs. 1-9: Augener, 

1926, p. 445: Fauvel, 1939, p. 267, fig. 2. 
Pisione contractu, Ehlers,, 1901, p. 64, pi. VI, figs. 10—18. 

Prostomium trapeziform, with four small eyes. Prob- 
oscis crowned with short papillae, armed with two dorsal 
and two ventral hooks (as in Polynoe) . Dorsal teniacle- 
like cirri of the buccal segment short and slender, with a 
basal globular papilla. Ventral cirri much longer, mi- 
micking palps. Two large acicular spines, swollen in the 
middle and expanded at the tip, which is bevelled and 




Fig. 35.— Pisione oerstedi Grube: a, anterior end X14; b, 23)-(l foot 
X31 (after Ehlers); c, ventral bristle X390; d, swimming epito- 
cous bristle X390; e, 38-43rd segments of the male, with geni- 
tal papillae, X39. 

denticulate. Next segment, the first setigerous, with a 
long ventral cirrus directed forwards and a small globular 
dorsal one. The dorsal cirrus of the second setigerous 
segment is long and slender, the ventral one globular. 
Dorsal and ventral cirri globular on all the following 
segments. Feet uniramous, with a median aciculum and 
a smaller superior one. A single large simple seta and 



78 CHRYSOPETALIDAE 

3-4 inferior ones, which are stout, compound, with a short 
falcate, unidentate, terminal piece. Mature females with 
a fascicle of S— 4 very slender transparent compound epi- 
tocous setae with paddle-shaped terminal piece, which are 
inserted between the upper and lower setae. No genital 
papillae apparent. Males, with genital simple papillae 
and, when mature, multifid papillae and special organs 
on a number of segments, ii regularly distributed. 

Length: 20—40 mm. by 2 mm. 

Colourless in spirit. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Callas, Valparaiso, Indo- 
China; Indian Ocean, Ceylon. 

Family CHRYSOPETALIDAE Ehlers. 

Body short, elongated, with few or numerous seg- 
ments, bearing on their dorsal side a fan or a transverse 
row of paleae. Prostomium with four eyes and three 
tentacles. Two or four pairs of tentacular cirri. Feet 
biramous, with dorsal cirri on every segment. Ventral 
setae compound. 

Genus CHRYSOPETALUM Ehlers. 

Body short, segments comparatively few. Prostomi- 
um oval, tentacles inserted on the prostomium. Two 
stout palps. First two segments partly fused, each carry- 
ing one pair of tentacular cirri. Next, dorsal ramus short, 
carrying only a fan of paleae which cover the greater part 
of the back. Stout dorsal cirri. Compound setae only 
on the ventral ramus. 

67. Chrysopetalom ehlci-si Gravier. (Fig. 36, a-d). 

Chrysopetalum ehlersi, Gravier, 1901, p. 260, pi. X, figs. 150-151; 
Fauvel, 1939, p. 266; Gravely, 1927, p. ."J. 

Body short, very brittle. Median tentacle short, 
lateral tentacles pyriform. Four large eyes. A nuchal 
fold. First two setigerous segments with only dorsal 
paleae and no ventral setae. Dorsal cirri with a long 
ceratophore. Paleae slightly concave, broad, slightly en- 
larged under the pointed tip, with a row of teeth on each 
side. Ventral setae compound spinigerous, with a long 
striated shaft and a more or less long, slender, unidentate 
appendix. 



BHAWANIA 



79 



Length: 6—15 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish, with golden paleae. 

Occurrence: Krusadai Island, Pamban. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Indo-China; Indian 
Ocean, Gulf of Mannar, Red Sea. 



Genus BHAWANIA Schmarda. 

Body elongated, vermiform, very brittle, with numer- 
ous segments. Head very small, hidden. Paleae arranged 




Fig. 36.— Chrysopetalum ehlersi Gravier: a, head, ventral side, en- 
larged; b, foot X64; c, bristle Xl91; d, palea X320. Bhawania 
cryptocephala Gravier : e, foot, enlarged x64; /, dorsal cirrus 
X255; g, palea X95; h, lower seta X320; i, upper seta 
X320 (after Gravier). 

in transverse rows: they are denticulated only along 
one side. Ventral setae compound, of three kinds. 

58. Bhawania cryptocephala Gravier. (Fig. 36, e—i). 

Bhatoania cryptocephala, Gravier, 1901, p. 263, pi. X, figs. 152— 
156: Potts, 1909, p. 328: Horst, 1917, p. 137. Fauvel, 1919, p. 
347; 1932, p. 43; 1939, p. 266. Pruvot, 1930, p. 20. 

7 Bhawania myriolepu, Schmarda, 1861, p. 164, pi. XXXVII, figs 
323-325. 

Body yellow, twisted, very brittle, entirely covered 
by the paleae. Head very small, hidden by the protrud- 
ing anterior feet and the paleae, which are imbricated, 
arranged in dense transverse rows: they are yellow or 
brown, oval-elongate, striated transversely and longitud- 



80 AMPHINOMIDAE 

inally, serrated on one side and show prominent ridges 
with a beaded edge. Dorsal cirri digitiform, partly re- 
tractile. Ventral ramus bearing: (1) upper setae with 
long spinigerous terminal piece, (2) heterogomph falci- 
gerous and (3) slender setae with an elongated smooth 
filiform appendix. Ventral cirrus short. The general 
appearance is like that of a Stgalionid. 

Length: 80—100 mm. by 5 mm. 

Occurrence: Burma coast, among sponges; Nicobar 
Islands, Nankauri Harbour, Camorta Island; Ceylon; 
Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, New Caledonia, Philip- 
pine Islands, Indo-China: Indian Ocean; Red Sea. 

Family AMPHINOMIDAE Savigny. 

Body elongated, square, or short, oval, depressed. 
Prostomium deeply set into the anterior segments. Three 
tentacles. Two palpal pads with subulate palpostyles 
(resembling a second pair of lateral tentacles) . A car- 
uncle. Parapodia biramous, with branchiae; one or two 
dorsal cirri on each side, a ventral cirrus (exceptionally 
uniramous with compound hooks) . Setae simple, straight 
or furcate. Proboscis unarmed. 

Key to genera 

1 Branchiae pinnate . Chloeia Savigny, p. 94. 

Branchiae bushy .. 2 

2. Branchiae set in transveise rows 

o£ tufts . . • . Muphrosyne Savigny, p, 101. 

Branchiae in dense clusters . . 3 

3. Two dorsal cirri on each foot . . Notopygos Grube, p. 98. 

A single dorsal cirrus on each 

foot . .. 4 

4. Eyes absent . . . . Benthoscolex Horst, p. 93. 
Eyes present . . . . 5 ' 

5. Caruncle small. Branchiae only 

on the anterior part of the 
body .. .. 6 

Caruncle well developed. Bran- 
chiae up to the end of the 
body . . . . 7 

6. Hooks on the first setigerous seg- 

ment . . . . Paramphinome Sars, p. 91. 

No hooks on the first setigerous 

segment .. Pseudeurythoe Fauvel p. 83. 



AMPHINOME 



81 



7< Carunde heart-shaped. Short, 
hooked, ventral setae 
Caruncle trilobed. Ventral setae 
furcate 



Amphinome 

Bruguifcre, p. 81. 

Eurythoe Kmberg, p. 82. 



Genus AMPHINOME Bruguiere. 

Caruncle small, heart-shaped. Three tentacles. Ven- 
tral setae uncinate, short. Arborescent branchiae in dense 
clusters. 

59. Amptinomc rostrata (Pallas) . (Fig. 37) . 

Amphinome rostrata, Mcintosh, 1885, p 21, pi. la, fig. 96; 192S, 
p. 190: Fauvel, 1914b, p. 87; 19S0a, p. 10 (Synonymy); 1932, 
p. 44. 




Fig. Sl.-Amphinome rostrata (Pallas): a, dorsal side, slightly reduced; 

b, head, enlarged; c, foot X4; d, ventral aciculum xl40; e, ventral 

bristle Xl40; /, dorsal harpooned bristle Xl40; g, dorsal, 

spinous bristle Xl40. 

F. 13 



82 AMPHINOMIDAE 

Amphinome pallasii, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 344: Fauvel, 1914b, 

p. 85 (Bibliography); 1923, p. 128, fig. 46, a-g. 
Pleione tetraedra, Milne-Edwards, 1849, pi. VII, fig. 1 

Body square in section. Prostomium small, rounded, 
with two eyes. Caruncle smooth or slightly plaited. 
Median tentacle short, inserted on the anterior margin 
of the caruncle. Lateral tentacles short, subulate. Palps 
conical. Bushy gills from the 2nd or 3rd setigerous seg- 
ment. Dorsal cirrus inserted under the branchial cluster. 
Dorsal setae of two kinds: (1) long, slender, more or less 
serrated at the tip; (2) stouter bristles with lateral fangs 
(glochidiate setae, harpoon-shaped) . Ventral setae few, 
5—7 uncinate. Acicula with a terminal knob. On float- 
ing wrecks, amongst the Lepas. 

Length: 200-400 mm. by 20-30 mm. 

Colour: Body bluish-grey, cirri and gills red (rusty 
yellow in spirit) . 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea. 112 fms.; Nankauri Har- 
bour, on a drifting log; Puri, Orissa. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, 
in their warm parts. 

Remarks: A. rostrata and A. pallasii are synonymous. 
A careful comparison of specimens from Indian and Atlan- 
tic Oceans has failed to reveal any specific difterences. 

Genus EURYTHOE Kinberg. 

Body elongate, square in section. Prostomium large, 
rounded, with four eyes. Three subulate tentacles, two 
large pad-like palpophores with subulate tentacle-like 
palpostyles. Caruncle consisting of a sinuous crest with 
vertical folds along its lateral sides: Branchiae ramified, 
mostly bifid, generally short and thick. Dorsal setae 
usually longer, of three kinds: (1) bifid, the shorter arm 
being a spur; (2) harpoon-shaped; (3) sword-shaped. 
Acicula lanceolate. Anus dorsal, extending over several 
segments or terminal. 

Key to the species of Ewythoe. 

1. Branchiae on. the first setigerous 

segment .. .. matthaii Bindia, p. 84. 

Branchiae on the 2nd oi 3id 

setigerous segment 2 

2. Branchiae on the 3rd setigcious 

segment pat oecajuncu late lioist, p. 85. 

Branchiae on the 2nd setigciou!, 

segment .. . complanata (Pallas), p. 83. 



tJRYTHOE 



60. Eiitythoc complanata (Pallas) . (Fig. 38, b-m) . 

Ewythoe complanata Pallas, Augener, 1913, p. 87: Fauvel: 1930 
p. 45; 1943, p. 5: Bindra, 1927, p. 9, pi. I, figs. 5-6, pi. II, fig. 
): Pruvot, 1930, p. 23. 

Eurythoe alcyonia Kinberg, Gravier, 1901, p 248, pi. IX, figs. 140 

-143; pi. X, figs. 144-146: Pruvot, 1930, p. 21 
Eurythoe pacifica, Kinberg, 1857, p. 36, pi. XII, fig. 11 
Eurythoe laevisetis, Fauvel, 1914a, p. VIII, figs. 28—30, 33—7. 
Euiythoe latissima Schmarda, WiUey, 1905, p. 243. 
Ewythoe karachiensis, Bmdra, 1927, p. 13, pi. II, fig. 6. 
Amphmome mdica, Schmarda, 1861, p. 142, pi. XXXV, fig. 294. 

Amphinome lonsicirra, Schmarda, 1861, p. 142, pi. XXXIV, fie. 
292. 

Amphinome macrotncha, Schmarda, 1861, p. 144, pi. XXXIV, 
fig. 290. 

Amphinome eucopochaeta, Schmarda, 1861, p. 153, pi. XXXV, 
fig. 293. 

Branchiae commencing on the second segment. Four 
very conspicuous eyes. Caruncle terminating on third or 
fourth segment, lateral lobes more or less hidden in 




Fig. 3S.— Eurythoe matthaii Bindra- a, head and first segment Xl6 
(after Bindra). E. complanata (Pallas); b, head and anterior seg- 
ments ; c, foot ; d, dorsal view of anal region (after Gravier) ; k, 
ventral bristle; /, doisal bristle X333; m, harpooned bristle 
X333. E. parvecarunculata Horst; e, anterior region; 
/, aciculum (after Horst); g, ventral bristle; 
h-i, dorsal bristles. 

grooves under the smooth lobe. About five buccal seg- 
ments. Dorsal setae very variable in length, of three 
kinds: (1) long calcareous setae, with an elongate slen- 



84 AMPHINOMIDAE 

der tip, more or less serrated, and a small spur at the base; 

(2) large straight, harpooned, glochidiate setae, with 
lateral rows o£ easily deciduous teeth, and (3) stout, 
straight, smooth setae. Two kinds of ventral setae: (1) 
stout furcate setae with unequal aims, the larger one 
smooth, or slightly serrated on young specimens, and 

(2) a few sub-furcate setae with one of the arms thin 
and greatly elongated. Acucula short, spear-headed. 

Length: 50-200 mm. by 10-15 mm. 

Colour: Gills red, setae alabaster-white. 

Occurrence: Mergui, Andaman Islands, India, Cey- 
lon, Maldive Archipelago, Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: On coral reefs of the whole tropical 
area of Pacific, Indian and Adantic Oceans. 

Remarks: The setae, in life, are very brittle, and 
consequently vary much in length, according to the 
environment. As they are calcareous, they are often 
damaged in spirit, formol and other reagents, 
becoming soft, woolly and losing their lateral teeth. 
Moreover, many specimens, having undergone re- 
generations which are very frequent in this species, 
present marked modifications in the proportions and 
appearances of the head, the number oi buccal and anal 
segments, the shape of the body, of the anal funnel, and 
the length of the tentacles. Contraction, due to the fixa- 
tives, also alters the appearance of the caruncle to a large 
extent. Such is the explanation of its having been des- 
cribed under so many names. (See: Fauvel, 1 943a, p. 5) . 

01. Earythoe matthaii Bindra. (Fig. 38, a). 
Eurythoe matthaii, Bindra, 1927, p. 12, pi. II, figs. 4—') 

Body rectangular in cross section. Branchiae begin- 
ning on the first segment. Buccal segments four. Carun- 
cle oval, extending over the first two segments. Anus 
terminal. Median tentacle shorter than the paired ten- 
tacles. Eyes hidden by the anterior margin of the carun- 
cle; anterior ones larger than the posterior. Harpoon- 
shaped setae well developed, reaching the length of the 
bifid setae. 

Length: 65—110 mm. by 5—8 mm. 

Occurrence: Karachi. 

Distribution: India. 



PSEUDEURYTHOE 85 

62. Earyttoc parvecartmcukta Horst. (Fig. 38, e-i) 

Eurythoe paruecarunculata, Horst, 1912, p. 37, pi. X, figs. 1—5: 
Augener, 1916, p. 90, pi. II, fig. 3, pi. Ill, figs. 37-38: Fauvel, 
1923, p. 9; 1927, p. 525, fig. 1; 1982, p. 46. 

1 Amphinome djiboutiensis, Gravier, 1901, p. 245, figs. 249—253, 
pi. IX, figs. 137-139. 

? Amphinome maldivemis. Potts, 1909, p. 263, pi. XLV, figs. 14-15, 
pi. XLVI, figs. 12-17. 

Eurythoe heterotricha. Potts, 1909, p. 369, pi. XLV, figs. 16-17, 
pi. XLVI, figs. 18-19. 

Branchiae commencing on the third segment. Round- 
ed cephahc lobe with a large heart-shape palpal part and 
four eyes; upon its posterior border it bears a long un- 
paired antenna; the two anterior antennae are much 
shorter. The subulate palpo-styles of the palps are 
somewhat shorter than the lateral antennae. The carun- 
cle is a small oval process only extending over the first 
segment. The strongly ramified branchiae are most deve- 
loped in the anterior part of the body, decreasing pos- 
teriorly. The acicula have an elongated oval tip. Dorsal 
setae of two kinds: (1) slender elongated, bifurcated, with 
a long limb smooth or coarsely denticulated along its, 
internal border, and a short limb often reduced to a mere 
spur, and (2) short, stout, harpoon-shaped bristles. Ven- 
tral setae furcate, with the longer limh bent backwards 
and provided with a few faint denticulations. They are 
associated with a few slender elongate setae with a spur- 
like short limb and a long limb smooth, or faintly denti- 
culate. 

Length: 30-220 mm. by .8-14 mm. 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andamans; Chilka Lake. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago, Bay of Bengal, 
India, Atlantic Ocean, Cameroon, Guiana, ? Red Sea, 
Maldives. 

Remarks If Amphinome djiboutiensis Gravier and 
A. maldivensis Potts, which i-eally belong to the genus 
Eurythoe, be also conspecific with E. paruecarunculata 
Horst, Gravier's name should have priority. 

Genus PSEUDEURYTHOE Fauvel. 

Body donated, square in cross-section of the anterior 
part. Prostomium rounded. Two pairs of eyes. Carun- 
cle reduced to a small knob, deeply set into the first seg- 
ment. Three tentacles. Palps cushion-like, with subu- 



86 AMPHINOMIDAE 

late palpostyles. Feet biramous, with dorsal and ventral 
divisions far apart. Dorsal setae of two kinds: (1) har- 
poon-shaped; (2) capillary. Ventral setae: (1) short, 
bifurcate; (2) capillary, with or without a short basal 
spur. Each i'oot bearing a dorsal and a ventral cirrus. 
Gill-tufts limited to the anterior part of the body. 

Remarks: This genus is a connecting link between 
Eurythoe and Paramphinome. 



Key to species of Pseudeurythoe. 

1. Prostomium sunk into the first 

segments . . . . 2 

Prostomium not sunk into the 

first segments . . . . 3 

2. A very small caiuncle . . microcephala Fauvel, p. 88 
No trace of a caruncle . acarunculata Monro, p 89. 

3. Head broader than long, not 

heart-shaped .. . ambigua Monio, p. 90. 

Head heart-shaped posteriorly .. paucibranchiata Fauvel, p. 86. 

63. Pseadeafythoe patjcibranchiata Fauvel. (Figs. 39, a, 
b; 40, a~e) . 

Pseudeurythoe paucibranchiata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 48, fig. 8, pi. 
I, figs. 3-4. 

Body more or less moniliform posteriorly. Prosto- 
mium globular, slightly bilobed anteriorly, raised posteri- 
orly into a heart-shaped lobe. Lateral tentacles articulate. 
Median tentacle inserted at the back of tlie heart-shaped 
lobe which bears two small, inconspicuous eyes on its 
anterior border. Caruncle reduced to a very small lobe, 
set into the first setigerous segment. Palps cushion-like, 
with articulate palpostyles. Branchiae from the Srd seti- 
gerous segment to the 25th, in clusters of filaments. Dorsal 
setae: (1) long capillary without spur: (2) short slender 
capillary; (3) stout, harpoon-shaped. Ventral setae: 
(1) upper trifurcate, serrated, with long spur; (2) very 
long smooth capillary, without spur; (3) furcate, with 
long limb serrated. 

Length: 25 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: Ain Musa, Gulf of Suez. 



PSEUDEURYTHOE 




Fig. 39.— Pseudeurythoe paucibranchiata Fauvel: a, head, X18; b 
branchiferous foot X40 (from Fauvel, 1932). 




O' 



/"^V 



e- 



Fig. 40 —Pseudeurythoe paucibranchiata Fauvel: a, ventral serrated 

capillary bristle X520; b, upper ventral furcate bristle X520; c, 

inferior vetnral forked bristle xS20; d, haipoon-shaped 

bristle X380; e, posterior dorsal serrate biisUe XS20 

(from Fauvel, 1932). 



88 



AMPHINOMIDAE 



64. Psctidetifyttoe micrcsccphala Fauvel. (Figs. 41, a— 
d; 42, a—e) . 

Pseudeurythoe microcephala, Fauvel, 1932, p. 49, fig. 9, pi. I, 
figs. 6—8. 

Body moniliform posteriorly. Head very small, en- 
tirely retracted into the first segment. Prostomium longer 
than broad, rounded anteriorly, enlarged and quadran- 
gular posteriorly. Caruncle square, very smaii, deeply 




Fig. 4:1— Pseudeurythoe microcephala Fauvel: o, head X20; 6, foot 

from the middle of the body, male x40; c, branchiferous foot, 

male, X40; d, foot from the middle part of the body, female, 

X40. 



hidden under the protruding border of the next segment. 
Two pairs of reddish eyes. Median tentacle filiform, in- 
serted far back between the posterior eyes. Lateral ten- 
tacles subulate, faintly articulated. Palpostyles about 
the same length. No hooks on the first setigerous seg- 
ments. Branchiae from the 3rd setigerous segment to the 
25th; they are bushy- Dorsal setae: (1) long, slender, 
smooth, capillary, without spur; (2) harpoon-shaped. 



PSEUDEURYTHOE 



89 



Ventral setae: (1) long, serrated, capillary, without spur; 
(2) furcate with longer limb boldly serrated. 




II 

Fig. 4Z.~Pseudeurythog microcephala Fauvel: a, smooth dorsal 

bristle X380; b, serrated capillary ventral bristle X530; 

c, d, furcate ventral bristles X530; e, harpoon-shaped 

bristle X380. 

DiJOEers from P. paucibranchiata Fauvel chiefly by: 
(1) head very small; (2) prostomium sunk; (3) absence 
of basal spur on long setae of both rami. 

Length: 30 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: From reef-flat between Hululu and 
Heratera, Addu Atoll, Maldive Archipelago. 

65. PseWcorythoe acat-ancalata Monro. (Fig. 43, d-m). 
Pseudeurythoe acarunculata, Monro, 1937, p. 249, fig. 2. 

Body slender and vermiform. Head deeply retracted 
into the first segments, more or less rectangular in outline 
and divided into two regions by a transverse groove. The 
hinder part of the prostomium is slightly broader than 
long and cut off squarely behind. No trace of a caruncle 
is visible. A kind of nuchal pit present. Two pairs of 
eyes. The median tentacle on a level with the posterior 

F. 14 



00 



AMPHINOMIDAE 



pair, the lateral tentacles just before the anterior p^ir. 
Palpostyles lateral. No hooks on the first setigerous seg- 
ment. Branchiae from the 4th setigerous segment to 
about the 50th: they are bushy. A long dorsal cirrus. 
Dorsal setae: (1) very fine, smooth, capillary bristles; 
(2) harpoon-shaped. Ventral setae: (1) very long capi- 
lary bristles, with a smooth spur; (2) short, stout, furcate 
bristles with the longer limb serrated (no long ventral 
capillary without spur) . 

Length: 30 mm. by 1 mm. 

Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago. 

66. Pseodctffythoe amtigua Monro. (Fig. 43, i-m). 
Pseudeurythoe ambigua, Monro, 1937, p. 251, fig. 3. 

Shape slender and vermiform, tapering rather sharply 
in front and gradually behind. Head rounded in front. 




/ 



Fig. 43 —Benthoscolex coecus Hoist . a, dorsal view of anterior seg- 

menls Xl6; b, short vential bristle X191; c, elongated ventral 

bristle X191 (after Horst). Pseudeurythoe acarunculnl a 

Monro: d, anterior end from above; e, f, dorsal bristles 

g, short ventral bristle; h, fine ventral bristle. 

Ps. ambigua Monro: j, anterior end, from 

above, eyes not shown; k, dorsal bristle; 

/, m, ventral bristles (after Monro). 

divided into two regions by a transverse groove running a 
little way behind the lateral tentacles, and ijijore or less 
rectan.jular; broader than ioijig behind: the hinder part is 
not hmrt-shaped as in Ps. paucibranchiata Fauvel. The 



PARAMPHINOME 91 

caruncle is a rounded pad lying in the first chaetiger. TWo 
pairs of minute, inconspicuous eyes. Branchiae from the 
3td setigerous segment to the 43rd, large and conspicuous. 
Dorsal cim long. Doisal setae: (1) long, smooth capillary; 
(2) harpoon-shaped. Ventral setae: (1) upper bifurcate, 
with long spur; (2) very long capillary; (3) stout short fur- 
cate, with longer limb serrated. (Bristles as in Ps. 
pauctbranchiata.) 

Length: up to 47 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Gulf of Panama; Maldive Archipelago. 

Genus PARAMPHINOME Sajrs. 

Body moderately elongate, vermiform; segments few. 
Prostomium rounded, no eyes. Caruncle small. Three 
tentacles. Palps cushion-like, with subulate palpostyles. 
Feet biramous, with dorsal and ventral divisions far 
apart. Dorsal setae of two kinds: (1) harpoon-shaped 
and (2) capillary. Ventral setae also of two kinds: 
(1) short, bifurcate; and (2) long, capillary, with, or with- 
out, basal spur. Acicula hastate. Two strong curved 
hooks on each side of the first setigerous segment. Gills 
only on anterior segments. Anus terminal. 

67. Pai-amphinome indica Fauvel. (Figs. 44, a—h; 45 a—f) , 

Paramphmome indtca, Fauvel, 1932, p. 61, text-fig. 10, pi. I, 
figp. 9—16. 

Body cylindrical, slightly flattened anteriorly. Pros- 
tomium eyeless, globular, rounded anteriorly, very slightly 
bilobed backwards, with a very small oval or triangular 
caruncle set into the first segment. Two filiform lateral 
tentacles; median tentacle long, raised, inserted at the 
back. Palpostyles tentacle-like. On the first setigerous 
segment along dorsal cirrus and a slightly shorter ventral 
one, and, in front of the setae, two strong, curved^ trans- 
parent hooks. No ventral cirrus on the second setigerous 
segment: on the third and the following ones both a dor- 
sal and a ventral cirrus. Branchiae 10—13 pairs, from 
the 4th setigerous to the 13th— 16th; they are very large, 
entirely covering the body and feet, divided into many 
branches bearing lateral filaments, simple or bifurcate. 
Both rami wide apart. In the posterior abranchiate re- 
gion, bf 10—13 segments, a short blunt dorsal process, with 
a long cirrus and a tuft of capillary setae, a larger ventral 



92 



AMPHINOMIDAE 



ramus with two fillets, an anterior conical, and a posterior 
rounded, a little shorter; a ventral cirrus and very long 
setae. Dorsal setae of two kinds: (1) large, straight, har- 
poon-shaped bristles, (2) long and slender capillary. Ven- 
tral setae also of two types: (1) short, with tip of the 
shaft bifurcate, one of the limbs large, curved, serrated, 




Fig. 4A.—Paramphinome indica Fauvel: a, dorsal view X3; b, anterior 
end, dorsal view x7; c, head, ventral view x7; d, proboscis ex- 
truded X7 ; e, proboscis extruded, side view X7 ; /, third 
setigerous foot x25; g, second setigerous foot X25; h, 
hooks from 1st setigerous foot Xl85. 



the other much smaller, slender and smooth, and (2) 
longer and slender serrate setae, with a small basal spur. 
Acicula hastate. Anus terminal. 

Length: 15—20 mm. by 4—5 mm. 

Colourless in spirit. 

Occurrence: Arabian Sea, 530 fms.; Cape Comorin 
881-891 fms. Green mud. 



BENTHOSCOLEX 



93 



Genus BENTHOSCOLEX Horst. 

Body oblong oval, agreeing in general appearance 
with that of Chloeia. Caruncle short, with three parallel 
longitudinal ridges. Eyes absent. Branchiae commencing 
on the 6th segment, strongly developed on the posterior 
segments. Furcate bristles. An unpaired anal cirrus 
(Horst) . 

68. Bcnthoscolcx caectts Horst. (Fig. 43, a—c) . 
Benthoscolex caecus, Horst, 1912, p. 38, pi. X, figs. 11—16. 

Body tapering in front and behind. Prostomium 
small, heart-shaped, with a short caruncle consisting of 




a 

Fig. 45 —Paramphinome indtca Fauvel: a, large dorsal smooth bristle 
X150; b, harpoon-shaped bristle from hind foot X380; c, furcate 
ventral bristle from 3rd setigerous segment X380; d, furcate 
ventral bristle X380; e, acicular bristle X3S0 ; /, slender 
furcate capillary seta X380. 

three longitudinal ridges, that do not extend beyond the 
first segment. No eyes present. A median tentacle in 
front. Lateral tentacles nearly as long as the median one, 
set on each side of the median dorsal line. Cushion-like 
palpophores with tentacle-like palpostyles. An unpaired 



94 AMtHlNOMlDAE 

anal papilla, faintly emarginated and a subtemainal dor- 
sal anus. Well developed branchiae from the 6th seg- 
ment, in dense dusters of numerous filaments; on the last 
5—6 segments they are more numerous, crossing over the 
back and forming large bushy terminal clusters. Dorsal 
cirri about the length of the setae, ventral cirri shorter, 
with the exception of the last 3—4 ones which are filiform 
and very long. Dorsal and ventral bundles of bristles stiff 
and alabaster-white. Ventral ramus with only bifurcated 
setae as follows: (1) with a long limb, plain, or with 1—3 
denticulations, and a short limb, like a spine, and (2) 
much more slender setae with a long limb, coarsely denti- 
culated, and a short limb like a spur. Dorsal setae alike, 
but fewer and shorter and mixed with harpoon-shaped 
ones. 

Length: 34—37 mm. by 10 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Laccadive Sea. 

Distribution: Flores Sea; Ceylon; Laccadive Sea. 

Genus CHLOEIA Savigny. 

Body oval, caruncle composed of a plaited crest, aris- 
ing from a horizontal plate, folded along its margin. 
Pinnate branchiae. All bristles more or less bifurcated; 
the ventral ones smooth, those of the dorsal fascicle, in 
some anterior segments, smooth, in those of the posterior 
body-region, serrated along the outer border. Two anal 
cirri sausage- or finger-shaped. Anus in the last segment. 
Only one pair of dorsal cirri on each segment. 



Key to the species of Chloeia. 

1. Back with median purple spots 2 
Back without median spots .. 4 

2. Median dorsal spots more or less 

circular . . . flava Pallas, p. 96. 

Median spots not circular . . 3 

3. Median spots T or Y-shaped . pana Baird, p. SifJ. 
Median spots inverted T-shaped violacea Jfiorst, p. 95. 
Median dorsal spots resembling 

an amphora . . . . amphora Horst, p. 96. 

4. Uniformly reddish pink, without 

any dorsal pattern . . rosea Potts, p. 97. 
Back uniformly dark-coloured, or 
with a couple of thin, lon- 
gitudinal purple stripes .. /twca Mctntosh, p. 9l 



CHLOEIA 



95 



69. Chloeia violacea Uovst. (Fig. 46, e) . 

CMoeia violacea, Horst, 1912, p. 22, pi. VI, Bg. 8, pi VIII, figs. 8 
-11: Monro, 1937, p. 253. 

Body pale yellow or greyish brown. In each seg- 
ment, a violet or orange spot shaped like an inverted T, 
the transverse arm of which lies just in front of the hinder 
intersegmental groove. Dorsal cirri purple, and also a 




Fig. 46.— JJorsal patterns of Chloeia species: a, Ch: fiava (Pallass) X4 ; 

6, var. pvi,lchella XlO; c, Ch. amphora Horst X5; d, Ch. jusca 

Mcintosh X8; e, ph. violacea Horst X8; f, Ch. parua Baird 

X6; g, Ch. conspicua X4 (after Horst); h, Ch. rosea 

Potts, two middle segments (after Potts); i, Ch 

fiava (Pallas) head and caruncle, enlarged. 



violet-Stripe runs over the middle of the caruncle which 
extends upon the 4th segment. First branchia on the 4th 
segment. 

Length: 9—20 mm. by 2—5 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Oman. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago; Gulf of Oman. 



96 AMPHINOMIDAE 

70. Chlocia flava Pallas. (Fig. 46, d) . 

Ckloeia flava, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 8, pi. Ill, figs. 1-3: Horst, 1912, 

p. 18, pi. XII, fig. 2: Fauvel, 1932, p. 55. 
Ckloeia capillata, Milne-Edwards, 1849, pi. IX. 
Ckloeia incerta, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 388. 
Ckloeia ceylonica, Grube, 1874, p. 325. 
Ckloeia tumida, Baird, 1870, p. 232, pi. IV, fig. 7, a-d. 

Median dorsal jjurple spots varying in shape from a 
narrow ellipse to a circle. Setae varying from almost pure 
white to a bright yellow or pale green. Tentacles and 
dorsal cirri more or less violet or deep purple. Branchiae 
unpigmented or brown. Caruncle extends posteriorly to 
the commencement of the 4th segment and ends with a 
free tapering extremity. 

Length: 100—120 mm. by 4 mm. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Andaman Islands; Bay ot 
Bengal, Ceylon, Mandapam, Palk Strait. At Port Blair 
caught on a fishing line, on hooks baited with meat. Feeds 
on small crabs, etc. 

Distribution: Japan, Pacific and Indian Oceans. 

71. Ctloeiaparva Baird. (Fig. 46, /). 

Ckloeia parva, Baird, 1870, p. 233, pi. IV, fig. 8, a—b: Horst, 
1912, p. 19, pi. VII, fig. 4, pi. VIII, figs. 1-3: Fauvel, 1932, 
p. 56. 

Ckloeia merguiensis, Beddard, 1887, p. 258, pi. XXI, figs. 2, 8, 
9. 

Body tapering posteriorly. Along the centre of the 
back, on each segment, there is a dark mark in shape some- 
what like the Roman T, or rather the Greek Y. The 
caruncle extends to the anterior part of the 6th segment 
and its crest is surmounted with a black wavy line. 

Length: 20—70 mm. 

Occurrence: Penang; Andaman Islands; Sandheads, 
Mouth of Hughli River; Chandipur, Balasore, Orissa; 
Vizagapatam; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, New Guinea, Java; 
Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Mergui, Andaman Islands, West 
Coast of India, Gulf of Oman. 

72. Ctlocia amphora Horst. (Fig. 46, c) . 

Ckloeia amphora. Hont, 1912, p. 21, pi. VII, fig. 5, pi. VIII, 
figs. 6-7: Fauvel, 1932, p. 56. 



CHLOEIA 97 

Each segment shows in the middle a violet spot, some- 
what resembling a roman Amphora, surrounded by a 
white band. The dorsal cirri are dark-violet, the ventral 
ones colourless. The caruncle bears about 20 lateral 
folds and extends to the anterior border o£ the 4th seg- 
ment (Florst) . 

Length: 16—26 mm. by 7 mm., without the bristles. 
26 segments. 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andaman Islands; Nankauri 
Harbour, Octavia Bay, Nicobar Islands. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago; Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands. 

T3. Chloeia fasca Mcintosh. (Fig. 46, d) . 

Chloeia fusca, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 14, pi. II, figs. 1-2: Potts. 1909, 
p. 356, pi. XLV, figs. 1-2: Horst, 1912, p. 22, pi. VH, fig. 7: 
Monro, 1924, p. 72- Fauvel, 1932, p. 55. 

Chloeia longisetosa. Potts, 1909, p. 357, pi. XLV, fig. 5. 

Back uniformly dusky brown, or purple-violet, or 
pale ground colour with a couple of longitudinal purple 
stripes near the dorsal middle line. Beneath each dorsal 
bundle of bristles is a purple ring shading oflP into orange; 
the dorsal cirri are dark-purple. 

Remarks: Chloeia longisetosa is the epitocous state 
of Ch. fusca. 

Length: 10—20 mm. by 4 mm. 

Occurrence: Nankauri Harbour, Octavia Bay; Cape 
Comorin 556 fms.; Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Australia, China, Bay of Bengal, Ami- 
rante Islands. 

74. Chloeia tosea Potts. (Fig. 46, h) . 

Chloeia rosea. Potts, 1909, p. 357, pi. XLV, fig. 3. 

Body fusiform in shape, of a uniform reddish pink, 
even the setae being of the same colour. The branchiae 
are exceptionally well-developed and overlap the middle 
line. "It is very noticeable how closely this species ad- 
heres to the C. fusca type. The only differences from the 
original species are but trifling, viz., coloration, structure 
and arrangement of gills and the absence of a single type 
of seta " (Potts) . It is probably a young form, or a colour 
variety of C. fusca. 

Length: II mm, by 3 mm., 20 segments. 

F. 15 



98 AMyHINOMIDAE 

Occurrence: Burma; Bay of Bengal; Arabian Sea; 
Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Bay of Bengal; Arabian Sea; Persian 
Gulf; Amirante Islands. 

Genus NOTOPYGOS Grube. 

Body oval. Caruncle composed of a plaited crest 
arising from a horizontal plate, folded along its margin. 
Branchiae ramified, not pinnate. An accessory dorsal 
cirrus at the proximal side of each branchia. All bristles 
bifurcated, smooth or denticulated. Two anal club-shap- 
ed cirri. Anus dorsal, subterminal. 

Key to the species of Notopygos. 

1. A triangular brownish area on 

the back .. .. tabiatus Mcintosh, p. 99. 

A chequered pattern on the back 2 

2. Caruncle rounded posteriorly, with 

30 marginal folds on each side gigas Horst, p. 98. 
Crest of the caruncle separated 

from the wings by a smooth, 

linear, pigmented area on each 

side, obscured under the lax 

folds of the wing . . hispidus Potts, p. 100. 

Smooth pigmented lateral area of 

the caruncle always to be seen variabilis Potts, p. 100. 

75. Notopygos gigas Horst. (Fig. 47, a-c) . 

Notopygos gigas, Horst, 1912, p. 26, pi. IX, figs. 1—3: Augener, 
1926, p. 439. 

Body la:^, oblong oval, 33—36 segments. Pale buff, 
in the middle of the dorsum brown or violet, irregularly 
interrupted by a great number of white lines crossing 
each other in various directions; a dark band occurs around 
the base of each notopodium, and the main stem of the 
branchiae is also dusky coloured. Caruncle extending to 
the anterior part of the 6th segment, rounded posteriorly 
and with 30 marginal folds on each side. Anterior pair 
of eyes longer than the posterior one. Anus on the ante- 
rior of 25th segment, usually at the apex of a conical 
papilla. Bristles long and vitreous, both dorsal and 
ventral bifurcate, smooth, with a yellow tip on the first three 
segments only, denticulated. Setae with rather divergent 
fork. 

Length: 45—75 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Galle. Trincomali. 

Distribution: Malaya Archipelago; India. 



NOTOPYGOS 



99 



76. Notopygos labiates Mcintosh. 

Notopygos labiatm, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 19; pi. II, Be 6 pi IV 
fig. 2, pi. Ila, figs. 5, 6: Fauvel, 1932, p. 57. ^ ' » ' ' 

Body large. On the dorsum a triangular brownish 
area indicates the junction of each segment. Caruncle 
extending to the 5th body segment. Four large eyes. 




Fig. ^1.— Notopygos gigas Horst: a, dorsal brisde X230; b, ventral 

bristle X80; c, dorsal bristle o£ first segment X230 (after Horst). 

N. hispidus Potts: d, two middle segments; e, head and 

caruncle; /, dorsal seta from 6th segment (uniden- 

tate) X2S0; g, dorsal seta from 3rd segment 

(tnserrate) X250. A', variahihs Potts, h, head 

and caruncle (after Potts). 

Bristles very long, stiflE and erect. On the first setigerous 
segments only, dorsal and ventral setae serrated; next, 
ventral setae with 2—3 serrations. Dorsal setae smooth. 
Anus dorsal, on the 20th— 21st segment. 



100 AMPHINOMIDAE 

Length: 20—40 mm. by 5—10 mm., setae included. 
The long straight, stiff, alabaster bristles give it a spinous 
caterpillar appearance. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands and Laccadive Sea. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Hawaiian Islands, Phili- 
ppine Islands; Indian Ocean, Andaman Islands and Lac- 
cadive Sea. 

77. Notopygos hispidas Potts. (Fig. 47, d-g). 

Notopygos hispidus. Potts, 1909, p. 359, pi. XLV, figs. 6, 7, pi. 
±LVI, figs. 3-5 : Fauvel, 1917, p. 192 ; 1919, p. 360 ; 1922, p. 
493; 1932, p. 58. 
f Notopygos labiatus, Benham, 1915, p. 205. 

Body elongate. On the dorsum an irregular chequer- 
ed purple pattern. Caruncle extending to the 5th setige- 
rous segment. The crest is separated from the wings by 
a smooth linear pigmented area on each side. The lax 
folds of the wings and crest often come into contact and 
obscure the area: this is characteristic of the species. Four 
black, large eyes, sometimes almost contiguous. Dorsal 
setae not serrated; ventral setae serrated in the first few 
segments alone. Anus dorsal on the 21st segment. 

Length: 24 mm. by 10 mm., setae included. 

Occurrence: Nankauri Harbour, Nicobar Islands, 
amongst coral. 

Distribution: Australia; Philippine Islands; Indian 
Ocean, Red Sea. 

78. Notopygos vatJatilis Potts. (Fig. 47, A) . 

Notopygos variabilis, Potts, 1909, p. 360, pi. XLV, fig. 9: Fauvel, 
1931, p. 9; 1932, p. 58. 

Body fusiform. Dorsum sometimes ornamented with 
a pattern of orange spots, most specimens almost without 
pigment. The folded regions of the caruncle are separat- 
ed on each side by a smooth pigmented area which is 
always to be seen. Four large eyes. Dorsal setae non- 
serrated, ventral setae serrated in the first few segments 
only, or, sometimes, a few in the ventral bundles of the 
middle segments with a couple of well marked serrations 
underneath the hooked apex of the longer limb. Anus 
dorsal, position varying from the 22nd to the 25th seg- 
ment. Extensive variations. 

Length: 30 mm. by 12 mm., setae included. 



EUPHROSYNF 101 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Nankauri Harbour, Nicobar Islands; 
Andaman Islands; Maldive Archipelago. 

Genus EUPHROSYNE Savigny. 

Body short, with few segments. Prostomium elon- 
gated and bending over the tip of the snout, partly ven- 
tral. Two pairs of eyes, one dorsal, the other ventral. 
Caruncle with three longitudinal, parallel lobes. A 
median tentacle and two small lateral ones. Two dorsal 
cirri on each side. A transverse row of several branchial 
tufts on each segment. Two anal cirri. Bifurcate setae. 

Key to species of Euphrosyne. 

Tips of branchial divisions taper- 
ing .. .. myrtosa Savigny, p, 101. 

Tips of branchial divisions ex- 
panded . . . . fohosa Milne-Edwards, p. 102. 

79, Ettphrosync myrtosa Savigny. (Fig. 48, k-n) . 

Euphrosyne myrtosa^ Savigny, 1820, p. 64, pi. II, fig. 2: Gravier, 
1901, p. 254, pi. X, figs. 147-149: Augener, 1916, p. 95: Fauvel. 
1923a, p. 139, fig. 49, k-n; 1930a, p. 11, fig. 1; 1932, p. 59, 

Euphrosyne ceylonica, Michaelsen, 1892, p- 2, pi. I, figs. 1—4. 

Body oval, 36—43 segments. Median tentacles blunt, 
with a broad base. Lateral tentacles very small. 6—8 bran- 
chial tufts in each transverse row, with terminal divisions 
blunt or tapering, not enlarged. Transverse rows of dor- 
sal furcate setae of two kinds: (1) with unequal smooth 
limbs, and (2) serrated "ringent" bristles. Ventral setae 
with straight, smooth unequal limbs. 

Length: 10—20 mm. by 5 mm. 

Colour: In life bright pink or red. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Pamban, Krusadai Island, Sandy 
Point, among rocks. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Malay Archipelago; 
Indian Ocean, Red Sea; South Atlantic Ocean; Adriatic 
Sea. 



102 



AMPHINOMIDAE 



80. Euphtosyne foliosa Audouin and Milne-Edwards 
(Fig. 48, a-h) . 

Euphrosyne foliosa. Fauvel, 1919, p. 350, fig. 1; 1923a, p. 136, 

fig. 49, a-g: 1932, p. 59. 
Euphrosyne laureata, Horst, 1912, p. 11, pi. VI, fig. 10: Pruvot, 

1930, p. 25, fig. 2. 

Body oval, 30—36 segments. Median tentacle thick, 
cylindrical. Lateral tentacles very slender and shorter. 
7—9 branchial tufts in each transverse row, with terminal 
divisions more or less expanded and hastate. Transverse 




Fig. ii.— Euphrosyne foliosa Audouin fe M.-Edwards: a, dorsal view, 

enlarged; 6, head; c, anterior part, ventral side; d, foot; e, /, tips 

of the ^Is; g, ringent bristle X233; h, ventral bristle X117 & 

E. myrtosa Savigny : k, falcigerous bristle; I, furcate 

bristle; m, ringent bristle; n, gills' tips (after 

Gravier); t, E. intermedia Saint-Joseph epito- 

cous stage of E. foliosa. 

o, p, q, branchiae and setae of E. armadillo (not from India). 

rows of furcate dorsal setae of two kinds: (1) with un- 
equal smooth limbs, and (2) serrated "ringent" bristles. 
Ventral setae with smooth, unequal limbs. 

Length: 10—30 mm. by 10 mm. 

Colour: In life orange red, cinnabar or red-brick. 

Occurrence: Nicobar Islands, Nankauri Harbour, 
Camorta Island, coral reef; Ceylon, Pamban. 



HESIONE 



103 



Distribution: Malay Archipelago; Indian Ocean, Bay 
of Bengal, Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Adantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea. 



Family HESIONIDAE Grube. 

Head with two pairs of eyes, two or three tentacles, 
and generally two biarticulate palps. Proboscis cylindri- 
cal, protrusible, armed or unarmed. Anterior segments 
(1—4) distinct, or more or less fused; each carrying two 
pairs of tentacular cirri. Other segments bearing uni- or 
bi-ramous parapodia, the dorsal ramus being often 
reduced to dorsal cirrus and acicula. Dorsal bristles, 
when present, simple. Ventral setae generally compound. 

Key to the genera. 
Palps absent . . Hesione Savigny, p. 103. 



Two tentacles. 

Three tentacles. 

Two pairs of 



Palps present 
tentacular cirri. 



setae simple 

More than two pairs of tenta- 
cular cirri 

Six pairs of tentacular drri, 
Feet biramous. Proboscis un 
armed 

Eight pairs of tentacular ci 
Body short, cylindrical 

Dorsal setae present 

Dorsal setae absent 



Ancistrosyllis Mcintosh, p. 110. 



Podarke Ehleis, p. 108. 



Leocrates Kinberg, p. 105. 
Leocratides Ehlers, p. 107. 



Genus HESIONE Savigny. 

Body short, cylindrical. Prostomium bilobed. Four 
eyes. Two very small tentacles. Palps absent. Proboscis 
unarmed. Eight pairs of tentacular cirri (4 pairs on each 
side) . Parapodia uniramous. Dorsal cirri long, articu- 
late. Setae compound, sickle shaped. 



Key to the species of Hesione. 



1. Dorsum generally spotted or che- 
quered with brown rounded or 
elongate dots 
On each dorsal segment a tran- 
sverse row of brown broad 
spots 

Body pale yellow, numerous 
narrow longitudinal brown 
stripes segmentally broken. . . 



pantherina Risso, p. 104. 



genetta Grube, p. 105. 



intertexta Grube, p. 105. 



104 



HESIONIDAE 



81. Hesione pantherina Risso. (Fig. 49). 

Hesione pantherina, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 833, fig. 87, (Synonymy); 
1932. p. 60. 

Hesione ehlersi, Gravier, 190O, p. 175, pi. IX, figs, 14-15. 

Hesione splendida, Aiigener, 1913, p. 187; Pruvot, 1930, p. 27. 

Hesione ceylonica Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 266. 

Hesione eugeniae, Kinberg, 1857, p. 57, pi. XXIII, fig. 8. 

Body very slightly tapering posteriorly. Segments few 
(about 16 setigerous) , distinct only on the sides. Pro- 
boscis smooth, with a larger circular opening and a dorsal 
conical fleshy papilla near the base. Dorsal cirri long, 




Fig. 4Q.-Hesione pantherina Risso- a, natural size; b, head and pro- 
boscis X8; c, d, two feet from one specimen, enlarged; e, f, com- 
pound setae with short and long end-piece X3I1; e, tip of a 
bristle X350. 

with many short articles, borne on a large cirrophore. 
Ventral ramus large, cylindrical, hollow, with black spines 
and ending in two small retractile conical lobes. Ventral 
setae heterogomph, with a long sickle-shaped terminal 
piece, bidentate at the apex, with a sub-apical spine very 
variable in length. 

Length: 30—60 mm. by 5—8 mm. 

Colour: Very variable, generally spotted or chequered, 
with brown rounded or elongate dots, often obsolete, or 
wanting in spirit. 



LEOCRATES 105 

Occurrence: Banka Strait; Nankauri Harbour, Nico- 
bar Islands; Andaman Islands; Chilka Lake, Orissa Coast; 
Krusadai Island; Rameswarana Island; Ceylon; Arabian 
Sea. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 

83. Hesione genetta Grube. 

Hesione genetta, Grube, 1878, p. 102; WiUey, 1905, p. 267: 
Fauvel, 1919, p. 370; 1923, p. 15; 1943, p. 9. 

On each dorsal segment a transverse row of about 6— 
7 broad brown spots, the median one larger than the 
others. Very possibly this is a mere colour variety of H. 
pantherina (Risso) . 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Chilwa Paar. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, California, Samoa, Gam- 
bier Islands, Philippine Islands; Indian Ocean, Ceylon, 
Madagascar. 

83.. Hesione intertexta Grube. 

Hesione intertexta, Grube, 1878, p. 102, pi. VI, fig. 5; Monro, 
1926, p. 311; 1937, p. 270: Pruvot, 1930, p. 29. 

Body pale yellow, dorsum with numerous, segmen- 
tally broken, narrow longitudinal stripes and a pair of 
brown spots on each intersegmental hne. 

Very likely a mere colour variety of the widespread 
H. pantherina (Risso) . 

Length: 40 mm. by 5 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; South Arabian Sea. 

* 

Distrihutioru: New Caledonia; Philippine Islands; 
Australia; Indian Ocean. 



Genus LEOCRATES Kinberg. 

Body short, cylindrical, segments few. Prostomium 
bilobed. Four eyes. Three tentacles. Two biarticulate 
palps. Proboscis with a chitinous jaw in the mid-dorsal 
and mid-ventral lines. Eight pairs of - tentacular cirri. 
Parapodia biramous. Dorsal ramus small. Dorsal setae 
simple. Ventral setae compound. Dorsal cirri long, arti- 
culate. 

Key to the species of Leocrates. 

Upper jaw plate composed of two 

pieces . . . . diplognathus Monro, p. 107. 

Upper jaw plate single . . . claparedii (Costa), p.- 106.- - - 

F. 16 



106 



HESIONIDAE 



84. Leocrates daparedii (Costa). (Fig. 60, c-g). 

Leocrates claparedii, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 237, fig. 88; 19S0, p. 12; 

1932, p. 61; 1939, p. 285. 
Leocrates giardi, Gravier, 1900, p 180, pi. X, figs. 17-19. 
} Leocrates chinensis, Kinberg, 1857-1910, p 57, pi. XXIII, fig. 

7. 
'i Leocrates iris, Grube, 1878, p. 105. 
Leocrates, spec. Gravely, 1927, p. 7, pi. IX, fig. 6. 

Median tentacle short, subulate. Lateral tentacles 
slender, slightly longer than the palps. Facial tubercle 




Fig. SO.— Leocrates diplognathw Monro: a, head, dorsal view Xl8; 

b, chaetal blade X350 (after Monro). L. claparedii (Costa) : c, 

prostomium, enlarged; d, foot xl5; e, lower bristle X250; 

/, part of dorsal simple bristle X350; g, jaws. 

large, blunt, more or less acorn-like. Upper jaw-plate 
single, hooked. Dorsal setae capillary, spinous. Ventral 
setae with a bidentate sickle-shaped terminal piece. 

Length: 20—45 mm. by 4 mm. 

Colouf. Flesh-coloured in life, discoloured in spirit. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Andaman Islands; Nankauri 
Harbour; Bay of Bengal; Ceylon; Gulf of Mannar. 



LEOaiATIDES 107 

Distribution: Japan; Indo-China; Indian Ocean, Per- 
sian Gulf, Red Sea; Mediterranean Sea. 

65. Leocrates diplognathtjs Monro. (Fig. 50, a-b) . 

Leocrates diplognathus, Monro, 1926, p. 313: Fauvel, 1932, p. 62; 
1939, p. 285. 

Paired tentacles about twice as long as the palps, 
which are furnished with very stout basal articles. Facial 
tubercle more or less conical and not very prominent. 
The anterior and larger pair of eyes, which are not clear- 
ly marked out, arise on a level with the unpaired tenta- 
cle. Behind the posterior median furrow the prostomium 
curves back in a remarkable wing-like pair of folds 
(everted nvichal organs). The upper jaw-plate is com- 
posed of two pieces set together in the form of a bifid fan. 
Dorsal setae vrith well marked spines. In the ventral setae 
the teeth of the blade are large and widely separated. 
The lamelliform guard approaches the sub-apical tooth. 

Length: 20-30 mm. 

Colour: Dorsum a dark chestnut-brown traversed by 
intersegmental bands of white. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago, 65 fms. 

Distribution: Macclesfield Bank; China Sea; Annam; 
Mergui Archipelago. 

Genus LEOCRATIDES Ehlers. 

Differs from Leocrates in the absence of setae in the 
dorsal ramus, which is reduced to an aciculum at the base 
of the dorsal cirrus. 

86. Leocratidcs etlcrsi (Horst) . (Fig. 51, a~c) . 

Leocratides ehlersi, Horst, 1924, p. 194, pi. XXXVI, figs. 10—12: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 62. 

Prostomium heart-shaped. Two pairs of eyes, ihe 
anterior larger. Median tentacle tapering. The frontal 
tubercle bears, on each side between the base of the palps 
and tentacular cirri, a cushion-shaped appendage. The 
dorsal jaw is double, each half consists of a long shaft 
with an expanded anterior plate. Ventral jaw simple, 
conical. 

Parapodia uniramous, only a couple of minute aci- 
cula in the base of the dorsal cirrus. Terminal blade of 
the ventral setae short, hook-shaped, slender, with only 
a single tooth and lacking the secondary process beneath 
the bifid tip. Differs from L. filamentosus Ehlers only in 
having a double dorsal jaw. 

Length: 25 mm. 



108 



HESIONIDAE 



Colour: A brownish violet subneural band. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea. 

Distribution: Salhe Bay, Sumbawa; Andaman Sea. 



Genus POD ARKE Ehlers. 

Prostomium quadrangular, with three tentacles on its 
anterior margin. Two biarticulate palps. Four eyes. 
Proboscis unarmed, with or without filiform papillae. 




Fig. 51.— Leocratides ehlersi (Hont): a, foot X30; b, dorsal iaws X30; 

c, ventral jaw X30 (after Horst). Podarke latifrons (Grube): 

d, head, enlarged; e, short ventral bristle; /, 

foot from mid-body. 

Six pairs of tentacular cirri. Parapodia sub-biramous. 
Dorsal cirri long. Dorsal setae few, often bifurcated. 
Ventral setae compound. 

Key to the species of Podarke. 

Dorsal cirri without a big cirro- 

phore. Several furcate dorsal 

setae 
Dorsal cirri with a big ciiro- 

phore. 1 or 2 doisal furcate 

setae 



angustifrons (Grube), p. 109. 



latifrons (Grube), p. 110. 



PODAREE 



109 



87. Podairkc angustifcons (Grube) . (Fig. 52, a—d) . 
Podarke angustifrons, Fauvel, 1932, p. 63; 1939, p. 286. 
Podarke didymocera Schmarda, Augener, 1934, p. 226. 
Irma angustifrons, Grube, 1878, p. 108, pi. IV, fig. 7, pi. XV, fig. 



12. 



Irma limicola, WUley, 1905, p. 267, pi. Ill, figs. 74-76. 

Prostomium rectangular. Small palps. Median ten- 
tacle small, fusiform. Proboscis with numerous long 
cilia on the anterior margin. Long smooth, or faintly 
ringed dorsal cirri. 6—7 simple dorsal setae and, some- 




Rg. h%— Podarke angustifrons (Grube): a, foot X35; b, long com- 
' pound bristle X380; c, short compound bristle X380; d, forked 
bristle X520 (from Fauvel, 1932). 

times, a furcate seta with long unequal limbs. Ventral 
ramus stout, with a conical lobe and a shorter rounded 
one. Ventral cirrus subulate, short. Upper ventral setae 
with a long, slender, terminal piece, hook-like with a 
sub-apical spine. Lower setae with a gradually shorter 
and broader terminal piece. Furcate setae. 

Length: 16 mm. 

■ Colour: In life, brown with white rings. 

Occurrence: Camorta Island, Nicobar Islands; India, 
Pamban Island. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Indo-China; India; 
Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Australia (?) ; New 
Zealand (?) . 



110 HESIONIDAK 

88. Podarfce latiirons (Grube) . (Fig. 51, d-f) . 

Podarke latifrons, Fauvel, 1939, p. 288. 

Irma latifrons, Grube, 1878, p. 109, pi. VI, fig. 6, pi. XV, fig. 11: 
Monro, 1926, p. 315. 

Prostomium broader than long. Palps small. Median 
tentacle small, fusiform. Proboscis with long cilia on 
the anterior margin. Long dorsal cirri, smooth or faintly 
ringed, borne on a big cirrophore. A single dorsal seta, 
simple or furcate, often altogether absent on a number of 
feet. Ventral ramus stout, with a conial lobe and a shorter 
rounded one. Ventral cirrus short, subulate. Upper ven- 
tral setae with a longer, slender terminal piece ending in 
a hook with a sub-apical spine. Lower setae with a shor- 
ter and broader terminal piece. Both kinds of setae more 
distinct than in P. angustifrons. Furcate setae scarce. 

Length: 77 mm. by 4 mm. 

Occurrence: Singapore. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Hongkong; Annam; 
China Sea; Singapore; Australia. 

Genus ANCISTROSYLLIS Mcintosh. 

Body elongated. Prostomium small. Eyes small or 
absent. Three tentacles. Large ovoid palps with very 
small palpostyles. Proboscis unarmed. Two pairs of ten- 
tacular cirri. Dorsal ramus reduced to a cirrus, a slender 
enclosed aciculum and stout spine straight or curved. Ven- 
tral ramus short, with a bundle of simple capillary setae 
and, sometimes, a few furcate setae. A long ventral cirrus. 



Key to the species of Ancistrosyllis. 

Body rounded, stifiE. Head very 

small, retracted into the first 

segments. Dorsal spines 

straight . . . . rigida Fauvel, p. 110. 

Body flat, soft, A distinct neck 

about the fourth segment. 

Head larger. Borsal spines 

curved .. .. cemstricta Southern, p. UI. 

89. Ancisttosyllis rigida Fauvel. (Fig. 53) . 

Ancistrosyllis ngida, Fauvel, 1919, p. 373, fig. 4; 192Sb, p. 16, fig. 
3; 1932, p. 64; 1939, p. 288: Augener, 1927c, p. 134; 1927, p. 50. 
Kynephorm inermis, Ehlers, 1920, p. 27, pi. Ill, figs. 1—9. 



ANaSTROSYLLIS 



111 



Body stiff, rounded dorsally. Head very small, re- 
tracted into the first segments. Palps ovoid, with a very 
short palpostyle and a small papilla. Median tentacle 
inserted between the palps; lateral tentacles very small, 
inserted on the palpophores. Four very small eyes. 
Parapodia borne on lateral square cushions. Dorsal and 




«^^^^^^.>^!^.^.^N^^>■^■~^~^-~^' 



Fig. SS.—Ancistrosyllis rigida Fauvel: a, anterior part Xl5; b, foot 

XlOO; c, tentacular cirri xlOO; d, forked bristle X700; e, 

capillary bristle X400. 

ventral cirri fusiform. Dorsal ramus reduced to 1—3 
slender enclosed acicula and a large blunt, faintly curved 
or straight spine from the 15th— 20th setigerous segment 
backwards. Ventral setae capillary, winged, and 1-2 
furcate setae. Two anal cirri. General appearance wiry. 

Length: 10—35 mm. by 0.5—1.5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, yellowish brown with lateral pads 
whitish or reddish. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Madras and Orissa 
coasts. 

Distribution: Gambier Islands; Indo-China; Malayan 
Sea; Indian Ocean, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Cura^a. 

90. Ancisteosyllis constrfcta Southern. (Fig. 54) . 

Ancistrosyllis constricta, Southern, 1921, p. 573, pL XIX, fig. 1. 
Fauvel, 1930. p. 64. 



112 



HKSIONIDAE 



Greatest width at the anterior end, a distinct neck at 
the 4th setigerous segment, after which the body becomes 
flat. Peristomium and three anterior segments longer 
than the succeeding ones. Flattened palps with a small 
palpostyle. Median tentacle twice as long as the laterals, 
which project a little beyond the palps. Dorsal curri on 
the first setigerous segment very long and tapering. An 




Fig. 54.—AncistrasyUis constricta Southern : a, anterior end, dorsal 

view X31; bj 40th right foot x78; c, part of dorsal lobe of 80th 

right foot, posterior view X257; d, anterior dorsal seta from 

1st foot X436 (after Southern). 

enclosed dorsal slender aciculum and, between the 30th 
and 40th feet, a stout sickle-shaped seta. Minute papillae 
on the base of the dorsal cirrus. Ventral setae capillary, 
smooth or faintly serrated and, in the anterior feet, short- 
er and coarsely serrated setae. 

Length: 19 mm. 155 segments. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake; Vizagapatam. On muddy 
or sandy bottom. 

Incertae Sedis. 



Genus TALEHSAPIA Fauvel. 

The characters of the genus are those of the only 
species known. 



TALEHSAPIA 



113 



91. Talehsapla annandalei Fauvel. (Fig. 55, a—h) . 

Talehsapia annandalei, Fauvel, 1932, p. 251, pi. IX, figs. 13—20; 
non Fauvel, 1935, p. 333, fig. 6. 

Body filiform, cylindrical; teguments smooth and 
shining. First five segments slightly swollen. The pros- 
tomium is a blunt cone, destitute of eyes, tentacles and 
processes of any kind. Mouth broad. Proboscis soft, 
cylindrical, transparent, without any papillae. Pharynx 
extending to the middle of the 5th setigerous segment, 
ventricle with a pair of horny jaws, shaped, on each side, 
as a brown, sharp hook with an accessory paragnath. The 




Fig. hh.— Talehsapia annandalei Fauvel : a, anterior end, compressed, 
showing the jaws X6; 6, segments of posterior end X6; c, dorsal 
ramus and stout acicular bristle X54; d, jaws, dorsal view 
X43; e, foot x59; /, g, hispid setae X270; h, anterior 
end, proboscis partly extruded, pharynx and jaws 
seen through the body walls of the cleared speci- 
men X6. 

first five segments are slightly swollen. The feet consist 
of a blunt cylindrical setigerous lobe with a very small 
ventral cirrus. There is no dorsal cirrus. A stout acicu- 
lum, often reddish at the tip, does not protrude outwards. 
The setae are all simple, straight or slightly curved, and 
minutely hispid. In front view they look faintly bipecti- 
nate. Above the setigerous lobe a stout acicular bristle 
arises from a broad blunt cone, sometimes accompanied 
with a very slender, filiform capillary seta. Two short 
anal cirri (?) . 

F. 17 



114 PHYLLODOCIDAE 

Length: 30-32 mm. by 1 mm. 54-80 segments, the 
last ones monilifonn. 

Colour. In spirit, yellowish-white, with broad, round- 
ed, purple spots on the sides, encircling the feet. 

Occurrence: Taleh-Sap, Gulf of Siam (brackish 
water?) . Only two specimens known. 

Remarks: At first, I wondered whether this species 
were not an aberrant Eunicid; later, a comparison with 
Loandalia Monro and Ancistrosyllis Mcintosh suggested 
its attribution to the Hesionidae as more likely. The frag- 
ments of a worm from Annam which I attributed to 
Talehsapia (1935, p. 333) belong to a Loandalia spec, 
and not to the species from Taleh-Sap. 

Family PHYLLODOCIDAE Grube. 

Body generally long and slender; segments very numer- 
ous. Prostomium conical, oval or heart-shaped. Two 
eyes. Four or five tentacles. Proboscis unarmed. Seg- 
ments 1—3 modified, bearing tentacular cirri. Feet uni- 
ramous. (Exceptionally biramous.) Dorsal and ventral 
cirri foliaceous. Setae compound. 

Key to Subfamilies and genera. 

1. Body long, slender. Dorsal and 

ventral cirri large, foliaceous PHyi£,OZ)OCiiV4£, 4; p. 115. 
Body short, small; pelagic .. 2 

2. Feet biramous. Four tentacles, 

no palps. . LACYDONINAE Paralacydonia Fauvel, p. 128 

Feet uniramous. 2—3 pairs of 
tentacular cirri . LOPADO- 
RHYNCHINAE .. .. 3 

3 Dorsal and ventral cirri cylin- Pelagobia, Greef, p. 131. 
drical 

Dorsal and ventral cirri lanceo- Lopadorhynchus Grube, p. 130. 
late 

4. feet biramous. 5 tentacles . . Notophyllum Oersted, p. 126. 

Feet uniramous. Body slender. 

Cirri large . . . . 6 

5. Two pairs of tentacular cirri . . Eleone Savigny, p. 127. 
Four pairs of tentacular cirri . 6 

6. Four tentacles .. .. Phyllodoce Savigny, p. 115. 
Five tentacles . . . . Eulalta Oersted, p. 122. 



PHYLLODOCE 115 

Subfamily PHYLLODOCINAE. 

Genus PHYLLODOCE Savigny. 

Body very long and slender, segments very numerous. 
Prostomium oval or heart-shaped. Four tentacles. Pro- 
boscis long and papillose. Four pairs of tentacular cirri 
borne on three more or less distinct segments. Parapodia 
uniramous. Dorsal and ventral cirri large, foliaceous. 
Setae compound. 

Key to the species of Phyllodoce. 

1. Prostomium rounded .. castanea (Marenzdler), 

p. 115. 
Prostomium heart-shaped . . 2 

2. Tentacles and tentacular cirri 

ovoid . . . . quadraticeps Grube, p. 116. 

Tentacles and tentacular cirri 

subulate . . . . 3 

3. Numerous irregular rows of small 

papillae at the base of the 
proboscis .. .. 4 

Papillae on the base of the pro- 
boscis arranged in 6 longitu- 
dinal rows on each side . . 6 

4. Dorsal cirri sub-rhomboidal .. malmgreni Gravier, p. 117. 
Dorsal cirri lanceolate . . 5 

5. Dorsal cirri short .. gracilis Kinberg, p. 117. 

Dorsal cirri twice as long as 

broad . . . . fristedti Bergstrom, p. 118. 

6. Dorsal cirri rounded . . dissotyla Willey, p. 119. 
Dorsal cirri lanceolate . . tenuissima Grube, p. 121. 
Dorsal cirri lanceolate falcate . . madeirensis Langerhans, p. 120 

92'. Phyllodoce castanea (Marenzeller) . (Fig. 56, a~c) . 
Phyllodoce castaneUj Fauvel, 1919, p. 359; 1932, p. 68. 
Carobra castanea, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 127, pi. Ill, fig. S: Willey, 

1906, p. 262: Izuka, 1912, p. 169, pi. XVI, fig. 3. 
Genetyllts castanea, Bergstrom, 1914, p. 158, fig. SS. 

Prostomium oval or rounded. Tentacular cirri more 
or less flattened. Dorsal cirri very large, cordate, those 
on anterior feet broader, more rounded than the poste- 
rior ones. Ventral cirri reniform. 

Length^ 10—20 mm. 

Colour: Deep red, rusty or chestnut-brown in spirit. 

Occurrence. Tuticorin pearl bank; Ceylon. 

Distribution: California; Japan; Australia; New Zea- 
land; Ceylon; Persian Gulf; Red Sea. 



116 



PHYLLODOCIDAE 



&3. Phyllodoce qttadfaticeps Grube. (Fig. 56, /-;) . 

Phyllodoce quadraticeps, Grabe, 1878, p. 98, pi. VI, fig S: Gravier, 
1900, p. 198, pi. X, figs. 22-24: Fauvel, 1930, p. 511, 1932, p. 
68. 

Sphaerodoce quadraticeps, BergstrSm, 1914, p. 50. 

Body long, slender. Prostomium nearly square, with 
a small posterior notch and a very minute occipital papil- 
la. Short knob-like tentacles. Tentacular cirri of the 
three anterior pairs short, swollen, ovoid; those of the 
fourth pair subulate. Dorsal cirri thick, rounded, rather 
small. 




Fig. 56 —Phyllodoce castanea (Marenzeller): a, anterior end (after 
Izuka); h, anterior foot X40; c, hind foot XSI. Ph. (?) zeylanica 
Willey: d, head, e, dorsal cirrus (after Willey). Ph quadrati- 
ceps Grube: /, anterior end; g, hind foot. Ph. malmgreni 
Gravier: h, foot (after Gravier). 

Length: 200 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: Back dirty yellow; on each segment a broad 
dark-coloured transverse streak. Thick dorsal cirri pale 
yellow. 

Occurrence: Camorta Island, shore collecting; Sumatra. 
Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Korea Sund, New Cale- 
donia, Philippine Islands; Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, 

Red Sea. 



PHYLLODOCE 



117 



94. Phyllodoce malmgreni Gravier. (Fig. 56, h) . 

Phyllodoce malmgreni, Gravier, 1900, p. 207, pi. X, figs. 29—31. 
Phyllodoce malmgreni, Fauvel, 1919, p. 360; 1932, p. 68. 

Prostomium heart-shaped. Tentacular cirri long, 
subulate. Papillae of the base of the proboscis more or 
less conical, scattered in numerous irregular longitudinal 
rows. Dorsal cirri sub-rectangular or sub-rhomboidal. 
Body slender. 

Length: 40—70 mm. 

Colour: Back yellowish, with a dark spot on each 
segment; " green in life with a double row of black spots." 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam. 

Distribution: India; Red Sea. 

95. Phyllodoce gracilis Kinberg. (Fig. 67). 

Phyllodoce gracilis, Kinberg, 1857-1910, p. 55, pi. XXH, fig. 2: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 69, fig. 12. 




Fig. 51. —Phyllodoce gracilis Kinberg: a, bristle X520; 6, c, feet 

X65; d, «, dorsal cirri X65; /, g, ventral cirri X65 (from 

Fauvel 1932). 

Long, slender body. Prostomium heart-shaped. Two 
large eyes. Tentacular ciixi long, subulate. Base of the 
proboscis covered with numerous scattered small papillae. 
Dorsal cirri small, oval. Ventral cirri similar, smaller. 

Length: 25—30 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, greyish-white, dorsal and ventral 
cirri thickly dotted with rusty brown spots. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Australia (?) ; Society Islands; Andaman 
Islands. 



118 



PHYLLODOCroAE 



96. Phyflodoce ftistedti Bergstrom. (Fig. 58, a-b) . 

Phylladoce frlstedU, Ber^trfim, 1914, p. 152, fig. 49, pi. Ill, fig. I, 

Augener, 1926, p. 445. 
?Phyllodoce macrolepidota, Schmarda, 1861, p. 83, pi. XXIX, 

fig. 229 {non Willey 1905). 

Body very long and slender. Prostomium heart- 
shaped, with an occipital papilla. Numerous irregular 
rows of small papillae on the base of the proboscis. Ten- 
tacular cirri subulate, the longer ones reaching to the 6th 
—7th segment. Average dorsal cirri oval-lanceolate, near- 
ly twice as long as broad. Ventral cirri broad and blunt. 




Fig. 58.—Phylhdoce fristedii Bergstrom: a, head and proboscis x4; 

6, foot (after Bergstrom). Ph. (Anaitides) dissotyla Willey: c, 

head; a, foot (after Willey). 



200 mm. by 3 mm. 

In life, body blue, cirri yellow. In spirit. 



Length'. 

Colour: 
light brown. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Trincoroali. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean. 

Remarks: This species is closely allied to Ph. lanii- 
nosa, differing chiefly by its more narrow and longer dor 
sal cirri. 



PHYLLODOCE 119 



Incertae Sedis. 



97. PHyllodoce (?) zeylanica (Willey) . (Fig. 56, d-e). 
Anaitis zeylanica, Willey, 1905, p. 262, pi. Ill, figs. 57-60. 

Body slender, " head rounded, eyes large, tentacular 
cirri normal, elongate. Proboscis (dissected) consists of 
two well-separated portions, a thin walled proximal or 
adoral portion densely covered with papillae, not serially 
disposed; a thick walled distal portion with six prominent 
rows of large sub-triangular papillae, six or seven in a row. 
Dorsal phyllodes broadly ovate (cordate-lanceolate) as 
they are in a dozen other species". (Willey.) Shafts of 
the setae terminating in a triangular apex, fringed at the 
sides and articulating on one side with a long, flagelli- 
form, strongly serrated appendix. Anal cirri acuminate. 

Length: 38 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: South Mannar Island; 8—9 fms. 

Remarks: Very likely a Phyllodoce or a Genetyllis, 
more or less akin to Ph. castanea (?) , but not an Anaitis. 

Subgenus ANAITIDES Czemiavsky. 

Prostomium heart-shaped. Papillae on the base of the 
proboscis arranged in 6 longitudinal rows on each side. 

98. Phyllodoce (Anahidcs) dissotyla (Willey) . (Fig. 58, 

c—d) . 

Phyllodoce (Anaitides) dissotyla, Willey, 1905, p. 263, pi. HI, 
figs. 63-66. Fauvel, 1911, p. 373. 

Body long and slender. Prostomium longer than 
broad, heart-shaped, with a yery minute occipital papilla. 
Two large eyes each with a lens. The antennae do not 
reach back to the eyes. Four pairs of long tentaailar 
cirri. Proboscis with the adoral portion beset with longi- 
tudinal rows of rounded normal papillae; in two of the 
rows, median dorsal and median ventral, three large tri- 
angular papillae placed one behind the other, with normal 
papillae in front and behind in the satne rows: two sets 
of three on opposite sides of the proboscis. Dorsal cirri 
rounded, not lanceolate, and sti-ongly pedunculate. The 
setae are conspicuously heterogomph; their appendices 
with serrulated edge. 

Length: 18—25 mm. by 1 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, 11 fms. 

Distribution: India; Persian Gulf. 



120 



PHYLLODOCIDAE 



99. Phyllodocc (Anaitidcs) madetrcnsis Langerhans. 
(Fig. 59, d-h) . 

Phyllodoce madeirensis, Langerhans, 1879, p. 307, pi. XVII, fig. 

44: Fauvd, 1914, p. Ill, pi. VI, figs. 5-13; 1932, p. 70. 
Phyllodoce sancti-vincentis, Mcintosh, 18S5, p. 166. 
Phyllodoce sancti-josephi, Gravier, 1900, p. 196, pi. X, figs. 20— 

21. 
y Phyllodoce foliosopapillala, Willey. 1905, p. 264, pi. Ill, figs. 

67-69. 

Body slender, with a long tapering tail. Prostomium 
heart-shaped, with an occipital papilla. Proboscis with 




Fig. 59.— Phyllodoce (Anaitides) madeirensis Langerhans: d, ante- 
rior end and proboscis X7 (after Rioja); e, anterior fool; /, 
foot from mid-body; g, dorsal cirrus, enlarged; h, bristle. 

12 longitudinal rows (6 on each side) o£ papillae at the 
base and, sometimes, a dorsal median row o£ 4—6 papil- 
lae. Dorsal cirri oval, lanceolate or sub-rhomboidal, very 
variable in shape; ventral cirri longer than the foot. 

Length: 200-600 mm. by 1-3 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, yellowish-white or light brown. 



PHYLLODOCE 



121 



Occurrence: Malacca Straits; Mergui; Andaman Is- 
lands; Ceylon; Laccadive Sea. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, China, Annam, Philip- 
pine Islands, Australia, Malay Archipelago; Indian Ocean, 
Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 



100. Phyllodoce (Anaitides) -tenaissima Grube. (Fig 60, 
d). 

Phyllodoce tenuusima, Grube, 1878, p. 95: Fauvel, 1932, p. ?0: 
Augener, 1927a, p. 118. 

Phyllodoce macrolepidota, WUley (non Schmarda), 1905, p. 265, 
pi. Ill, figs. 70-71. 

Body very long and slender. Prostomium heart-shaped. 
Two large eyes. A very small occipital papilla. Probos- 




Fig. 60.—EulaHa albo-picta Marenzeller: a, anterior part X20; b, 

55th foot X56 (after Marenzeller). Notophyllum splendens 

(Schmarda): c, head, enlarged (after Willey). Phyllodoce 

tenuissima Grube (=Ph. macrolepidota WUley, non- 

Schmarda) : d, foot (after Willey). 

cis with 12 longitudinal rows of papillae at the base and a 
dorsal median row of three brown papillae. Dorsal cirri 
broadly lanceolate or with the apex truncate, sub-quadran- 
gular. Ventral cirri about the length of the foot. 

F. 18 



122 PHYLLODOCIDAE 

Length: 200 mm. by 3 mm. 

Colour: In life, bright green, with red and yellow 
markings. In spirit, yellowish with transverse dark-blue 
iridescent streaks. 

Occurrence: Nicobar Islands; Ceylon. 

Distribution: New Zealand; Australia; Philippine 
Islands; Nicobar Islands; Ceylon. 

Remarks: Perhaps a mere colour variety of Phyllo- 
doce madeirensis Langerhans. 

Genus EULALIA Oersted. 

Body long and slender, segments numerous. Prosto- 
mium conical, oval or pyriform. Two eyes. Five tenta- 
cles. Proboscis long and papillose, rarely smooth. Four 
pairs of tentacular cirri, borne on three more or less dis- 
tinct segments. Parapodia uniramous. Setae compound. 



Key to the species of Eulalia. 

1. Dorsal cirri heart-shaped .. 2 
Dorsal cirri lanceolate . . 3 

2. Proboscis smooth . . sanguinea Oersted, p. 126. 
Proboscis with papillae . . albopicta Marenzeller, p. 123. 

3. Ventral cirrus of second tentacu- 

lar pair flattened, winged . . magalhaensts Kinberg, p. 124. 

Ventral cirrus of second tentacu- 
lar pair not materially flatten- 
ed, not winged . . viridis (Muller), p. 122. 

101. Ealalia vifidis (MuUer) . (Fig. 61, a-h) . 

Eulalia viridis, Fauvel, 1923, p. 160, fig. 57, <t~h (Synonymy); 
1930, p. 12. 

Prostomium rounded. Median tentacle longer, in- 
serted between the eyes. Very long proboscis beset with 
very numerous small papillae. Tentacular cirri cylin- 
drical or slightly spindle-shaped, inserted on three distinct 
segments. Dorsal cirri enlongated, lanceolate. Com- 
pound setae with rather short terminal piece. Body long 
and slender. 

Length: 50—150 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: Bright green in life, dark olive or yellowish- 
brown in spirit. Var. aurea Gravier, gold yellow. 
Occurrence: Pamban. 



EUIjWLIA 



123 



Distribution: 
Pacific Oceans. 



Cosmopolitan. Atlantic, Indian and 



102. Ealalia albo-picta Marenzeller. (Fig. 60, a-b) . 

Eulalia albo-picta, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 128, pi. UI, fig. 3: Izuka, 
1912, p. 207: Fauvel, 1932, p. 71. 

Prostomium broader than long. Median tentacle 
arising from the middle of the dorsal surface o£ the pros- 
tomium, somewhat longer than the paired ones. Two 
large round eyes. First pair of tentacular cirri borne on 
the first segment, second and third pair borne on the 




Fig. Ql.— Eulalia viridis (MuUer): a, anterior part, enlarged; 6, average 

foot X40; c, another dorsal cirrus x40; d, 2nd and 3id tentacular 

cirri X40; e, bristle X400. var. aurea Gravier: /, foot X40. 

var. ornata Saint-Joseph : g, head and middle segment 

X30; h, dorsal cirrus X20. 

second, which has a pair of rudimentary parapodia with 
bristles; fourth pair borne on the third segment. Dorsal 
cirri cordate, with sharply pointed tips and broad bases, 
in anterior segments; they become lanceolate in the pos- 
terior part of the body. Ventral cirri cordate, much 
smaller than the dorsal, shorter than the foot. 

Length: 20 mm. by 3—4 mm.; setae included. 

Colour: Irregular, transversely elongated, white spots 
on the back. 



124 



PHYLLODOGIDAE 



Occurrence: Nankauri Harbour; Nicobar Islands. 
Distribution: South Japan; Nicobar Islands. 

Subgenus PTEROCIRRUS Claparede. 

Ventral tentacular cirrus of the second segment flat- 
tened and winged. 

103. Ettlalia (Ptetocbxus) magalhacnsis Kinberg. (Fig. 
62). 

Eulalia magalhaensis, Kinberg, 1857—1910, p. 65, pi. XXXIII, 

fig. 1: Fauvel, 1919, p. 364, fig. 3; 1932, p. 71 
Steggoa magalhaensis, Bergstrom, 1914, p. 129, fig. 35. 
Eulaba tenax, Grube, 1878, p. 99, pi. VI, fig. 3. 




Fig. 62.— EuZaKa (Pterocirrus) magalhaensis Kinberg: forma tenax 
Grube (from Persian Gulf): a, foot X40; b, c, foot and dorsal 
cirrus (from Red Sea): forma brevicomis Augener (from 
Australia): d, foot X30; e, compound seta from 2nd tenta- 
cular cirrus X660; forma ceylonicus WiUey: f, male, 
foot X40; g, female, foot X40; h, specimen from 
Aden; foot X40. 



EULALIA 



125 



Ptewcirrus brevicomis, Ehlers, 1904, p. 17. pi. II, figs. 10—12. 
Pterocirrus ceylonicus, Walley, 1905, p. 266: Fauvel, 1918, p. 356. 
Steggoa brevicomis J Augener, 1927a, p. 120. 

Prostomium oval. Two large eyes. Tentacles sub- 
equal, longer than the prostomium. Three tentacular 
segments distinct. Ventral cirrus of the second tentacu- 
lar pair flattened and winged. Proboscis covered with 
small papillae. Dorsal cirri elongated, lanceolate. Ven- 
tral cirri short and blunt. 

Length: 30—80 mm. by 0.5—1 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, dark greenish-brown. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Mergui Archipelago; Gulf of 
Mannar; Ceylon. 

Distribution: South Pacific Ocean, Australia, New 
Zealand, Philippine Islands; Bay of Bengal, India, Persian 
Gulf, Red Sea. 

Subgenus EUMIDA Malmgren. 

Proboscis smooth. 

104. Ealalia (Ettmida) sangttinea Oersted. (Fig. 63, 
f-k). 
Eulalia (Eumida) sangainea Oersted, Fauvel, 1923, p. 116, fig. 59, 

f-k; 1930, p. 12. 
Eumida communis, Gravier, 1896, p. 18, pi. XVI, figs. 7—10. 
Eulalia pallida, ClaparMe, 1868, p. 246, pi. XVI, fig. 61. 




Fig. 63.—Pelagobia longicirrata Gieeff • a, anterior part, x29 (after 

Reibisch), b, foot; c, bristle X124; d, Proserrate bristle Xl24. 

Eumida sangumea Oersted: /, head X17; g, feraale, 

foot X33; h, dorsal cirrus of male X33; 

k. var. communis Gravier: foot X49 

(after Gravier). 



126 PHYLLODOaCAE 

Body rather short and attenuated at both extremities. 
Prostomium heart-sliaped, broader than long. Two black 
eyes. Tentacles short, the median longer and inserted 
in front of the eyes. Proboscis smooth. Tentacular cirri 
cylindrical. Dorsal cirri heart-shaped, ventral cirri lanceo- 
late, shorter than the foot. Setae with swollen, spinous 
shaft and long terminal pieces. 

Length: 30-60 mm. 

Colour: Very variable in life, violet, ochraceous, 
yellow, red-brown, or spotted. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: New Zealand; Annam; Indian Ocean, 
Persian Gulf; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus NOTOPHYLLUM Oersted. 

Body thick. Prostomium conical or rounded. Two 
eyes. Five tentacles. Four pairs of tentacular cirri, borne 
on three distinct segments. Dorsal cirri broad and folia- 
ceous. Parapodia biramous. Dorsal setae simple, ven- 
tral setae compound. Two anal cirri. Proboscis vrith 
soft, difiEuse papillae. Nuchal organs cirriform or foliace- 
ous, hanging backwards. 

106. Notophylltan splendens (Schmarda) . (Fig. 60 c) . 

Notophyllum splendens, Augener, 1913, p. 140, fig. 11: Fauvel, 

1930, p. 515. 
Macrophyllum splendens, Schmarda, 1861, p. 82, pi. XXIX, fig. 

227. 
Notophyllum laciniatum, Willey, 1905, p. 263, pi. HI, figs. 61-62. 
Notophyllum imbricaiam, Moore, 1906, p. 217, pi. X, figs. 1—3. 
Phyllodoce multicirris, Grube, 1878, p. 100, pi. VI, fig. 4. 

Body short and thick. Prostomium rounded, with 
median tentacle between two large eyes. Behind the 
prostomium two pairs of occipital lappets, hanging back- 
wards, and each divided into three cirriform processes. 
Tentacles and palps fusiform. Two pairs of tentacular 
cirri shorter than the others. Broad reniform, closely im- 
bricating, dorsal foliaceous cirri. Dorsal ramus with one 
aciculum and a few simple setae. Ventral setae com- 
pound, with rather long serrulate end-piece. 

Length: 15—50 mm. by 1—4 mm. 

Colour: Greenish or brownish, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Alaska; Japan; Australia; New Cale- 
donia; Philippine Islands; Ceylon. 



ETEONE 



127 



Genus ETEONE Savigny. 

Body linear, segments numerous. Prostomium tri- 
angular, with four small tentacles on the truncate anterior 
border. Generally two small eyes. Two pairs of tenta- 
cular cirri. Dorsal cirrus absent on the second setigerous 
segment. Proboscis smooth, or with soft papillae and 
small chitinous tubercles. Dorsal and ventral cirri folia- 
ceous. Setae compound. 



Ker^ to the species of Eteone 



Proboscis smooth, or with soft 
papillae. (Subgenus Eteone) 

Proboscis with lateral rows of 
large, soft papillae and small 
spinous tubercles (Subgenus 
Mysta) 



barantollae Fauvel, p. 127. 



ornata Grube, p. 1?8. 

106. Eteone barantollae Fauvel. (Fig. 64, a-d) . 
Eteone barantollae, Fauvel, 1932, p. 72, fig. 13. 

Body filiform, sub-cylindrical, segments very numerous. 
Prostomium broader than long, notched on each side. 
Two very small black eyes. Four small, short, knob-like 
tentacles. Proboscis smooth and transparent at the base, 
and with five longitudinal rows of large, soft, depressed. 




Tig. 64.— £ieone barantollae Fauvel: a, b, anterior foot, front and 

back view XH2; c, foot from mid-body XI 12; d, posterior 

dorsal cirrus Xll2. 



128 PHYLLODOCJDAE 

rounded or squarish papillae anteriorly. The median 
dorsal row is broader than the lateral ones which are 
parted, on the ventral side, by a smooth longitudinal 
stripe. Two pairs of tentacular cirri subulate, somewhat 
lanceolate and flattened; the ventral lai-ger than the dorsal, 
reaching backwards to the 4th segment. On the 2nd 
segment a setigerous foot and a ventral cirrus, but no dor- 
sal cirrus; average dorsal cirri small, rather thin, rounded 
or semi-oval, more or less symmetrical, borne on a large 
and short cirrophore. Feet conical, elongate. Ventral 
drri conical or oval, relatively narrow and much shorter 
than the foot. Setae short, and shaft swollen at the joint. 
Anal cirri foliaceous, lanceolate. 

Length: 30-35 mm. by 1.5-2 mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish-white, cirri and feet ligh- 
ter. 

Occurrence: Banks of the canal near Barantolla, Salt- 
Water Lakes, near Calcutta. 

107. Eteone (Mysta) omata Grube. (Fig. 65 a-d) . 

Eteone onvfta, Grube, 1877, p. 106; 1879, p. 15: Izuka, 1912, p. 
2Q1: Fquvel, 1932, p. 73. 

Afyito tnacuhta, Tieadwell, 1920, p. 593, figs. 1-4. 

.."Body elongated, with three striking longitudinal 
rows of violet pigment spots upon a pale-yellowish colour, 
towards the middle part of the body the pigment spots 
become gradually smaller and blend into a single streak, 
while in the posterior region of the body they entirely 
disappear. Dorsal cirri comparatively small and borne 
on a distinct stalk, as in E. armata Clapar^de (1868) and 
E. siphonodonta D. Ch. Prostomium roundish, triangular, 
somewhat broader than long, and longer than the peristo- 
mium; two eyes, small and dot-like." (Izuka) . Prosto- 
mium notched on each side. 

Occurrence: Sandheads. 

Distribution: North Japan Seas; Pliilippine Islands; 
India. 

Genus PARALACYDONIA Fauvel. 

Prostomium conical; four small tentacles at the tip. 
Peristomium achaetous and destitute of tentacular cirri. 
First setigerous segment uniramous. Succeeding segments 
biramous, dorsal and ventral divisions wide apart. Dor- 



PASALACYDONIA 



129 



sal and ventral cirri not foliaceous. Dorsal setae simple, 
ventral ones compound. Proboscis unarmed. 

108. Patalacydonia weheti Horst. (Fig. 65, e, /) . 

Paralacydonia weheri, Horst, 1922, p. 221, figs. 1—2: Fauvel, 1932, 

p. 74. 
Paralacydonia mortenseni, Augener, 1924, p. 311, fig. 3; 1927b. 

p. 344. 

Body flattened, square in section. Tentacles bi-annu- 
lar. Eyes absent. The buccal segment and the first two 
setigerous ones bear, on their dorsal side, a transverse 
ridge-shaped enlargement and constitute together a kind 
of shield provided with two shallow grooves behind the 
head. Parapodia resembling those of Nephthys. Dorsal 
ramus with a low, rounded, notched anterior lip; posterior 




Fig. 66.—Eteone ornata Grube {=:Mysta maculataf) a, head X17; b, 

foot from mid-body X37; c, 15th foot X37; d, compound seta 

X243 (after Treadwell) Paralacydonia weheri Horst ■ e, 

foot from mid-body (after Horst); /, anterior part. 

lip without lobes; a short erect dorsal cirrus and a bundle 
of simple setae. Ventral ramus with a short rounded pos- 
terior lip, an anterior one bilobed, the upper lobe large, 
triangular, erect, the inferior lobe smaller, rounded; a 
digitiform ventral cirrus, a fascicle of heterogomph com- 
pound bristles and no inferior simple setae. In the space 
between both foot-lobes the border is densely beset with 
long cilia. 

F. 19 



ISO 



PHYLLODOCIDAE 



Length: 25—35 mm. by 4 mm., feet included. 

Colour: In spirit, a V-shaped streak of pigment at the 
base of the prostomium, in front of the two rectangular 
pads of the shield, with a small rounded external dot. 
Faint transverse sti-eaks o£ pigment on several segments. 

Occurrence: Off Akyab, Burma, 250 fms. 

Distribution: Samoa; East Indies; south of Flores; 
New Zealand; Burma. 



Genus LOPADORHYCHUS Grube. 

Body short, prostomium broad. Two eyes. Four 
tentacles. Two pairs of large tentacular cirri, and a third, 
ludimentary or wanting, inserted on an achaetous segment 
fused with the prostomium. Setae simple on the first 
and succeeding segments; next, simple and compound 
setae. Dorsal and ventral cirri foliaceous. Feet conical 
with a rounded lamella. Proboscis unarmed. 

109. Lopadofhynchus tincinatos Fauvel. (Fig. 66) . 

Lopadorhynchus uncinatus, Fauvel, 1916a, p. 57, pi. I, figs. 2, 3, 
pi. IV, figs 4-14; 1923a, p. 184, fig. 67; 1932, p. 76: Monro, 
1937, p. 266. 




Fig. 66— Lopadorhynchus uncinatus Fauvel: a, whole animal X4; 

b, anterior part dorsal view and c, vential view X6; d, 3rd 

setigerous segment X23; e, 19th sctigerous segment 

X23, /, hook from the 1st setigerous segment 

X23; g, compound bristle x78. 



PELAGOBIA 131 

Body divided into two clearly distinct regions, 25—32 
segments. Third pair of tentacular cirri reduced to a 
small conical process inserted on the base of the second 
pair. The first two setigerous segments resemble each 
other; they are much larger than the succeeding ones, 
point forwards, and are armed with stout sigmoid sharp 
brown hooks. Both are destitute of ventral cirri, but have 
a collar. 

Length: 9—20 mm. by 2.5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish and dotted with small 
star-shaped brown markings. 

Occurrence: Reef on N. side of Faladu Island, Hors- 
burg Atoll, Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Maldive Archipelago; Atlantic Ocean, 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus PELAGOBIA Greeff. 

Four tentacles. No palps. Two pairs of tentacular 
cirri on the same segment. Dorsal cirrus of the next 
setigerous segment reduced. Parapodia uniramous. Dor- 
sal and ventral cirri slender, elongate. Setigerous lobe 
with one aciculum and compound setae with a denticulate 
terminal piece. Two anal cirri. Proboscis smooth with 
numerous small glands. 

110. Pcl^ofcia longiciffata Greeff. (Fig. 63, a-d) . 

Pelagobia longicirrata, Greeff, 1879, p. 247, pi. XIV, figs. 23-25: 
Fauvel, 1923a, p. 192, fig. a-c; 1939, p. 276: Bergstrom, 
1914. 

Body short, small, broad in the middle, 15—24 seg- 
ments. Tentacles filiform. Proboscis cylindrical, un- 
armed, with longitudinal glands. Tentacular cini sub- 
ulate, equal, with a small setigerous lobe and short setae. 
Dorsal cirrus of the second setigerous segment wanting. 
Next, long dorsal cirri; ventral ones shorter: a conical 
lobe with an aciculum and compound setae with a very 
slightly denticulate or smooth shaft and terminal piece 
with a sharp denticulate edge and the other winged, 
smooth. 

Length: 3—8 mm. 

Colour: Colourless, transparent, or orange-red or 
dark-red, in life. 

Occurrence: India. 

Distribution: Japan; Indo-China; Indian Ocean; 
Mediterranean Sea; Antarctic Ocean. 



2 
4 




Alciopa Audouin & 
M.-Edwards, p. 133. 
3 


Vanadis Claparede, p. 


135. 


Greeffia Mcintosh, p. 


135. 


Asterope ClaparMe, p. 


. 132. 



132 ALCIOPIDAE 

Family ALCIOPIDAE Ehlers. 

Transparent, pelagic. Pros(.omium small, between 
two very large spherical red eyes. Five short and simple 
tentacles. Proboscis crowned with a row of papillae and, 
often, two very long lateral ones. Parapodia uniramous; 
dorsal and ventral cirri foliaceous. Setae simple or com- 
pound. Dark segmental glands. One or two anal cirri. 

Key to the genera. 

1. Setae all alike 
Setae of several kinds 

2. Capillary simple setae 

Compound setae 

3. Tarapodia with a single cimfoim 

process 

Parapodia with two cirriform pro- 
cesses 

Parapodia without any cirriform 
process 

4. Simple capillary and acici'lar 

setae. Parapodia without a Corynocephalus Levin- 
cirriform process . . sen, p. 137. 

Compound and acicular selae. 
Parapodia without cinifoira 
process .. .. Rhynchoneiella, Costa, p. 137. 

Genus ASTEROPE Claparede. 

Body short, cylindrical. Five short tentacles, the 
median reduced to a mere tubercle. Proboscis with two 
long lateral papillae and horny denticles. Three pairs 
of tentacular cirri. Broad foliaceous dorsal and ventral 
cirri. Parapodia without cirriform processes. Setae com- 
pound with a long slender terminal piece. Segmental 
glands coloured and bulging. Pelagic. 

111. Aste*ope Candida (Delle Chiaje) . (Fig. 67, a-d) . 
Asterope Candida, Fauvel, 1923, p. 202, fig. 75 (Synonymy). 

Two pairs of very small lateral tentacles. Tentacu- 
lar cirri of the first pair longer and united at the base by 
a transverse membrane. The first two setigerous segments 
rudimentary and, in the female, with dorsal cirri modified 
into globular seminal pouches. Dorsal cirri lanceolate- 
ventral cirri oval. A jutting acicular bristle, and long, 
slender, compound setae. Pelagic. 

Length: 150—250 mm. by 2—3 mm. 



ALCIOPA 



133 



Coloun transparent, with red eyes; segmental glands 
brown or violet. 

Occurrence: In plankton. 

Distribution: China Sea; Annam; Indian Ocean; 
Atlantic Ocean; Mediterranean Sea. 




Fig. 67 —Asterope Candida (Delle Chiaje). a, male, antericn- part XlO 

fafter Clapar^de); b, female, ventral view, with four semiiwl pouches 

(after Hering), c, foot X25, d, bristle X400 



Genus ALCIOPA Audouin and Milne-Edwards. 

Body cylindrical, transparent. Five tentacles, the 
median one reduced to a mere tubercle. Proboscis short, 
with two long lateral papillae, without horny denticles. 
Three pairs of tentacular cirri. First three setigerous seg- 
ments rudimentary. Dorsal and ventral cirri foliaceous. 
Feet without cirriform processes. Setae capillary, simple. 
Segmental glands coloured and bulging. Pelagic. 



134 



ALCIOPIDAE 



113. Alciopa canteainii Delle Chiaje. (Fig. 68 a-c) . 
Alciopa cantrainii, Faiivel, 192S, p. 203, fig. 76 (Synonymy). 

Body abruptly attenuated forward and backward, 
rather plump and short. 70—120 segments. Median ten- 
tacle ovoid. Lateral tentacles spindle-shaped. Large 
spherical eyes, obliquely directed. Proboscis short, crown- 
ed with trilobed papillae, the two lateral ones a little 




/.v (TV. 

Fig 68.— Alciopa cantrainii Delle Chiaje: a, male X2 (after GreefE) ; 
b, female, anteiior part, with two seminal pouches (atter 
Heimg); c, foot from raid-body X35. 



longer. First three pairs of feet reduced to dorsal and 
ventral fusiform cirri and acicular bristles. In the female, 
two globular seminal pouches on the second segment. The 
next dorsal cirri foliaceous, oval. Ventral cirri similar, 
smaller. Feet without cirriform process, with a long 
jutting acicular bristle and long, slender, simple capillary 
setae. 

Length: 40—110 mm. by 2—5 mm. 

Colour: Transparent, with red eyes; segmental glands 
brown. 

Occurrence: Singapore, in plankton. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans; 
Mediterranean Sea. 



VANADIS 135 

Genus VANADIS Glaparede. {Alciopa, -pro -paxte) . 

Body long, transparent; segments very numerous. 
Five short tentacles. Proboscis cylindrical, with two very 
long lateral papillae, without horny denticles. 3—4 pairs 
of tentacular cirri. Dorsal and ventral cirri foliaceous. 
Feet with a cirnform process. Setae all alike, compoufid, 
with a long, slender, terminal piece. Segmental glands 
strongly coloured. Pelagic. 

113. Vanadis formosa Glaparede. (Fig. 70, a-c) . 

Vanadis formosa, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 205, fig 77. (Synonymy): 
Monro, 1937, p. 268. 

Body very long, 200 segments or more. Median ten- 
tacle cirriform; two pairs o£ lateral tentacles alike. Two 
large spherical eyes directed downwards. Proboscis long, 
with trilobed papillae and two lateral, very long, cirriform 
ones. Three pairs of tentacular cirri, the first longer. 
First pair of feet reduced to dorsal and ventral cirri. Two 
pairs of seminal pouches in the female. Feet from the 
2nd, in male, and 3rd, in female, with a heart-shaped elon- 
gate dorsal and ventral cirrus, a long cirriform process, a 
jutting aciculum and long compound setae with a slender 
terminal piece. Pelagic. 

Length: 200-300 mm. by 5-6 mm. 

Colour: Transparent with red eyes; brown segmental 
glands. 

Occurrence: Arabian Sea, in plankton. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Indian Ocean; Arabian 
Sea; Atlantic Ocean; Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus GREEFFIA Mcintosh. 

Body short. Five tentacles. Proboscis with two long 
lateral papillae, without horny denticles. Three or four 
pairs of tentacular cirri. There are no rudimentary feet. 
Dorsal and ventral cirri foliaceous. Feet with two cirri- 
form processes. Setae compound, with long terminal 
piece. Dorsal and ventral segmental glands coloured. 

114. Gfceffia celox (Greeff) . (Fig. 69 a-c) . 
Greeffia celox, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 208, fig. 78 a-c; 1939, p. 283. 
Nauphanta celox, Greeff 1876, p. 69, pi. IV, figs. 40-42. 
?Greeffta oahuensis Mcintosh, Monro, 1930, p. 82, fig. 26. 



136 



ALCIOPIDAE 



Body somewhat broad and short, tapering backwards. 
About 60 segments. Median and lateral tentacles short, 
alike. Proboscis short, with two cirriform papillae. 
Three or four pairs of short tentacular cirri. All feet 
well developed. Dorsal cirri foliaceous, heart-shaped, im- 
bricated. Venti-al cirri rounded. Feet with two cirriform 
processes. Aciculum little or not jutting. Long com- 
pound setae with short terminal piece. Dorsal transverse 
segmental glands and globular ventral glands under the 
feet. Pelagic. 




Fig. 69.—Greeffia celox (Greeff) : a, anterior part Xl6 (after Greeff) , 

b, foot X12; c, proboscis (after Apstein). Corynocephalus alboma- 

culatus Levinsen : d, dorsal view; «, /, anterior part, dorsal and 

ventral view, enlarged; g, ventral view of two segments with 

papillae (after Levinsen); h, anterior foot X20; i, foot 

from mid-body (after Apstein). 



20-60 mm. by 6-12 mm. 

Transparent with red eyes; segmental glands 



Length: 

Colour: 
very dark. 

Occurrence: Cauda, Poulo Condore; in plankton. 

Pacific, Indian, Atlantic and Antarctic 



Distribution: 
Oceans. 

Remarks: Greeff attributes four pairs of tentacular 
cirri to this species. In European, as well as Indian Ocean 
specimens, I have always found only three pairs. 



CORYNOCEPHALUS 137 

Genus CORYNOCEPHALUS Levinsen. 

Body short, plump, segments few. Median tentacle 
carinated. Two pairs of lateral tentacles, inserted under 
the anterior margin of the prostomium. Two large sphe- 
rical eyes. (Proboscis unknown.) 4—5 pairs of tentacu- 
lar cirri. There are no rudimentary feet. Large folia ce- 
ous, imbricated dorsal cirri. Ventral cirri foliaceous. 
Feet without cirriform processes.. Setae of two kinds: (1) 
short, acicular; (2) capillary, simple. Large ventral papi- 
llae (nephridial ?) under the feet. Dorsal segmental 
glands small. Pelagic. 

115. Corynocephaltfs alfcomacolattts Levinsen. (Fig. 69, 
d-i) . 

Corynocepkalus albo-maculatus, Fauvel 1923, p. 208, fig. 78, 
d-i (Synonymy); 1939, p. 284. 

Alciopina parasitica, Claparfede, 1868, p. 253, pi. XXXIII. 

Body short and broad, about 50 segments; anterior 
margin of the prostomium semi-circular. Median tentacle 
like a claviform crest between the eyes, ending behind in 
a free tapering tip. Two pairs of lateral tentacles, folia- 
ceous, lanceolate, recurved under the prostomium. 4—5 
pairs of tentacular cirri. All feet well developed. Dorsal 
cirri large, foliaceous, rounded or sub-rhomboidal; imbri- 
cated. Ventral cirri oval or subtriangular. Anterior feet 
with short acicular setae, and, from the fourth setigerous 
segment backwards, these are mixed up with very slender, 
simple, capillary setae. From about the 10th segment, 
large rounded ventral glands on the base of the feet. 
Dorsal segmental glands small. Pelagic. 

Length: 32 mm. by 5 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish, with a longitudinal band of white 
spots on the ventral surface. Habitat: when young in the 
gastro-vascular cavities of Cydippe and Hormiphora. 

Occurrence: Cauda, Ream, Poulo Condore, Ceylon. 

Distribution: Indo-China; India; Indian Ocean; Atlan- 
tic Ocean; Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus RHYNCONERELLA Costa. 

Body slender, cylindrical. Five tentacles. Two large 
spherical eyes. Proboscis with small papillae, without 
long lateral papillae, without horny denticles. 4—5 pairs 
of tentacular curi. There are no anterior rudimentary 

F. 20 



138 



ALCIOPlD-\E 



feet. Dorsal and ventral cirri broad, foliaceous. Feet 
■without cirriform processes. Setae of two kinds: (1) sim- 
ple, acicular; (2) compound, with a slender terminal 
piece. Segmental glands little raised. Pelagic. 

116. Rhynchonefella Mgens Greeff. (Fig. 70, a'-d') . 
Rhynchonerella fulgens, Fauvel, 1923, p. 210, fig. 79, a-d; 1939, 
p. 284: Augener, 1926, p. 446, fig. 3: Monro, 1937, p. 268. 

About 60—80 segments. Median tentacle spindle- 
shaped; two pairs of longer, finger-like, lateral tentacles. 
Proboscis ivith about twelve short, sub-equal papillae. 




Fig. lO.—Vanadis formosa Clapartde: a, male, proboscis extruded, en- 
larged; b, female, ventral side, with four seminal pouches, en- 
larged; c, foot X8. Rhynchonei ella fulgens Greeff, a', male, 
ventral side, enlarged; 6', head (after Greeff); c', 
proboscis half extruded, ventral view X25; 
d', foot (after Apstein). 

Five (four?) pairs of tentacular cirri. The dorsal cirrus 
of the third segment longer and directed forwards, ihe 
ventral one very small. From the first setigerous segment 
all feet well developed, with lanceolate dorsal cirrus; ven- 
tral cirrus smaller, oval. Anterior feet with several simple 
acicular setae and a few compuond setae; next, long slen- 
der compound setae and a lower acicular one. Male with 
large nephridial papillae under feet 10 to 13. 



TRAVISIOPSIS 139 

Length: 8—20 mm. 

Colour: Transparent with red eyes; segmental glands 
brownish-red. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Arabian Sea; in plankton. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, China Sea, New Guinea, 
Sandwich Islands; India, Arabian Sea; Atlantic Ocean; 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Family TYPHLOSCOLECIDAE Uljanin. 

Pelagic. Body cylindrical or fusiform, transparent. 
Prostomium pointed. Nuchal organs projecting. Dorsal 
and ventral cirri foliaceous. Parapodia very small, with 
only an aciculum and a few small acicular bristles. Anal 
cirri foliaceous. 

Genus TRAVISIOPSIS Levinsen. 

Prostomium conical, ending in a more or less sharp 
tip. A large caruncle encircled by two prominent elonga- 
ted pads (nuchal organs) . Dorsal and ventral cirri wide 
apart. A retort-shaped organ in the head. 



117. T*avisiopsis lobifera Levinsen. (Fig. 71, a—d) . 

Travisiopsis lobifera, Levinsen, 1885, p. 336, pi. I, figs. 17—20: 
Fauvel, 1916, p. 73; 1923, p. 229, fig. 86; 1932, p. 66: Southern, 
1911, p. 33. pi. I. fig. 4. 

JPlotobia simplex, Chamberlin, 1919, p. 155, pL 46, fig. 1. 

The tip of the prostomium is short. The caruncle is 
an oval pad encircled by the nuchal organs, which are two 
elongated cushions projecting backwards, not as far as in 
T. lanceolata, as figured by Southern (1911, pi. I, fig. 3) . 
The anterior ends of the nuchal pads do not meet before 
the caruncle. On each side a large spoon-shaped foliace- 
ous cirrus. One pair of like cirri on the first two seg- 
ments; next, lanceolate dorsal and ventral cirri provided 
with special sieve-like cells. Feet with an aciculum and 2 
acicular setae. Anal cirri short, broad, rounded or sub- 
rectangular, rather variable. Retort organ well mai-ked. 

Length: 20—25 mm. 
Colour: Yellow; in spirit whitish. 
Occurrence: Arabian Sea, 200 fms. to surface. 
Distribution: Pacific Ocean (?) ; Indian Ocean, At- 
lantic Ocean. 



140 



TOMOPTERIDAE 



Family TOMOPTERIDAE Grube. 

Pelagic. Body translucent, divided into three parts: 
head, trunk and tail. Two diverging tentacles. One 
anterior pair of cirri armed with a very long acicular 
bristle. The other feet biramous and achaetous, with 
foliaceous margin bearing chromophile glands, hyaline 
glands or rosettes. Proboscis unarmed. 

Genus TOMOPTERIS Eschscholtz. 

Prostomium transverse, ovoid. Laige eyes. Probos- 
cis long and stout. Both divisions of the parapodia more 
or less conical, skirted all round by a membranous wing 
or pinnule. 




Fig. Il.—Travisiopsis lobifera Levinsen: a, (after Levinsen); 

bristles; c, dorsal cirrus; d, head, enlarged (after Southern). 

Tomoptens planktonis Apstein: /, 7th foot (after Malaquin 

and Carus). T. helgolandica GreeflE: h, young specimen 

X15 (after Apstein); i, 6th foot (after M. and G.). 

T. cavallii Rosa: a', 5th foot (after Rosa). T. 

elegans Chun: 6', 4th foot (after Rosa); 

c', 4th foot (after Malaquin). 



Subgenus TOMOPTERIS s. str. 

Rosettes absent, hyaline glands generally 
Tail and first cirrus nearly always absent. 



present. 



TOMOPTERIS 141 

Jfey to the species of Tomopteris (Tomopteris) . 

1. With a tail. Hyaline glands dor- 

sal. Chromophile glands 

ventral . . . . mortenseni Augener, p. 141. 

Without a tail .. .. 2 

2. Chromophile and hyaline glands 

present . . . 3 

Hyaline glands absent . cavalhi Rosa, p. 141. 

3. Hyaline glands present only on 

the dorsal pinnules of 3rd and 

4th foot . . . . elegans Chun, p. 142. 

Hyaline glands only on the ven- 
tral pinnules . . planktonis Apstein, p. 142. 

118. Tomoptefis (Tomopteris) mortenseni Augener. 

Tomopleris mortenseni, Augener, 1927, p. 12S, fig. 5: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 65. 

Body with a short tail of reduced parapodia; about 19 
segments preceding the tail. Prostomium convex, not 
notched. Two large eyes, far apart. First pair of cirri 
absent. Second pair with bristles longer than the body. 
Pinnules skirt the parapodia all round, and are more or 
less frilled and bear very lai^e chromophile glands, from 
the 4th foot backwards, on the ventral one. Hyaline 
glands present. Sting absent. (Rosettes on the dorsal 
trunk of the feet??) . Planktonic. 

Length: 25 mm. 

Occurrence: Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: South Australia; Arabian Sea. 

119. Tomopteris (Tomopteris) cavaffii Rosa. (Fig. 71, a') 

Tomopteris cavallii, Rosa, 1908, p. 304, pi. XII, fig. 2«>: tauvel, 
1923, p. 222: Monro, 1937, p. 269. 

Body oval lanceolate, tailless. 15—20 pairs of feet. 
Prostomium notched. First pair of cirri absent; second 
pair with birstles about as long as two-thirds o£ the body. 
Parapodial rami conical, slightly diverging. Pinnules 
broad, rounded, overlapping. Big cupola-like chromo- 
phile glands on the inferior part of the ventral ramus, 
from the 4th foot backwards. Rosettes, sting and hyaline 
glands absent. Planktonic. 

Length: 12—13 mm. 

Occurrence: North Arabian Sea, Ceylom 

Distribution: Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 



142 TOMOPTERIDAE 

120. Tomopteris (Tomoptcfis) elcgans Chun. (Fig. 71, 

b'-c'). 

Tomopteris elegans, Rosa, 1908, p. 294, pi. XII, fig. 16. Fauvel, 

1923a. p. 223, fig. 84, b-c. 
Tomopteris kefersteini, Apstein, 1900, p. 41 (non Greeff). 

Body oval, tailless, 14 pairs o£ feet. Prostomum coni- 
cal with a deep notch at the back. First pair of cirri 
conspicuous, second pair with bristles as long as about two- 
thirds of the body. Conical lobes of the feet diverging. 
Pinnules broad, oboval. Apico-inferior bulging chromo- 
phile glands on the ventral ramus from the 4th foot back- 
wards. Hyaline glands on dorsal pinnules only on 3rd 
and 4th feet. 

Length: 2—8 mm. 

Occurrence: Indian Ocean, India. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea. 

131. Tomopteris (Tomoptetis) planktonis Apstein. 
(Fig- 71,/). 

Tomopteris planktonis, Rosa, p. 301: Fauvel, 1923, p. 284, 
fig. 84, f: Monro, 1937, p. 270. 

Body oval, lanceolate, tailless; 13—18 pairs of feet. 
Prostomxum not notched. First pair of cirri wanting. 
Second pair as long as three-fourths of the body. Bristles 
very slender. Parapodial lobes conical, pinnules oval. 
Voluminous cupola-like chromophile glands near the 
ventral insertion of the pinnule, from the 4th foot back- 
wards. Transparent hyaline glands only on the ventral 
rami. 

Length: 3—11 mm. 

Occurrence: Central Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: Arabian Sea; South-Georgia ?; Atlantic 
Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

Subgenus JOHNSTONELLA Gosse. 

Rosettes present, hyaline glands absent (not always) . 
Generally a well marked tail and a first cirrus. 

Key to the species of Tomopteris (Johnstonella) . 

1. Rosettes on the first two feet and 

on the pinnules . . 2 

Rosettes on the ventral part of 

the first two feet . . helgolandica Greeff, p. 143. 

2. With a tail . . . . 3 
Tail absent. Only chromophile 

glands. Sting absent . . rolasi Greeff, p. 143. 



TOMOPTERIS 143 

3. Chromophole and hyaline glands 

present. A ventral sting . . duch Rosa, p 14S. 

Chromophile glands only. A 

ventral sting . 4 

4. Body abruptly attenuated into a 

tail .. .. aloysi-sabaudiae Rosa, p 144 

Body gradually attenuated into 

a tail . . . . dunkeri Rosa, p. 145. 

123. Tomopteris (Johnstonella) helgolandica Greeff. 
(Fig. 71, h, I) . 

Tomopteris helgolandica, Fauvel, 1923, p. 221, fig. 83, h, i. 
Tomopteris catharina, Rosa, 1908, p. 283. 

Prostomium oval, with short tentacles. First pair of 
cirri often wanting in aged specimens. Second pair with 
bristles about as long as two-thirds of the body. Para- 
podial lobes conical, with round or oval pinnules, lanceo- 
late on the tail. A yellow rosette on the ventral ramus of 
the first two feet. Chromophile glands very small, at the 
inferior part of the ventral pinnule. Sting absent. 

Length: 12—17 mm. 

Occurrence: Amboina. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea. 

123. Tomopteris (Johnstonella) folasi Greeff. (Fig. 72, 

a). 

Tomopteris rolasi, Greeff, 1882. p. 384: Rosa, 1908, p. 281: Fauvel, 
1935, p. 297; 1939, p. 281. 

Body tailless; 12—15 pairs of feet. Long tentacles. 
First pair of cirri sometimes absent. Second pair hardly 
shorter than the length of the body. Yellow rosettes on 
the trunk of first and second feet and on the ventral pin- 
nules of all the feet. Chromophile glands large and ven- 
tral. Sting absent. 

Length: 8—10 mm. 
Occurrence: Annam; Gulf of Siam. 
Distribution: China Sea; Coast of Guinea; Ambonia; 
Atlantic Ocean. 

124. Tomopteris (Johnstonella) dtfcii Rosa. (Fig. 72, 

d). 

Tomopteris ducii, Rosa, 1908, p. 273, pi. XII, figs. 1-2: Monro. 
1937, p. 269. 

Body with a naked tail, one fifth of the body; 19 pairs 
of feet, Prostomium convex, not notched. First cirrus 



144 



TOMOPTERIDAE 



long, second pair with bristles about as long as two-thirds 
of the body. Chromophile and hyaline glands. Rosettes 
on the trunk of the first two feet and a smaller one on both 
pinnules of the third segment and the following ones. A 
sting present. 

Length: 20 mm. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal; Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Bay of Bengal, Arabian 
Sea; Coast of Mexico. 

135. Tomopteris (Johnstonella) alaysi-sabaodiae Rosa. 

Tomoptens aloyst-sabaudiae, Rosa, 1908, p. 274, pi. XII, figs. 3— 
6: Fauvel, 1932, p. 66. 

Body abruptly attenuated into a tail about as long as 
a third of the body, ending in a naked cylinder. Pros- 




^' ?;"/ ?'"°t**'''i, (.Johnstonella) rolasi Greeff: a, anterior part 

X16 (after Greeff). T. dunkeri Rosa: b, head; c, 5th foot. T. 

ducii Rosa: d, 6th foot (after Rosa). 

tomiurn slightly notched, with frontal horns. First pair 
of cirn generally wanting (a small pair on young speci- 
mens?). Second pair of cirri with bristle about as long 



TOMOPTERIS 145 

as two-thirds of the body. All feet provided with a sting. 
On the first two pairs of feet a large rosette on the trunk, 
and, further back, on the pinnules. A chromophile gland 
from the first foot backwards. No hyaline glands present. 

Length: 15 mm. 

Occurrence: Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: Arabian Sea; West coast of Mexico. 

Remarks: Very close to T. dunkeri; differs chiefly by 
its naked tail. 

126. Tomopteris (Johnstonella) diinfceri Rosa. (Fig. 
72, b, c) . 

Tomopteris dunkeri, Rosa, 1908, p. 276. pi. XII, figs. 7-9: Fauvel, 
1935, p. 297; 1939, p. 282: Monro, 1937, p. 268. 

A tail with reduced feet, about as long as three- 
fourths of the body, not naked at the extremity. A notch 
between the prostomial lobes. Frontal horns. First pair 
of cirri often absent. Second pair of cirri with bristles 
about as long as the body. All feet provided with a sting. 
On the first two pairs of feet are rosettes on the trunks 
and, further back, in the pinnules. A chromophile gland 
from the 3rd foot backwards. No hyaline gland present. 

Length: 25 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: New Guinea; Indo-China; Gulf of Siam; 
Indian Ocean, Ceylon, Red Sea. 

Family SYLLIDAE Grube. 

Body small, slender, elongated. Prostomium general- 
ly rounded or quadrangular. Three tentacles, two palps, 
four eyes. Two pairs of tentacular cirri borne on the 
first segment, which is achaetous. Proboscis divided into 
two regions: (1) pharynx, with chitinous walls and one or 
more teeth and (2) a more or less barrel-shaped proventri- 
culus. Feet tiniramous, with a dorsal and a ventral cirrus, 
of which the latter may, however, be absent. Setae gene- 
rally compound, with a terminal falcate, unidentate or 
bidentate, process. Swimming feet with simple dorsal 
bristles, in sexual forms. 

Key to the genera of SvLLroAE. 

1. Ventxal cirri absent. Sub-Fam. 

AVTOLYTINAE .. .. Autolytus Grube, p. 162. 

Ventral cirri present .. 2 

F. 21 



146 



SYLtiDAl; 



2. Palps not fusfed. Cirri monili- 

fonn. Sub-Fam. SYLLINAE .. 
Palps fused. Cirri smooth or 
not clearly articulate 

3. Palps fused only at the base. 

Sub-Fam. EUSYLLINAE 
Palps entirely fused. Sub-Fsfin. 
EXOGONINAE 



4. Proboscis 
toOttt 



with a single large 



Proboscis with a large tooth ac- 
companied with a trepan 

5. Afa anterior tooth 
A posterior tooth 

6. A single large interior tooth . . 
Sfcfreral teeth, cutted backwards 



PaYasphaerosyllis 
Monro, p. 162. 



Trypanosyllis 

ClaparMe, p. 156. 

Syllis Savigny, p. 146. 

Opisthosyllis 

Latigerhans, p. 153. 

Eusyllis Malmgren, p. 159. 

tydiintosyllis 

Claparfette, p. 160. 



Subfamily SYLLINAE. 

t*alps entirely free. Ventral cirri present. Tentacles 
and cirri clearly moniliform. Normal and schizogamic 
reprddiiction. 

Genus SYLLIS Savigny. 

Palps separate throughout. Tentacles and dorsal cirri 
moniliform. Opening of the proboscis with papillae 
only. A single antero-dorsal conical tooth. Proventrlcu- 
lus short. Ventral cirri present, pinniform, unarticulate. 
Brisdes compound, with falcate terminal piece; raiely 
simple. ReprodliCtioli hdi-mal or by alternation of gene- 
rations. 

Key to ihi species of SylUs. 

1. Simple setae only on every seg- 

iheht. SUb-Gfeh. Hapiosyllis 

Compound setae 

2. Anterior setde compound, there- 

after simple turcale setae. 
Sub-Gfen. syUii s. str. 

All Setde tbrdpoun'd 

i. N'ormii corhpouiiA setae and 
others with a long slender ter- 
minal piece. Sub-Gen. Ehler- 
sia 
Compound setae more or less 
alike. Sub-Gen. Typosyllii . . 

4. DotSal cirri ^hort, Risifohn, with 
few articles 



spongicola Grube, p. 147. 
2 



gracillis Grube, p. 147. 
3 



comuta Rathke, p. 153. 



chstero bran chia 

Schmarda, p. 150. 



5 




exilis Gravier, p. 


151. 


« 




krohnii Ehlers, p. 

7 


150. 


prolifera Krohn, f 


.. 149. 


variegata Grube, 


p. 148. 


okadai Fauvel, p. 


152. 



SYtLlS 147 

Dorsal cirri elongated, with nu- 
merous small articles 

5. Terminal piece of the lower setae 

a large, blunt simple hook . . 

Tenninal piece of all setae bi- 
dentate 

6. Dorsal cirri alternately thick and 

slender. Shaft of the setae 
swollen . . . , 

Dorsal cirri all alike 

7. Pharynx short. Tooth on the 

anterior third 

Pharynx long. Tooth more for- 
ward 

One or two white collars across 
the back 

127. Syllis (Haplosyllis) spongicola Grube. (Fig. 75, 

a—d) . 

Syllis {Haplosyllis) spongicola, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 257. fig. 95; 
1932, p. 76: WiUey, 1905, p. 269, pi. Ill, Hgs. 79-80: Augener, 
1924, p. 368: Monro, 1927, p. 273. 

Sylhs hamata, Claparide, 1868, p. 195, pi. XV, fig. 2. 

Syllis djiboutiensis, Gravier, 1900, p. 147, pi. IX, fig. 3. Fauvel, 
1919, p. 353. 

Body elongate, tapering. Pharynx long, tooth termi- 
nal. Proventriculus long. Dorsal cirri elongated, 20-30 
articles. Compound setae absent. Sinjple, stout, hooked 
bristles, bidentate, .Ty.i.th upjpejr tcjotJi simple or bifid. 

Length: 2®-^ mm.. 

Colour: Oraii^e jor 5is^J©wisi. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Tuticorin, amongst sponges; 
Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans; 
Mediterranean and Red Sea. 

128. Syffis (Syllis) gracilis Grube. (Fig. 73, f-i) . 

Syllis gracilis, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 259. %. SG (Synwymy); 1932, p. 

76: Willey, 1905, p. 269: Gravely, 15>27, p. 8: Augener, 1926, 

p. 432: Monro, 1937, p. 271. 
Syllis longissima, Gravier, 1900, p. 159, pi. IX, fig. 7. 

Body slender. Pharynx .etongiated, witji anterior 
tooth. Dorsal cirri short, cylindrical ,c^ fusiform, with 
alternately 7—8 and 10—12 aytiqljes. Anterior and poste- 
rior setae compound; in the s^iddle regicHi of tJje body, 
large simple, yp§iloid, crutch-]ai,e ^t%€. 



148 



SYLLIDAE 



Length: 20—50 mm. 

Colour: Pale yellowish brown, with sometimes streaks 
of small brown dots on the back of the anterior segments. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Ceylon; Gulf of 
Mannar; Tuticorin; Maldive Archipelago. 




Fig. li.—Syllis krohnii Ehlers: a, anterior part, enlarged; b, com- 
pound brisde from mid-body x390; c, anterior bristle X390; d, 
simple ventral seta X390; e, aciculum X390. S. gracilis 
Grube: /, anterior part, enlarged; g, foot; h, stout 
simple bristle X390; i, compound bristle X390. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Arabian 
Sea; Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Cosmopolitan. 

129. Syflis (Typosyflis) variegata Grube. (lig. 74, h- 
n). 

Syllis (Typosyllis) variegata, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 262, fig. 7 (Syno- 
nymy); 1932, p. 76: Gravely, 1927, p. 8: Pruvot, 19S0, p. 31: 
Monro, 1937, p. 270. 

Syllis compacta, Gravier, 1909, p. 165, pi. IX, fig. 11. 

Body long and slender. Pharynx more or less elong- 
ated, with an anterior conical tooth. Dorsal cirri alter- 
nately long and short, with numerous articles (20—25 and 
30- 45) . Falcate terminal piece of all the setae more or 
less distinctly bidentate. On the last setigerous segments 
a dorsal and a ventral simple acicular seta. 



SYLLIS 



H9 



Length: 10—35 mm. 

Colour: Very variable. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Gulf of Mannar; Arabian Sea; 
Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans; 
Mediterranean Sea. 

130. Syllis (Typosyllis) prolifera Krohn. (Fig. 74, a— 

g)- 

Sylhs (Typosyllis) piohfera, Fauvd, 1923a, p. 261, fig. 97, a-g. 
(Synonymy); 1930, p. 13: Pruvot, 1930, p. 31. 

Body long and slender. Pharynx rather short, with 
the conical tooth on the anterior third. Proventriculus 



^*u»^ 







Fig. li-Syllis (Typosyllis) prolifera Kiobn: a, anterior part (after 
ClaparMe); b, head of the stolon Chaetosyllis (after Langerhans); 
c, d, upper and inferior bristles from mid-body X390; e, poste- 
rior bristle X310; f, simple ventral seta x390; g, smiple 
dorsal seta X390. S. (Typosyllis) variegata Grube: 
h, anterior part x8 (after Claparfede); », foot; 
k, I, median and posterior compound bristles 
X390; m, n, ventral and dorsal simple 
setae x390. 



short. Dorsal cirri alternately long and short, with nume- 
rous articles (20-25 and 30-40) . Falcate setae, especial- 
ly median and posterior ones, short and conspicuously 



150 SVtLiDAE 

bidentate. On the last setigerous segments a dorsal and 
a ventral, simple bidentate, acicular seta. 

Length: 10—25 mm. 

Colour: Very variable. Anterior part more or less 
brown, with transverse streaks. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Ceylon, Shingle Is- 
land. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans; 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Remarks: S. variegata and S. prolifera are very like- 
ly only varieties of a single species. 

131. Syllis (Typosyffis) krohnii Ehlers. (Fig. 73, a-e) . 

Syllis (TyposylUs) krohnii, Fauvel, 192S, p. 259 a~c (Syno- 
nymy); 1930, p. 517. 

Body thick anteriorly, tapering behind. A well mark- 
ed occipital protuberance. Pharynx with an anterior 
conical tooth. Proventriculus short. Anterior dorsal cirri 
alternately short and long, slender and broad, more or 
less swollen at the tip, with numerous articles, short, close 
together and spotted. Falcate setae with a shaft swollen 
at the tip and a short unidentate terminal piece; the ante- 
rior ones with a small sub-apical tooth. On the last 
setigerous segments a dorsal and a ventral, slightly biden- 
tate, acicular seta. 

Length: 15—30 mm. 

Colour: Transverse violet-brown streaks on anterior 
segments. Cirri spotted with brown or opaque white 
dots. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Shingle Island. 

Distribution: New Caledonia? (Australia ?) ; Indian 
Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

133. Syljlis (Typosyffis) cCc«5tembfanchia Schmarda. 
(Fig. 77, (L~c) . 

Syllis closterobranckfa, EWers, 1904, p. 19, pi. Ill, figs. 1-4: 
Augew^ir, 1913, p. 29, fig. 23 (Synonymy): Fauvel, 1919, p. 
354; 1980. p. 14; 19S2, p. 77. ' 

Q) Syllis braef)^4^aeta Schmarda, Augener, 1927a, p 145: Monro, 
1937. p. 271. ^ 

Q) Syllis hyalina, WiUey, 1905, p. 294. 

Dorsal cirri short and spindle-shaped. Body slender. 
In the anterior and posterior regions of the body the 



SYtLIS 



151 



setae are bidentate, in the median their sickle-shaped 
appendices are large and unidentate and they are very 
easily detached, the shaft then resembling the ypsiloid 
setae o£ S. gracilis, but in the latter it is the sickle which 
is fused with the shaft. 

Length: 30 mm. 
Uncoloured, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Diamond Island, Andaman Island, Gulf 
of Mannar. 

Distribution: Japan; Australia; New Zealand; New 
Caledonia; Indian Ocean; Red Sea. 

133. Syffis (Typosyllis) cxaisGravier. (Fig. 75, a'-/) . 

Syllis exilis, Gravier, 1900, p. 160, pi. X, fig. 19. Fauvel, 1917, 
p. 195, pi. V, fig. 24; 1930, p. 14; 1932, p. 77: Augener, 1913, 
p. 192. 

? Syllis solida, Grube, 1878, p. 120, pi. VU, fig. 7. 




Fig. 15.— Syllis (Haplosyllis) spongicold Grube: a, anterior part (after 
ClaparWe); b, c, simple bristles X272; d, aciculum X272. S. 
(Typosyllis) exilis Gravier: a', foot x47; b', inferior uniden- 
tate bristle 'X272; |/, another inferior bristle X4g8; d', 
e, f, three voitral brisflfes from one foot; upper, median, 
and lower ySli. 

Body stout, convex dorsally. A well marked cephalic 
hood. Pharynx with a large anterior tooth. Dorsal cirri 
long and slender, with very numerous short €U'ticles. The 
shafts of the lower setae of the anterior feet are noticeably 



152 



SYLLIDAE 



swollen and the terminal piece is a large, bent, simple, 
hook. The terminal pieces of the upper setae are more 
elongated and have an accessory process. The dorsal cirri 
are inserted high above the feet and alternate, as in Eusyl- 
lis ceylonica Augener, but the cirri are articulate and the 
setae different. In general appearance it looks like an 
Eusyllis. 

Length; About 20—30 mm. 

Occurrence: South Point, Andaman Islands; Madras 
coast; Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Japan; Australia; New Zealand; New 
Caledonia; Gambier Islands; Indo-China; Arabian Sea; 
Gulf o£ Oman; Red Sea. 

134. Syllis (Typosyllis) ofcadai Fauvel. (Fig. 76) . 
Syllis okadai, Fauvel, 1934, p. 307, figs. 1-2; 1939, p. 292. 

Body broad, flattened. Prostomium with four large 
eyes. Palps long, not fused. Median tentacle longer 
than the lateral ones, which are slightly longer than the 
palps. Pharynx with anterior tooth. Anterior dorsal cirri 




^^nnrnx^ 




Fig. 1&.— Syllis (Typosyllis) okadai Fauvel: a-e, sickle-shaped bristles 

X438; /, doj-sal ciirus Xl75; g, segments from mid-body, dorsal 

view XlO h, anterior part, enlarged. 



SYLLIS 153 

thick, cylindrical, blunt, with numerous short and close 
articles, the following ones more slender, with 10— 
15 articles, about as long as half the breadth of the body. 
Feet short, thick; ventral cirri finger-like. Shafts of (he 
setae swollen and curved at the tip; falciform end-pieces 
short, curved, unidentate. On the last segments a long 
simple seta, straight or slightly curved. 

Length: 19—20 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: Palps and prostomium dark, first and second 
segments dark-violet, next four segments white, then three 
dark-violet and two brownish; next, the back is brown 
with two longitudinal rows of clear spots. The second 
white collar sometimes absent. 

Occurrence: Corbyn's Cove, Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Seto, Japan; Ream, Gulf of Siam; An- 
daman Islands. 

135. Syffis (Ehlersia) comirta Rathke. (Fig. 79, g-i) . 

Syllis (Ehlersia) comuta, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 267. fig. 100; 1930, 
p. 14. 

Ehlersia sexoculata, Langerhans, 1879, p. 537: Saint Joseph, 1905, 
p. 181. 

Body slender. Anterior tentacles slender, subequal. 
Pharynx very long, with an anterior tooth; proventriculus 
long. Dorsal cirri long and slender with about 12—20 
articles. Compound setae of two kinds: (I) with a very 
long and very slender, slightly pectinate and bidentate 
terminal piece, (2) falcigerous with a short, spinous, 
bidentate end-piece. Both kinds present in the same feet. 
On the last segments, a dorsal and a ventral simple seta. 

Length: 10—15 mm. 

Uncoloured, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Rrusadai Island. 

Distribution: Indo-China; India; Arabian Sea; Per- 
sian Gulf; Atlantic Ocean; Mediterranean Sea. 



Genus OPISTHOSYLLIS Langerhans. 

Tentacle and cirri articulated. Tooth in the proxi- 
mal part of the pharynx. A flap-like process, or hood, on 
the posterior part of the head, 

F. 22 



154 



SYLLIDAE 



Key to the species of OpisthosylUs. 



1. Body covered with papillae 
Body without papillae 

2. Setae unidentate 
Setae bidentate 



austrahs Augencr, p. 156 

2 
brunnea Langeihans, p. 155. 
lonntcirrata Monro, p 154. 



136. Opisthosyllis longidw'ata Monro. (Fig. 77, f—i) . 
OpisthosylUs longictrrata, Monro, 1939, p 389, fig. 300. 

Head more or less bilobed, grooved posteriorly. Two 
pairs of eyes, Set in a rectangle. A large nuchal flap 
(hood). Median tentacle about three times as long as 
the palps and with 50—60 articlfes. Pharynx long, 'rt^ith 




Fig. 77 —Syllis (Typosyllis) closterobranchia Schmarda • a, antenor 
part xSl; b, foot x59; c, upper bristle from anterioi foot X516; 
d, lower bristle from antenoi foot X516' e, bristle (after Ehleis) 
Opisthosyllts longiarrata Monro: /, toot from mid- 
body; g, head, from above; h, large bristle 
from hinder region; i, anterior 
bristle (after Monro). 

tooth about the 8th setiger. Feet triangular, supported 
by 2—3 acicula. Anterior dorsal cirri very long, about 
190 articles; shorter behind. Back-feet ending in a pair 
of small papilliform processes. Ventral cirri short. All 
bristles cleanly bidentate, with blades slender and elongate, 
in the first region, shorter and broader backivards. In 
the posterior feet, 2—3 setae larger thah the rest. There 
is no papillation on the body. 



OPISTHOSVLLIS 



155 



lago. 



Length: 19 mm. by 1 mm. 

Occurrence: Hululu, Male Atoll, Maldive Archipe- 



Suez. 



Distribution: Tahiti; Maldive Archipelago; Red Sea, 



13Y. Opisthosyllis htutmea Langerhans. (Fig. 78, a—k) . 

Opisthosyllis brunnea, Langerhans, 1879, p. 541, pi. XXXI, fig. 
F: Augeper, 1916, p. 274, fig. XXV: Fauvel, 1930. p. 15, fig. 2. 

Palps elongated. Pharynx extending through about 11 
segments, with an anterior crown o£ papillae aad, at its 
back part, a large conical tooth inserted on a kind o£ 




Fig. 18— Opisthosyllis brunnea Langerhans: a, tooth in pharynx X60; 

b, acicular bristles of the stolon X225^; c, posterior simple bristle 

X225; d, e, /, posterior falcigerous bristles X225; g, h, 

anterior falcigerous brisfles X225; i, k, falc^rous 

briijtjps from mid-body X225. 



round bulb. Proventriculus from the 17th to the 28th 
setigerous segment. Dorsal cirri with 30—50 articles. 
Ventral cirri finger-shaped. Parapodia without papillae. 
The shaft of the setae is much swollen distally and bears 
a simple appendix, gradually shortening posteriorly, and 



156 SYLLIDAE 

unidentate. On the last segments a simple seta and 3—4 
large acicula. Stolon with long, slender, swimming setae. 

Length: 40 mm. by 1 mm. 

Occurrence; Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, Madei- 
ra; Tropical coast of Africa. 

138. Opisthosyllis aostfalis A.ugener. (Fig. 80, g-i) . 

Opisthosyllis australis, Augener, 1913, p. 218, pi. XXVIII, fig. 35- 
Fauvel, 1923b, p. 13; 1930, p. 618. 

Body plump, rounded dorsally, covered with small 
globular papillae. A well marked nuchal flap (hood) . 
Pharynx with a posterior tooth in the 13th segment. 
Prostomium oval. Two pairs of eyes. Dorsal cirri long, 
with 38—40 articles. Ventral cirri finger-shaped. Para- 
podia with small globular papillae. Falciform end- 
pieces of the setae rather long and bidentate in the ante 
rior feet; they become shorter and unidentate posteriorly 
and are mixed with stout simple setae in the median -md 
posterior regions. 

Length: 18—20 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Australia; Gambier Islands; New 
Caledonia; India; Ceylon. 



Genus TRYPANOSYLLIS Claparede. 

Body fiat, ribbon-like. Palps well apart. Proboscis 
with a circular crown of small teeth (trepan) and a single 
conical dorsal tooth. Tentacles and cirri long, distinctly 
articulated. Ventral cirri lanceolate. Bristles with rather 
large sickle-shaped terminal piece. 

Key to the species of Trypanosyllis. 

1. Tail with a cluster of stolon 

buds .. .. misakiensis Izuka, p, 1I58. 

Tail without a cluster of buds . . 2 

2. Body very large and fiat. Dor- 

sum not conspicuously streak- 
ed .. .. gigantea (Mcintosh), p 158. 
Body smaller. Dorsum streaked 
with conspicuous violet trans- 
verse bands .. zebra Grube, p. 157. 



TRYPANOSYLLIS 



157 



139. Trypanosyllis zehta. Gnibe. (Fig. 79, a—d) . 

T)ypanosyllis zebra, Fauvd, 1923a, p. 269, fig. 101; 1930a, p. 15. 

1932, p. 78: Pruvot, 1930, p. 35: Monro, 1937, p. 273. 
Tiypanosyllis richardi, Gravier, 1900, p. 68, pi. 9, figs. 12—13. 

Body flattened, dorsum somewhat rounded anterior- 
ly. Segments short and numerous. Prostomium broader 
than long. Dorsal cirri alternately long and short, ciis- 




Fig. 19.—Trypanosyllis zebra Grube: a, anterior part X17; (after 

ClaparMe); b, trepan (after Langerhans); c, foot, d, compound 

bristle X437. Syllis (EMersia) comuta RatMce: g, anterior 

part, enlarged; h, i, compound bristles X350. S. (Ehler- 

sia) ferrugfna Langerhans; k-n, bristles. 

tinctly articulated. Terminal pieces of the setae bifid and 
spinous on the edge. 

Length: 30-60 mm. 

Colour: Anteriorly the dorsum is banded with violet- 
brown bars, two on each segment. Dorsal cirri white, or, 
often, violaceous or lilac. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago; Andaman Islands; 
Ceylon; Krusadai Island; Gulf o£ Mannar; Tuticorin; 
Madras coast; Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Japan, China Sea, An- 
nam; Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Mediterranean Sea. 



158 



SYLttoAE 



140. Trypanosyflis gigantea (Mcintosh) . (Fig. 80, (e~f) 

Trypanoiylbs glgantea, Fauvei, 1914b, p. 105, pi. VII, figs. 14—15; 

1917, p. 200 (Synonymy); 1919, p. 355; 1932, p. 78: Augener, 

1924, p. 371; 1927, p. 151: Benham, 1927; p. 56. 

Syllis gigantea, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 193, pi. XXX, figs. 1-3, pi. 

XXXUI. fig. 4, pi. XVa, fig. 14, pi. XXIVa, fig. 7. 

Differs from T. zebra in: (1) its larger size; (2) ab- 
sence of, or if present only very faint, transverse pigment- 
ed streaks on the dorsum and (3) the treminai pieces ot 
the bristle being simple hooks. 




Fig. W.—Autolytus orientalis Willey: a, anterior part x7; b, bristle, 

much enlarged (after WiUey). Parasphaerosyllis indica (Monro); c, 

middle region from above; d, bristle (after Monro); Trypano- 

syllis gigantea (Mcintosh); e, f, bristles. OptsthosylUs 

austrahs Augener; g, anterior upper bristle X320; k, 

inferior bristle X320; j, bristle from mid-body 

X320. Eusyllis ceylonica Augener: h, I, 

superior and inferior bristles from 

25tlx foot xeeo (after Augener). 

Length: 80—90 mm. by 5—7 mm. 

Occurrence: Nankauri Harbour, Nicobar Islands. 

Distribution: South Pacific; Indian Ocean. 

141. Trypanosyllis misafciensis Izuka. 

Trypanosyllis misakiensis, Izuka, 1912, p. 185, pi. XX, figs. 2—6. 
Fauvei, 1932, p. 78: Monro, I'OSS, p. 391. 



EUSYLLIS 159 

Body elongate, depressed; dorsum slightly convex. 
Segments short and numerous. Prostomium bilobed. All 
the three tentacles equal. Dorsal cirri annulated, borne 
on a prominent cirrophore. Bristles stout, falcate, the 
end-piece bifid, with a basal spur (3 teeth according to 
Izuka) . The posterior extremity of the worm is capable 
of producing successive crops of collateral sexual bads 
showing an external structure similar to that of the mother 
individual. 

Length: 22 mm. by 2 mm. with ISO segments. 

Colour: In spirit, uniformly milk-white. 

Occurrence: Madras Coast. 

Distribution: Japan; Madras Coast. 

Subfamily EUSYLLINAE. 

Genus EUSYLLIS Malmgren. 

Palps fused at the base. Three tentacles. Two pairs 
of tentacular cirri. Opening of the proboscis crowned 
with a row of soft papillae and a chitinous denticulated 
ring, and an anterior tooth. Tentacles and cirri smooth 
or more or less distinctly pseudo-articulate when contract- 
ed. Compound falciform setae. 

142. Ettsyllis ceylonica Augener. (Fig. 80, k, I) . 

Eusyllis ceylonica, Augener, 1926, p. 453, fig. IV: Fauvel, 1930, 
p. 519. 

(??) Typosyllis taprobanensis, Willey. 1905, p. 268, pi. Ill, figs. 77 
-78. 

Body short, thick, rounded dorsally. Four small eyes. 
A well marked occipital prominence. Pharynx with a 
chitinous ring, smooth or faintly denticulate, and an 
anterior tooth. Tentacles sub-equal. Dorsal cirri alter- 
nately long and short, more or less pseudo-articulate: the 
longer ones inserted on the sides much more above the 
feet than the shorter ones. The falciform end-pieces of 
the upper setae longer than those of the lower setae; both 
are conspicuously bidentate. 

Length: 20—30 mm. by 2 mm. 
Colour: Reddish-yellow, or with two brown trans- 
verse bands on each segment. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: New Caledonia; Ceylon. 



160 



SYLLIDAE 



Genus ODONTOSYLLIS Claparede. 

Palps fused at the base. Tentacles and cirri not dis- 
tinctly articulate. A flap-like process, or hood, on the 
posterior part of the head. A transverse row of large 
teeth, pointing- backwards, inserted on the anterior edge 
of the pharynx. 

143. Odontosyllis gravelyi Fauvel. (Figs. 81, a-i; 82) . 

Odontosyllis gravelyt, Fauvel, 1930, p. 16, figs. 3—4. 
Syllis sp Gravely, 1927, p. 8. 

Body long, thick, rounded dorsally, vei-y brittle; 80— 
150 segments. Prostomium sub-rectangular. Four lai-ge 
eyes set in a trapezium. Three tentacles, the median 




^^ 



I'lg. il.— Odontosyllis gravelyi Fauvel: a, anterior part XlO; b, loot 

with swimming bristles X50; c, anterior foot X50; d, e, biistles 

with short bidentate end-piece X330; /, g, bristle with long 

end-piece X330; h, simple posterior seta X330; i, simple 

bidentate posterior seta X330. O. rubrofasciata 

(Grube): k, I, two falcigerous setae from 

one posterior foot X400. 

twice as long as the laterals. Two broad palps. Probos- 
cis with 6—7 large pharyngeal teeth pointing backwards 
and two large lateral folds. Pharynx extending from the 
4th— 5di segments to the 10th. Proventriculus twice as 
long. A rounded flap over the prostomium. Two pairs 
of long, unequal, tentacular cirri. Dorsal cirri unjointed. 



OPISTHOSYLLIS 



161 



rapidly decreasing in length, about as long as half the 
body's breadth. Ventral cirri broad and short. Com- 
pound setae of two kinds in every foot; the upper ones 
with a long needle- or awl-like terminal piece, slightly 
flattened, very indistinctly bifid and bulbous at the tip; 
the lower ones much more numerous, with an enlarged 
shaft and a short bidentate appendix. On the last 
segments, a small dorsal simple seta, slightly bent, and a 
ventral simple bifid seta. Mature specimens with long 
swimming bristles. Two long anal cirri. Phosphores- 
cent. 




Fig. SZ.—Opisthosyllis gravelyi Fauvel: a, section of anterior 
part X45; b, armature o£ the proboscis X45. 



Length: 15—30 mm. by 1.5—2 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish white with a longitudinal dark- 
brown dorsal streak running the whole length of the 
body. On a variable number of anterior segments, a 
brown dorsal spot at the base of the feet. Swarming in 
May and September, a few days after the new moon. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, anchorage at Krusadai 
Island and off the end of Sandy Point. 

F. 23 



162 SYLUDAE 

Subfamily EXOGONINAE. 

Genus PARASPHAEROSYLLIS Monro. 

Dorsal cirri alternately short, bulbous and slender, 
moniliform. Palps fused at the base. 

144. Patasphaerosyllis indica Monro (Fig. 80, c-d) . 
Parasphaerosyllis indica, Monro, 1937, p. 273, fig. 8. Fauvel, 1939, 

p. 298. 

Body slender and thread-like. Head broader than 
long, with two pairs of eyes, arranged in a trapezium. 
Palps fused at the base only. Pharynx with an anterior 
tooth. Proventriculus short. Tentacles and the first 15 
dorsal cirri moniliform, with about 15 articles. Two pairs 
of tentacular cirri. From the 16th setigerous segment to 
the end of the stock large bulbous fusiform cirri, with 
a small terminal knob, alternate with slender moni- 
liform cirri. The setae are slender, with a straight end- 
piece, faintly bidentate at the tip. The beginning of the 
stolon is marked by two pairs of eyes. 

Length: 8—11 mm. by 0.5 mm. 

There is no colour. 

Occurrence: Arabian coast. 

Distribution: Arabian Sea, Cauda, Annam. 

Remarks: Monro places this species among the 
Exogoninae, which apears unlikely because of its palps 
fused at the base only and its moniliform cirri. 

Subfamily AUTOLYTINAE. 
Genus AUTOLYTUS Grube. 

Ventral cirri absent. Palps little developed, attached 
to the ventral surface of the cephalic lobes. Cirri un- 
articulate, filiform, present on every segment. Proboscis 
sinuous, with a crown of small teeth. Proventriculus 
ovoid. Falcate bristles with short bifid tips. Sexual 
generation shows dissimilar males and females {Poly- 
bostrichus and Sacconereis.) 

145. Aatolyttis oi-ientalis Willey. (Fig. 80, a, b) . 
Autolytus onentalts, Willey, 1905, p. 270, pi. IV, figs 80-84: 

Augener, 1926b, p 454. fig. 5: Fauvel, 1932, p. 80. 

About "30 setigerous segments in the anterior or 
parent individual. The parapodia contain two acicula 
and numerous, upwards of 20, compound falcigerous 
setae; the head of the shaft is laciniate and the appendix 
js minutely bidentate and minutely fringed. The dorsal 



AUTOLYTUS 163 

cirri are rather short, lanceolate, petaloid, with strong 
basal articulation. The second dorsal cirrus, i.e., the 
cirrus o£ the first setiger, is the longest. The rounded 
reduced palps, joined together in the middle line along 
their own length, are only visible from below. The 
pharynx is long and has a sigmoid flexure; it is armed in 
front with a circle of 44 denticles, larger and smaller 
irregularly alternating. The proventriculus shows 28 
glandular rows." (Willey.) 

In both specimens from Chandipore the parent stock 
has about 30 setigerous segments. One bears a single 
stolon and the other two. Augener has figured the free 
swimming male stolon or Polybostrichus. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Orissa, Chandipore, near Bala- 
sore; taken at low tide on Ghaetopterid tubes, 

Incertae sedis. 

146. Cifosyllis zealanica, Schmafda, 1861, p. 78. 

147. Pionosyllis spec. , Fattvel, 1930, p. 16. Krusadai Is- 
land. 

148. Exogone spec. , Aagener, 1926, p. 455. Trincomalee, 
Ceylon. 

149. Sacconereis spec, , Fattvel, 1932, p. SO. Andaman Is- 
lands: in plankton. 

Family NERETOAE Johnston. (Fig. 83) . 

Body elongated, rounded or somewhat flattened. 
Prostomium with four eyes. Two subulate tentacles. 
Two massive two-joint palps. Four pairs of tentacular 
cirri. Proboscis armed with a pair of horny jaws and, 
generally, a series of horny teeth (paragnaths) which may 
be arranged in eight groups. Feet biramous (except in 
Lycastis) after the second foot. Dorsal and ventral cirri. 
Dorsal ramus with 2—3 lobes or ligules, ventral ramus 
with two fillets and one lobe. Setae compound, spiniger- 
ous and falcigerous. Generally an epitokous, Heterone- 
reis, mature form. 

Remarks: The chief characters used for the identi- 
fication of Nereids are, first, those of the proboscis, next 
of the feet and, last, of the setae. The everted proboscis 
is armed, at its opening, with two lateral, horny, falci- 
form jaws, more or less denticulate. The trunk is divid- 
ed into two rings, an anterior distal, or maxillary ring, 
and an inferior, proximal, basal or oral ring. It is 



J 64 



NERKEBAE 



divided into twelve areas on which are inserted the groups 
of homy denticles, or paragnaths. These areas are de- 
signated by Roman numerals as follows: Maxillary ring, 
dorsal median group I; two dorsolaterals II; ventral 
median III; two ventro-Iaterals IV; Oral ring, median dor- 
sal V; two dorso-laterals VI; median ventral VII; two 
ventro-Iaterals VIII. 



Jaws. — 

maxillcuy-Jn 
Una ^ T 




iu ring 

oralrmg- 

tentacifflcu- 
ctrn. — 

dorjai cirrtis. 
— Ivgule 





Fig. 83.~Nereidae: a, h, head with proboscis extruded showing the 
numbers of the groups of paragnaths; c, first foot (uairamous); 
d, average foot from mid-body (biramous); e, homogomph 
spiniger (or aristate) bnstle ; /, heterogomph splniger, 
g, long heterogomph falciger; h, short heterogomph 
falciger; i, dorsal homogomph falciger; k, swim- 
ming bristle of Heteronereis stage. 

Parapodia: Those of the first two segments are uni- 
ramous, all the others biramous. Each ramus is support- 
ed by a strong, enclosed, aciculum avid bears 2—3 more or 
less flattened lobes, the size and form of which may vary 
materially and gradually from before backwards. The 
last ones are sometimes highly modified and then afford 
important features for identification. Consequently it 
is always advisable to examine carefully anterior, middle 
and posterior feet of any specimen. 

The setae more rarely afford specific distinctions. 
Typically, in a Nereid's foot, there is a dorsal bundle of 
homogomph, spinigerous setae, a ventral upper bundle of 
homogomph spinigerous and heterogomph falcigerous 
setae and a lower bundle of heterogomph spinigerous and 



NEREHJAE 



165 



heterogomph falcigerous setae. Moreover, in some spe- 
cies, there is an homogomph falcigerous seta in the 
dorsal ramus. Large simple ventral setae or hooks are 
uncommon. 

Key to the genera of Nkreidaf, 

1. Branched gills on some of the 

anterior segments. Paiag- 
naths absent 

No branched gills 

2. Branchial filaments situated 

below the dorsal cirrus .. Southern, p. 173 

inserted on 



2 

3 

Dendroneieuiei 
Southern, p. 



Branchial filaments 
the dorsal cirrus 

3. Paragnaths absent 

With soft paragnaths only 

With both soft and homy para- 
gnaths 

With separate conical homy par- 
agnaths only (Nereis) " . . 

With separate conical and tran- 
sverse paragnaths, or arrang- 
ed in transverse lines in group 
VI 

Horny paragnaths of three forms: 
conical, transverse and pecti- 
nate 

4. Feet uniramous 
Feet biramous 

<> Buccal segment with feet and 
setae 

Buccal segment without feet or 
setae 

6. Eyes absent, neuropodium with 

well developed ventral ligule 
and setigerous lobe; ventral 
cirri double, the two parts 
arising from a common base . . 

Eyes present; neuropodium and 
ventral cirrus normal 

7. Doisal ligule of neuropodium 

absent; setae of the usual three 
kinds 

Dorsal hgule foliaceous, all setae 
homogomph spinigerous 

8. All groups of paragnaths com- 

plete 

Sub-genus 
The mid-dorsal and, sometimes, 
the dorsal-lateral groups luiss- 
mg on the proximal ring . . 



Dendronereis Peters, p. 172. 
4 
6 

Leonnates Kinberg, p. 169. 



Pseudonereis Kinberg, p. 215. 

Lycastis Savigny, p. 166. 
5 

Micronereis ClaparMe. 

Leptonereis Kinberg. 



Ceratocephala Malmgren. 
7 

Tylorhynchus Grube. 

Tylonereis Fauvel, p. 168. 

Nereis Cuvier, p. 175. 
Neanthes Kinberg, p. 193. 

Nereis, s. str., p. 177. 



166 NEREffiAE 

All dorsal groups missing except 

the dorso-Iaterals of the proxi- Nereis, subgenus 
mal ring . . . . Cm onereis. 

All groups, both dorsal and ven- 
tral, missing on the proximal Keieis, subgenus 
ring . . . . Ceratonereis, p. 194. 

The doiso-laterals alone present 

on the proximal ring, none on Nereis, subgenus 
the distal . . . . Eunereis 

9. All groups complete . . Perinereis Kinberg, p. 202. 

The mid-dorsal missing on the 

pioximal ring . . . . Arete Kinberg. 

10. The mid-dorsal missing on the 

distal ring . . . . Pisenoe Kinberg. 

All dorsal groups missing on the 
distal ring and at least the 
mid-dorsal (sometimes all both 
dorsal and ventral) on the 
proximal ring , , . . Platynereis Kinberg, p. 217. 

Genus LYCASTIS Savigny. 
All feet uniramous. Proboscis without paragnaths. 

Key to the species of Lycastis. 

Dorsal setae numerous. Dorsal 

cirri broad and flattened . . meraukensis Horst, p. 166. 

Dorsal setae lare or missing. Dor- 
sal cirri more elongated and 
rather narrow . . indica Southern, p. 167. 

150. Lycastis mcraakensis Horst. (Fig. 85, b) . 

Lycastis meraukensis, Horst, 1918, p. 246. Fauvel, 1932, p. 82. 

Head broader than long, rounded, trapezoidal, pro- 
vided with a median longitudinal groove. Eyes situated 
laterally in the posterior margin of the head; the external 
of each pair is the larg-er and is placed somewhat more 
anteriorly than the internal. Antennae short, conical. 
Palps with a stout basal part and a small, papilliform, 
distal joint. Maxillae short and stout. The longest ten- 
tacular cirrus reaches to the 2nd or ,8rd segment. Dorsal 
cirri enlarged and flattened, leaf-like, overlying each other 
(in small specimens they are slender and pointed) . A 
fascicle of 8—10 dorsal slender setose bristles (missing in 
the posterior body region) . Neuropodium cylindrical, 
with heterogomph spinigerous and falcigerous bristles, 
the terminal piece of which is rather short and broad and 
ciliated. 

Length: 150-200 mm. by 20-22 mm. 



LYCASTIS 

Occurrence: Bangkok, Siam; Mergui. 
Distribution: New Guinea; Bangkok; Mergui. 



167 




Fig. M.—Lycastis indica Southern: a, anterior end, dorsal view Xl5; 

b, foot of a specimen with dorsal bristles and narrow dorsal 

cirrus X70. 

151. Lycastis indica Southern. (Fig. 84, a, b; 85, a) . 

Lycastis indica. Southern, 1921, p. 578, pi. XIX, fig. 2: Horst, 
1924, p. 4: Fauvel, 1932, p. 82, pi. II, figs. 1-2. 

Longitudinal groove of the head ending in a pit; eyes 
situated more or less in a line and provided with lenses. 
Dorsal cirri rather narrow, length and breadth varying 
materially: they are very long and recurved on the back 
in the posterior region. Dorsal setae missing or very 
few, 1—2, rarely more. Terminal piece of the lalcate 
setae long and narrow, but thick. Hemigomph and 
heterogomph spinigerous setae. 

Length: 12—150 mm. by 2—5 mm. 

Colour: Reddish-brown pigment in the anterior part 
of the body, increasing in redness and density towards 
the tail. 

Occurrence: Calcutta waterworks; Salt lakes, Cal- 
cutta; Chilka Lake, Madras; brackish .waters of India; 



168 



NEREIDAE 



Andaman Islands. Euryhaline from fresh water to brack- 
ish and sea-water. 

Distribution: Macassar; India. 



Genus TYLONEREIS Fauvel. 

Feet biramous. Dorsal ligule foliaceous. All ietae 
homogomph spmige'iviis. Proboscis with soft papillae, 
without paragnaths. Prostomium, tentacles, palps and 
tentacular cirri as in the genus Nereis Cuvier. 

Key to the species of Tylonereis. 

Ventral setigerous lobe trilobed . . bogoyawlenskyi Fauvel, p. 168. 
Ventral setigerous lobe bilobed . . fauveli Southern, p. 169. 

152 Tylonereis bogoyawlenskyi Fauvel. (Fig. 85, e, f) . 
Tylonereis bogoyawlenskyi, Fauvel, 1911, p. 373, pi. XIX, figs. 
1-7; 1932, p. 83: Gravely, 1927, p. U, pi. X, figs. 18-19. 




Fig. 85.— iycoitw jndica Southern: a, 70tli foot XI 00 (after South- 
ern). L. meraukensis Horst: b, foot, Tylonereis fauveli South- 
em: c, 7th foot X50; d, 30th foot X50 (after Southern). T. 
bogoyawlenskyi Fauvel: e, foot from mid-body X35; f, 
7th foot y.Zh. 

Prostomium broader than long, notched. Tentacles 
short. Proboscis with conical soft papillae, groups: 
1=0 or 3; 11=0 or 1; lll=8-10; IV=a group of 4-5 on 



LEONATES 169 

each side; V = 0; VI = one papilla on each side; VII =2 
on each side; VIII =0, or a row of depressed lobes. Feet 
biramous. Setae long homogomph spinigers, all alike. 
Dorsal and ventral cirri very small. Dorsal ligule trian- 
gular, foliaceous. Dorsal fUlet (setigerous lobe) elong- 
ated, expanded at the tip in the anterior segments, bifid in 
the posterior ones. Ventral setigerous lobe at first 
trilobed, but bilobed in posterior feet. Ventral lower ligule 
decreasing in size backwards. A pair of anal cirri. Bur- 
rows in sand or mud. 

Length: About 60 mm. by 4 mm., feet included. 

Colour: In life, of a bright pink colour, with a 
transverse brown line on each segment at the anterior end 
and a dark-red mid-dorsal line. 

Occurrence: Krusadai Island, Tuticorin beach, Kila- 
karai, Pamban backwater; Neendakara Bar and Veli Lake, 
Travancore. 

Distribution: Gulf of Mannar; Travancore; Persian 
Gulf. 

153. Tylonereis faaveli Southern. (Fig. 85, c-d) . 

Tyhnereis fauveh. Southern, 1921, p. 682, pi. XIX, fig. 3. Fauvel, 
1930a, p. 19; 1932, p. 84. 

Differs from T. bogey awlenskyi only in having the 
ventral setigerous lobe bilobed, instead of trilobed, in the 
anterior as well as in the middle and posterior feet. Size 
rather large. 

Occurrence: Mergui; Chilka Lake; Pamban. 

Genus LEONNATES Kinberg. 

Proboscis with both soft and homy paragnaths. Fal- 
cate bristles with a convex denticulated border. 

Key to the species of Leonnates. 

End-piece o£ the falcigerous bris- 
tles hooked at the tip . . jousseaumei Gravier, p. 169. 
End-piece of the falcigerous bris- 
tles enlarged and abruptly 
truncate at the tip .. decipiens Fauvel, p. 171. 

154. Leonnates joasseaamei Gravier. (Fig. 86, d-f) . 
Leonnates jousseaumei, Gravier, 1901, p. 160, pi. XI, figs. 34—37: 

Fauvel, 1930a, p. 19, fig. 5; 1932, p. 85: Horst, 1924, p. 150: 
Monro, 1931, p. 43. 

Body stout, a little flattened. Maxillary ring of the 
proboscis with small horny paragnaths, I =0 or 1. Oral 

F. 24 



170 



NEREIDAE 



ring with soft conical papillae; V=:0. Parapodia: dorsal 
ramus with three elongated ligules and a long dorsal cir- 
rus: Ventral ramus with two lanceolate fillets and a 
longer ligule. Ventral cirrus subulate. Spinigerous setae 
all homogomph. Falcate homogoraphs with a terminal 
piece hooked at the tip and boldly serrated on the con- 




Fig. 86.~Dendronereides heteropoda Southern, a, 23rd foot X56. 

Dendronereis aestuarina Southern: b, foot X37. D. arbori- 

fera Peters: c, 16th foot x37. Leonnates jousseauinei 

Gravier: d, head and proboscis, enlarged; c, upper 

ventral falciger from 24th foot X467; /, 

lower ventral falciger X467. 

vex border. They are present on the first setigerous seg- 
ments in both the ventral bundles of every foot and on 
the dorsal ramus of the posterior feet. 

Length: 80 mm. by 6 mm. 

Colour: Dark-brownish red, with a dark spot at the 
base of the dorsal rami. 

Occurrence: Mergui; Gulf of Mannar; Pambam; 
Karachi. 

Distribution: Macassar Straits; Annara; Bay of 
bengal; Arabian Sea; Persian Gulf; Red Sea. 



LEONATES 



171 



155. Leonnates dccipiens Fauvel. (Fig. 87) . 

Leqnnates decipiens, Fauvel, 1929, p. 180; 1930a, p. 20, fig. 5, 

f—m. 
Leonnates jousseaumei {non Gravier), Fauvel, ld27b, p. 427, fig. 

106, /, g. 

Body stout, a little flattened: 80—90 segments. Pros- 
toHiium broader than long. Four black eyes. Palps 
stout, divergent, as long as the tentacles. Longer tenta- 
cular cirri reaching backwards to the 4tli or 5th segment. 
Jaws dark, curved, smooth on edge. Maxillaiy ring with 




Fig. 87. —Leonnates decipiens Fauvel: a, foot from mid-body X30; 

b, posterior foot X30; c, d, falcigers from mid-body X600; e, f, 

long and short spinigerbus bristles x600; g, articulation of 

heterogomph bristles x600. 

small conical denticles, transparent, hardly visible. 1= 
0; n=an oblique row; 111= a small transverse group; IV 
= a cresceiitic group. Oral ring with soft conical papli- 
laie. V= 0; VI = a single large papilla on each side; 
\1I— VIII =!: a single row of 7—8 smaller papillae, some- 
times more or less absent. Dorsal ramus with three ligu- 
les, flie upper triangular, with well marked dark glands; 



172 NEREIDAE 

the two lower ligules subequal, conical, smaller; dorsal 
cirrus on the base of the superior ligule and a little longer. 
Ventral ramus with two unequal fillets and a slightly lon- 
ger, blunt, ligule; ventral cirrus tapering, shorter. In the 
posterior region, dorsal ramus much longer than the ven- 
tral. Dorsal setae all homogomph spinigers. Ventral 
setae, in the anterior and posterior feet, homogomph and 
hemigomph spinigers and shorter heterogomph ones. On 
the middle region from about the 13th and 15th setiger- 
ous segment, the ventral heterogomph spinigers are super- 
seded by falcigerous setae the terminal piece of which has 
a spinous convex edge and an enlarged and abruptly 
truncated tip. Even in the posterior feet, there are no 
dorsal falcigerous setae and the ventral falcigerous setae 
are absent, in the anterior and posterior feet, in contradis- 
tinction to jousseaumei Gravier. Two long anal cirri. 

Length: 20-300 mm. by 2 mm. 

Colour: Colourless, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Krusadai; Pamban. 

Distribution: Gulf of Mannar; Suez Canal. 



Genus DENDRONEREIS Peters. 

Proboscis with only soft papillae. Prostomium deep- 
ly indented in front. Dorsal cirrus of a number of an- 
terior segments bearing numerous branchial filaments. 
Ventral division of the feet multifid in the mid-body seg- 
ments, more simple in the posterior ones. Setae all homo- 
gomph spinigerous. 

Key to the species of Dendronereis. 

Branchial cirri pinnate .. arborifera Peters, p. 172. 

Branchial cirri bipinnate . . aestuarina Southern, p 173. 

156. Dendronereis axhotiieta Peters. (Fig. 86, c) . 

Dendronereis arborifera^ Ehlers, 1868, p. 578, pi. XXII, figs. 5S— 
42: Fauvel, 1919, p. 399, pi. XV, figs 5-8; 1932, p. 85. 

Prostomium deeply cleft between the diverging ten- 
tacles, partly connected with the ovoid palpophores. Four 
eyes. Proboscis with soft conical papillae on both 
rings. Dorsal cirri bearing lateral simple branchial fila- 
ments from the 8th— 10th to the 18th— 22nd segment. In 
the anterior feet, dorsal division with two triangular lobes, 
ventral division with 4—6 conical lobes and a few papillae. 



DENDRONEREIDES 173 

In the posterior feet, dorsal division bilobed, ventral divi- 
sion with a single large triangular lobe and a small 
ventral cirrus. Dorsal and ventral setae all homogomph 
spinigerous, nearly alike. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam backwater and Canal. 

Distribution: India; Madagascai; Mozambique. 

157. Dendfonefeis aestuarina Southern. (Fig. 86, b) . 

Dendronereis aestuarina. Southern, 1921, p. 598, pi. XX, fig. 4. 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 86. 

Prostomium deeply indented in front, situated bet- 
ween the diverging tentacles and shorter than the taper- 
ing palps. Four large eyes. Prosboscis with soft conical 
papillae on the basal ring. Maxillary ring devoid of 
papillae. Dorsal cirri bearing lateral pinnate gills, 
which commence on the 14th— 15th foot. In the anterior 
feet the ventral division has a large number (15—19) of 
lobes, of which some form a fringe behind the setae. In the 
posterior feet, the dorsal division is bilobed and the ven- 
tral consists of two foliate lobes with a conical lobe between 
them, the ventral ligule and the ventral cirrus. Setae 
homogomph with long finely serrated terminal piece, 
whiclr becomes shorter in the upper division of posterior 
feet. 

Length: 40 mm. by 5 mm. 

Occurrence: Gangetic delta (in brackish water) ; 
Madras; Travancore. 

Distribution: Taleh-Sap (Gulf of Siam) ; India. 



Genus DENDRONEREIDES Southern, 
(emended) 

Proboscis armed only with soft paragnaths. Dorsal 
setigerous lobe absent in first and second feet. In some 
of the anterior feet, gills are present in the form of numer- 
ous filaments situated below the dorsal cirrus: they are 
provided with vessels. Setae of two kinds, falcate homo- 
gomphs and spinose heterogomphs. In all the feet, except 
the anterior ones, there is a peculiar gland opening to the 
exterior beneath the dorsal cirrus. The ventral ligule is 
absent. In the post-branchial region the foot is greatly 
simplified. 



174 



NEREIDAE 



168. Dendtonzteidcs hcteropoda Southern. (Fig. 86, a; 
88). 

Dendronereides heteropoda, Southern, 1921, p. 603, text-fig. 10a, 
b, pi. XXI, fig. 6, a-n Fauvel, 1932, p. 87, pi. II, figs. 3-9. 

Body long and slender. Prostomium broad, cleft be- 
tween the small tentacles. Four eyes. Palps blunt, ovoid. 
Proboscis with a number of papillae on the maxillary ring; 
on the oral ring: V:= 3; VI = 2-3 on each side; VII-VIII 
= two irregular rows. Anterior feet with dorsal and ven- 
tral cirri; 2—3 dorsal ligules and 3—4 ventral lobes. 




Fig SS —Dendronej eides heteiopoda Southern, a, 25th £ootx28; b, 

34th foot X28; c, 4th foot x28; d, 8th foot X28; e, 11th foot 

X28; /, 15th foot X28; g, 18th foot X28. 

Branchial region from 8th to 40th— 50th setigerous segments, 
with clusters of more or less branched bunches of gills 
inserted below the dorsal cm-iis and above the dorsal ligule; 
ventral division trilobed. In the posterior abranchiate 
feet, dorsal and ventral divisions each reduced to a single 
lobe. Homogomph spinigerous setae and homogomph 



NEREIS 175 

falcate setae with smooth terminal piece. Two large anal 



cim. 

In epitokous males the gills are more numerous and 
are present on a greater number of feet. Posteriorly, the 
feet become longer and more simple. The setae are very 
numerous, very long and slender. Further back the feet 
and bristles become shorter again and the body is reduc- 
ed to an elongated soft, white pouch, swollen with sperm. 
Pygidium with a few short papillae. 

Length: 60—135 mm. 

Colour: Anterior region of the body rusty red. At 
the back of the head a narrow transverse band, or two 
elongate spots of brown pigment. 

Occurrence: Calcutta waterworks, Pulta Tanks; Bom- 
bay; Vallarpadan; BarantoUa. 

Distribution: India; Diamond Isles; Shat-el-Arab. 

Genus NEREIS Cuvier. 

Body vermiform, numerous segments. Two tentacles. 
Two ovoid palps. Four eyes. Four pairs of tentacular 
cirri. Proboscis with two homy, curved jaws and conical 
horny paragnaths. Parapodia biramous, the first two seti- 
gerous segments excepted, which are uniramous. Dorsal 
and ventral cirri. Spinigerous and falcigerous compound 
setae. Generally an epitocous stage, Heteronereis. 

Key to the species of Nereis. 

1. Basal ring of proboscis with 

liorny paragnatl^ . . 2 

Basal ring destitute of parag- 
naths . . . . Subgen. Ceratonereis 20. 

2. All groups of paragnaths present Subgen. Neanthes 3, 

Some groups absent .. Subgen. Nereis Cuvier 

s. str. 4 

3. Anterior feet with rounded lobes megttti Monro, p. 194. 
Anterior feet with pointed lobes capeitsis WUley, p. 193. 

4. A few simple hooked bristles . . 5 
Simple hooks absent . . 6 

5. Simple hooks ventral . . anchylochaeta Horst, p. 177. 
Large dorsal simple hooks . onychophora Horst, p. 178. 

6. Groups of paragnaths of the 

basal ring disposed in a near- 
ly continuous belt . . 7 

Groups of the basal ring distinct 8 



176 



NEREIDAE 



7. Spinigerous bristles only 

Spinigerous and falcigerous hiis- 
tles 

8. Heteronereis male with 3 regions 

Body not divided into three re- 
gions 

9. Dorsal homogomph falcigerous, 

bristles in the posterior feet . . 

Dorsal homogomph falcigerous, 
bristles absent 

10. A single row of paragnaths in 

groups Vll-Vm 

Several rows of paragnaths in 
groups Vll-Vin 

11. Two dorsal flagelliform ligules 

in the median feet 

Dorsal ligules not flagelliform . . 

12. Dorsal ligules much reduced . . 
Dorsal ligules normal 

13. Dorsal division of posterior feet 

triiid. Falcate terminal pieces 
elongated. VI=H-1 

Dorsal division of posterior feet 
bifid, with diverging ligules. 
Falcate terminal pieces short. 
V=a cluster 

14. Inferior bilobed dorsal ligule 

borne on an elongated base. 
Falcate terminal pieces long. 

VI = 4-5 

Dorsal division normal 

15. Lobes of posterior feet sharp 

and diverging. Dorsal divi- 
sion of anterior feet trilobed. 
Falcate appendages short 

Posterior lobes not modiiled. 
Falcate appendages curved . . 

16. Terminal piece of posterior dor- 

sal homogomph falcigerous 
bristles smooth 

Terminal piece of posterior dor- 
sal homogomph falcigerous, 
bristles boldly bi- or tridentate 

17. Dorsal ligule of posterior feet 

enlarged 

Dorsal ligule of posterior feet 
not enlarged 

18. A single row of few paragnaths 

on groups VII— VIII 



chingrighattensis 
Fauvel, p. 179. 

ciicognatha Ehlers, p. 180. 
heteromorpha Horst, p. 193. 

9 

16 

10 

11 

13 

longilingulis Monro, p. 192. 

12 
reducta Southern, p. 190. 
gisserana Horst, p. 190. 

glandicincta Southern, p. 181 



unifasciata Willey, p. 182. 



talehsapensis Fauvel, p. 184. 
15 



chilkaensis Southern, p. 185. 
indica Kinberg, p. 186. 

17 

IS 
coutierei Gravier, p. 187. 
trifasciata Grube, p. 183. 

19 



NEREIS 



177 



Several rows of paragnaths on 
groups VII-VIII 

19. Prostomium notched anteriorly . 

Prostomium not notched anter- 
iorly 

20. Prostomium deeply cleft 

Prostomium not cleft 

21. Lobes of the feet ending in long 

whip-like processes 

Lobes of the feet normal 

22. With falcigerous bristles through- 

out 

Faldgerous bristles absent in 
posterior feet 

23. Dorsal ramus with three trian- 

gular ligules 

Dorsal ramus with two blunt 
ligules 

24. Very large falcigers with end- 

piece fused with the shaft 

Falcigerous setae normal 



zonata-persica Fauvel, p. 187. 
kauderni Fauvel, p. 188. 

jacksoni Kinberg, p. 189. 

Sub-gen. Ceratonereis, 
mirabilis Kinberg, p. 200. 

21 



■flagelhtes Fauvel, p. 


199. 


22 




24 




23 




burmensis Monro, p. 


. 196. 


microcephala Grube, 


p. 198. 



pachychaeta Fauvel, p. 196. 
costae Grube, p. 194. 



Subgenus NEREIS s. str. 
Group V, or groups V and I of paragnaths absent. 

159. Nereis anciylocliaeta Horst. (Fig. 89, a—e) . 

Nereis anchylochaeta, Horst, 1924, p. 155, pi. XXX, figs. 8—9: 
Fauvel, 1931, p. 20, pi. H, figs. 8-9; 1932, p. 88. 

Proboscis: Group 1=3 in a longitudinal line; II = 
a crescentic row; III = 3 in a line; IV =a few, large, in a 
line; V=0; VI=0 or 1; VII-VIII = a single row of 2-3. 
Dorsal ramus of the anterior feet with three sub-equal ligu- 
les. In the middle and posterior feet, very large simple 
hooks in the upper and lower ventral bundle and small 
compound heterogomph falcigerous bristles. The simple 
hooks are large falcate bristles whose terminal piece is 
fused with the shaft. All transitional stages are met with 
between the clearly compound bristles and the large 
simple hooks. 

Occurrence: Malacca Strait; Nankauri Harbour, 
amongst corals. 

Distribution: Malay Seas; Amboina; Malacca Strait; 
Annam; Nicobar Islands. 

F. 25 



178 



NEREIDAE 



160. Nctcis onychophofa Horst. (Fig. 89, f—i) . 

Nereis onychophora, Horst, 1918, p. 248; 1924, p. 61, pi. XXI, 

figs. 12-14: Fauvel, 1932. p. 89. 
Nereis caenocirrus, Chamberlin, 1919, p. 269, pi. XXXIII, lies. 

7-8, pi. XXXrV, figs. 1-6, pi. XXXV, figs. 1, 2. 

Prostomium broad. Two pairs of large eyes. Pro- 
boscis: Group 1=1—3; II & IV=crescentic dusters; III, a 




Fig. 89.— Nereis anchylochaeta Horst: a, b, ventral falcigers X175; 

c, big half -compound bristle XI 75; d, e, simple bristles Xl84. 

N. onychophora Horst: /, posterior foot XvO; §, posterior 

dorsal hook X438; h, dorsal homogomph falager from 

mid-body X438; i, anterior foot x70. 

transverse cluster of 3—4 rows; V = 0; VI =4—5, in a round 
group on each side; VII— VIII ^2 irregular rows. Dorsal 
ramus of the anterior feet with two subequal ligTiles and 
a small dorsal cirrus. Dorsal ligule enlarged in the pos- 
terior feet with subterminal cirrus. In the middle and 
posterior feet only a single dorsal simple, large, hooked 
bristle and an aciculum. In the ventral ramus spiniger- 
ous and small falcigerous bristles. 

Length: 30 mm. by 1 mm. 



NEREIS 



179 



Occurrence: Mergui, Jack and Una Islands. 

Distribution: Marshal Islands; Malay Archipelago; 
Mergui. 

161. Nereis chingMghattensis Fauvel. (Fig. 90, a—h) , 
Nereis chingrighattensiSj Fauvel, 1932, p. 90, text-fig. 14. 

Body cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, 80—100 seg- 
ments. Prostomium not notched. Two pairs of black 
eyes disposed in a rectangle or a wide opened trapezium. 
Tentacles subulate, shorter than the large, conical, diver- 
ging palps. Peristomium somewhat longer than the 
succeeding segment. Tentacular cirri short, the posterior 




/ 7 



Fig. 90.— Nereis chingrighattensis Fauvel: a, 6, proboscis, ventral 
and dorsal view; c, 10th foot x35; d, 66th foot X36; e, f, lower 
ventral spinigers from 65th and 30th feet X380; g, h, ven- 
tral hemigomph spinigers from SOth and 65th feet 
X380. 

ones reaching backwards to the 4-5th setiger. Jaws pale, 
curved, with 6—8 teeth. Paragnaths conical, yellow or 
nearly colourless. I=a cluster of 4—5; 11= a crescentic 
group; Ill^a transverse group of 3—4 rows; IV=an obli- 
que group of 3—4 rows; V= 0; VI = on each side, a trans- 
verse row of 15—20, with a few smaller outer denticles; 
VII— VIII = 2— 3 irregular rows. Feet short, both rami 



180 NEREIDAE 

subequal. Dorsal cirri subulate, shorter than the doisal 
ligule. Dorsal ramus with three ligules, two subequal, 
triangular and a shorter conical one. Ventral ramus 
about the same length as the dorsal, with two fillets, the 
posterior one conical, the anterior one divided into two 
unequal lobes. Inferior ligule blunt. Ventral cirrus 
short subulate. In the posterior feet the median ligule 
of the dorsal ramus decreases in size and the ventral fillets 
are nearly similar, the anterior being entire or faintly 
bilobed. Setae numerous, slender, transparent, all of them 
spinigerous. Dorsal setae homogomph; the ventral setae 
homogomph, with long terminal piece, and shorter hemi- 
gomph. Lower ventral setae long hemigomph and short 
heterogomph. Falcigerous setae absent in both rami. 
Two long anal cirri. 

Length: 50 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: Colourless in spirit, with the exception of 
2—3 yellow glands in the feet. 

Occurrence: Creeks in Salt Water Lake, near Ching- 
righatta. 

163. Neireis cricognatha Ehlers. (Fig. 91, a-c) . 

Nereis cricognatha, Ehlers, 1904, p. 29, pi. IV, figs. 3—7: Augener, 
1913, p. 163; 1924, p. 334: 1927, p. 133: Horst, 1924, p. 158: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 91. 

Nereis arenaceodentata Moore, Benham, 1916, p. 134, pi. 46, 
figs. 1-3. 

The proboscis carries numerous, horny paragnaths 
arranged in groups nearly fused together and forming a 
belt around the oral as well as the maxillary ring. Group 
=2, 3; II-III-IV are coalescent; V = 3, 4 or 5; VI = 
round clusters of 5—6; VII— VIII -a broad belt more or 
less fused with V—VI forming a nearly complete ring. 
Dorsal ramus with two subequal ligules. The posterior 
feet are not materially modified, the dorsal upper ligule 
being only larger than the lower, but not swollen or folia- 
ceous; the dorsal filiform cirrus is inserted at the base. 
The ventral falcigerous terminal pieces are all long, knife- 
like, with a small curved hook at the tip; they are homo- 
gomph. There are no dorsal falcigerous bristles on the 
posterior feet. 

Length: 20-30 mm. 

Colour: Colourless in spirit. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; shores of R. Hugbly 
at Budge Budge; Calcutta waterworks; Gulf of Mannar. 



NEREIS 



181 



Distribution: New Zealand; Bass Strait, Tasmania; 
Philippine Islands; India. 

163. Nefcis glandicincta Southern. (Fig. 91, f-h) . 

Nereisglandicincta, Southern, 1921, p. 539, pi. XXIII, fig. 9- 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 92; 1939, p. 314. 

Head narrow in front, wide behind with two short 
tentacles in front. Four eyes varying considerably in size, 
according to the state of maturity. Proboscis: Group I 
= 1—10 unequal; II =6—13 large, curved; 111 = a transverse- 




Fig. 9\.— Nereis cricognatha Ehlers: a, front view of tie proboscis 

X14; 6, 19th foot X23; c, falciger X875 (after Ehlers). N. 

trifasciata Grube: d, foot from mid-body X52; e, dorsal 

homogomph falciger X437. 2V. glandicincta Southern: 

/, ventral falciger X437; g, foot from mid-body 

X70; h, posterior foot X70. 

ly elongated band in 3—4 rows; IV=6— 12 large denticles; 
V=0; VI=on each side one small denticle on a large 
rounded papilla; VII— VIII=a single row of a few minute 
denticles (occasionally missing altogether) . Sometimes, 
the denticles of VI are very small, transparent and diffi- 
cult to detect. Jaws slender. Posterior feet not material- 



182 



NEREIDAE 



ly altered. Dorsal ramus with three slender lobes persist- 
ing in the posterior feet. Ventral ramus with setigerous 
lobe trifid in the anterior and middle feet, bifid in the 
posterior ones. Ventral falcigerous bristles homogomph, 
with long, knife-like, ciliate terminal piece. There are 
no posterior dorsal homogomph falcate bristles. Male 
Heteronereis with three distinct regions. 

Length: 50—90 mm. 

Colour: A girdle of yellow glands on each segment. 

Occurrence: Salt water lakes near Calcutta, from 
mud; Barantolla; Vizagapatam; Coasts of Cochin State. 

Distribution: Gulf of Siam; Chantabun; Taleh Sap; 
Pulo Condore; Singapore; India. 

164. Nefcis ttnifesciataWilley. (Fig. 92, a-h) . 

Nereis unifasciatii, Willey, 1905, p. 271, pi. IV, figs. 85-88: 
Ehlers, 1817, p. 337: Horst, 1924, p. 153, pi. XXXI. figs. 3-4- 
Fauvd, 1930. p. 522, fig. 4; 1932, p. 93 




Fig. 92.— Nereis unifasciata Willey: a, anterior part; b, c, proboscis, 

dorsal and ventral view; d, 10th footx35; e, 40th foot X35; /, 

63rd foot X35; g, upper ventral falciger from 63rd foot x450; 

h, lower ventral falciger from 52nd foot x450. 

Longer tentacular cirri reaching backwards to 7tb," 
12th segment. Proboscis: Group 1=3—6 in a longitudinal 
line; II and IV=: crescentic clusters; 111= a rectangular 
cluster of 3 rows; V = 0; VI=on each side, an oval or 
square cluster of 2—4 irregular rows; VII— VIII = a single 
row of 6—7 large paragnaths. Anterior feet with short 



NEREIS 183 

rounded lobes, two in each ramus. In the middle and 
posterior feet dorsal ramus with two sub-equal, triangular, 
diverging ligules; ventral ramus with a conical setigerous 
lobe and a narrow, blunt, inferior ligule. Heterogomph 
ventral falcigerous bristles with a short sickle-shaped ter- 
minal piece. There are no posterior dorsal homogomph 
falcigeroics bristles; in contradistinction to N. trifasciata 
Grube, a closely allied species. 

Length: 10—30 mm. 

Colour: Rusty brown glands, in the feet and in a 
line across each segment. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Tuticorin. 

Distribution: New Caledonia; Philippine Islands; 
Moluccas; Indo-China; India; Suez Canal. 

165. Nereis trifasciata Grube. (Fig, 91, d, e) . 

Nereis unifasciata (non WUley), Fauvd, 1919, p. 397; 1921, p. 7, 
XXI, figs. 1-7: Augener, 1922, p. 177, fig. 3: Fauvel, 1932, 
p. 95; 1935, p. 106; 1939, p. 313. 

Nereis unifasciata (non Willey), Fauvel, 1919, p. 397; 1921, p. 7, 
pi. I, figs. 8-9. 

Long tentacular drri reaching backwards to about the 
7th segment. Proboscis: Group 1^0; II and IV=crescen- 
tic dusters; 111= rectangular duster; V=0; VI=on each 
side, a smaU cluster of 3—6; VII— VIII a single row of 
2—7 small denticles. Anterior feet with short rounded 
lobes, two in each ramus. In the middle and posterior 
feet, dorsal ramus with two subequal triangular ligules, 
ventral ramus with a blunt setigerous lobe and a narrow 
conical inferior ligule. Dorsal cirri longer than the foot. 
Heterogomph ventral falcigerous bristles with a short 
sickle-shaped, smooth, or ciliated, terminal piece. In the 
posterior feet, a dorsal homogomph falcigerous bristle, with 
more or less elongated straight terminal piece. 

Length: 10—30 mm. 

Colour: Dark brown transverse streaks on the ante- 
rior segments. Dorsal glands in the feet. 

Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: China Sea; Philippine Islands; Indo- 
China; Maldive Archipelago; Madagascar; Red Sea; Juan 
Fernandez. 



184 



NEREIDAE 



166. Nereis talehsapensis Fauvel. (Fig. 93, (a-h). 
Nereis talehsapensis Fauvel, 1932, p. 93, pi. II, figs. 10—17. 

Body stout, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly. 80 seg- 
ments and more. Prostomium short and broad. Four eyes, 
of medium size, arranged in a wide-open trapezium. Two 
small tentacles, separated from each other at their base 
by the anterior rounded border of the prostomium: tliey 
are about as long as the palpophores. Palps short, large. 




Fig. ^S.— Nereis talehsapensis Fauvel: a, anterior end, dorsal view, 

enlarged; 6, proboscis, ventral side, enlarged; c, proboscis, dorsal 

side, enlarged; d, inferior falcigerous bristle from posterior 

foot X350; e, joint of inferior ventral hemigomph bristle 

X350; /, 70th foot x42; g, 10th foot X42; h, 30th 

foot X42. 

conical, diverging. Peristomium larger than the follow- 
ing segment. Upper tentacular cirri long and slender, 
the posterior ones reaching backwards to the 7th— 11th 
setigerous segment: the inferior ones subequal, hardly 
over-reaching the second setigerous. Jaws clearly denti- 
culate. Proboscis: Paragnaths conical, group 1=2, one 
behind the other; II— IV=crescentic clusters; in=rect- 



NEREIS 185 

angular cluster of 3—4 rows; V = 0; VI = on each side, 4—5 
large ones crosswise or in an irregular cluster; VII— VlII 
= 3—4 irregular rows of large conical denticles. Parapodia 
elongated, with somewhat slender divisions; posterior feet 
hardly altered. In the anterior feet, dorsal ramus with 
a long cirrus, three sharp pointed ligules, the upper one 
shorter than the two inferior ones, borne on an elongated 
common base. Ventral ramus with two unequal lobes or 
fillets, the anterior conical and the posterior rounded and 
much shorter, an inferior ligule as long as the conical fillet, 
a slender and short ventral cirrus. In the posterior feet, 
the median dorsal ligule disappears after having progres- 
sively decreased in size; the upper ligule is not enlarged. 
Dorsal setae homogomph spinigerous; upper ventral setae 
homogomph spinigerous and long hemigomph fcdcigerous, 
lower ventral setae hemigomph spinigerous, and hetero- 
gomph falcigerous, with an elongated terminal piece, cilia- 
ted and ending in a curved hook, connected to the edge 
by a ligament. There are no dorsal homogomph falci- 
gerous bristles in the posterior feet. Acicula rather pale. 
Two long, filiform, anal cirri. 

Length: About 15—20 mm. by 3—4 mm.; feet includ- 

Colour: Discoloured in spirit. 
Occurrence: Taleh-Sap, Gulf of Siam. 

167. Nereis cliilkaensis" Southern. (Fig. 94, a—c) . 

Nereis ehilkaensis. Southern, 1921. p. 584, pi .XXII, fig. 8: Fauvel, 
1932. p. 94. 

Head considerably narrower in front than behind. 
Prostomium projecting a little in front between the ten- 
tacles. Palps large and stout. Posterior tentacular cirri 
reaching back to 6— 8th and even 12th segment. Probos- 
cis: Group 1=6-10; 11=18-20; 111 = a cluster of 26-S4; 
IV= triangular cluster; V=0; VI=on each side an irre- 
gular curved row of 3—7; VII— VIII = two alternating irre- 
gular rows. Anterior feet, dorsal ramus with a long cir- 
rus, three ligules; ventral ramus with a long cirrus, three 
ligules; ventral ramus with a fillet produced outwards into 
two conical lobes, a blunt ligule and a short ventral cirms. 
In the posterior feet, the dorsal ramus is relatively larger 
and more prominent than the ventral ramus, but me 
upper ligule is not enlzirged and foliaceous. Falcate hete- 
rogomph setae with moderately, long terminal pieces, 

F, 26 



ed. 



186 



NEREIDAE 



smooth at the tip, spinose below. There are no dor$al 
homogomph falcigerous bristles in the posterior feet. 




Fig. 94.-Nereis chilkaensis Southern: a, 40th foot X45; b, anterior 

foot X45; c, falciger. N. reducta Southern: d, head and proboscis; 

e, proboscis, ventral view; /, 60th foot; g, lower falciger 

(after Southern). 



40—100 mm. About 80 segments. 
Dorsum deeply coloured with purplish 



Length: 

Colour: 
brown pigment, dark in front and growing palerbefiind. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake; Ennur backwater; Pam- 
ban; Madras Coast; Travancore. 

168. Neteis indica Kinberg. 

. Nereis indica, Kinberg, 1866, p. 160: Willey, 1905, p. 970: 
Fauvel, 1930a, p. 24; 19S2, p. 96. 
Nereis sp. near ezoensis. Gravely, 1927, p. 13, pi. X, fig. 22. 

Proboscis: Group 1 = 1 or 0; 11 = two curving rows; 
III=a lozenge shaped cluster; IV=triangular clusters; 
= 0; VI = on each side, a rounded cluster of 4—6; VII— 
VIII =1 or 2 large rows and a row of numerous minute 
denticles. Tentacular cirri short. Dorsal ramus of the 
anterior feet trilobed. Posterior feet not modified, their 
upper ligule is not strongly enlarged. Ventral hetero- 
gomph falcigerous bristles with sickle-shaped terminal 



NEREIS 187 

pieces. There are no posterior dorsal homogomph falci- 
gerous bristles. 

Length: 50 mm. 

Occurrence: Galle;' Pamban; Waltair beach. 

Distribution: Bangka Straits; Ceylon; Gulf of Man- 
nar. 

169. Nereis cotftierei Gravier. (Fig. 95, i, k) . 

Nereis coutierei, Gravier, 1901, p. 167, pi. XI, figs. S6— 41: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 96; 1939, p. 312. 

Body slender, small size, Prostomium not notched. 
Proboscis: group 1=1; II and IV=small clusters; III=a 
small transverse cluster; V=0; VI=on, each side, a small 
rounded cluster Of 5—7; VII— VIII = a single row of 6—8 
far apart. In the anterior feet, dorsal ramus with two 
conical equal ligules and a long dorsal cirrus. Ventral 
setigerous lobe blunt, rounded. In the posterior feet, 
the dorsal ligule is enlarged into a rounded crest. Ventral 
heterogomph falcigerous bristles with short sickle-shaped 
terminal piece. Dorsal homogomph falcigerous bristles, 
not boldly denticulate, in the posterior feet. 

Length: 15—25 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands, weed washings; Gulf 
of Mannar; Addu Atoll. 

Distribution: Indo-China; Indian Ocean; India, Per- 
sian Gulf, Red Sea, Suez Canal. 

170. Nereis zoaain-pctsica. Fauvel. (Fig. 95, f~h) . 
Nereis zonata-persica, Fauvel, 1911, p. 385, pi. XIX, figs. 10—16, 

pi. XX, figs. 24-25; 1932, p 96; 1939, p. 312. Pruvot, 1930. 
p. 47, pi. m, figs. 65-68. 

Body rounded. Proboscis: Group 1=0 or 1; II— IV 
= crescentic clusters; 111=- transverse cluster of 2—3 rows; 
V=0; VI=on each side, a rounded or oval cluster of 6— 
10; VII— VIII=an anterior row of rather large denticles 
and 2—5 irregular rows of numerous small denticles. 
Dorsal ramus with a long cirrus and two conical sub-equal 
ligules. Ventral setigerous lobe short, rounded. Poster- 
ior feet not materially modified, dorsal ligule not enlarg- 
ed. Ventral heterogomph falcigerous bristles with short 
sickle-shaped terminal piece. In the posterior feet, large 
. homogomph dorsal falcigerous bristles with hi- or triden- 
tate end-pieces. 

Length: 15—30 mm. 



188 



NEREIDAE 



Occurrence: Pamban; Mormugao Bay. 

Distribution: New Caledonia, Indo-China; Indian 
Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

Remarks: It is really a distinct species and not a 
simple variety of N. zonata as I first described it. 

171. Nereis kattderai Fauvel. (Fig. 95, a-d) . 

Nereis kaudemi, Fauvd, 1921, p. 8, pi. I, ags. 1-7; 1932, p. 97; 

1939, p. 311. 
Nereis falcaria. Gravely, 1927, p. 12, pi. X, fig. 20. 
Nereis mortenseni, Augeaer. 1923b, p. 21, figs. 7—14; 1924, p. 319, 

fig. 4. 
(') Ceratonereis falcaria, Willey, 1905, p. 272, pi. IV, fig. 89. 

Body small, cylindrical, slender. Prostomium notch- 
ed between the tentacles. Tentacular cirri short. Pro- 
boscis: Group 1^0; II = a more or less irregular row; III 




Fig. 96.— Nereis kaudemi Fauvel: a, anterior part XlO; b, posterior 

foot X40; c, d, dorsal homogomph falcigers X333. N. jacksoni 

Kinberg: e, dorsal homogomph falciger X333. N. zonata-persica 

Fauvel- f, g, dorsal homogomph faldgers X333; h, foot 

from mid-body x26. N. coutierei Gravifer: i, dorsal 

homogomph falciger x333; ft, posterior foot X40. 

=a variable cluster; IV = a crescentic gi'oup; V=0; VI = 
on each side, a small cluster of very minute paragnafhs; 
VII— VIII = a single row of 8—9 denticles. Dorsal cirri 
longer than the foot. Dorsal ramus with two conical 
subequal ligules. Ventral setigerous lobe blunt. In the 



NEREIS 189 

posterior feet, the dorsal ligule is much reduced. Ventral 
heterogomph falcigerous bristles with sickle-shaped dliate 
terminal piece. In the middle and posterior feet, 1—2 
large homogomph falcigerous bristles with prominent hi- 
or tridentate terminal piece. 

Length: 15—30 mm. 

Colour: A pattern of elongated transverse pigment 
spots on the anterior segments. 

Remarks: Although much alike, its identity with 
Ceratonereis falcaria Willey is very doubtful, since in the 
latter the paragnaths are missing on the oral ring, accord- 
ing to Willey. But they might have been overlooked (?) . 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Tuticorin; Maldive 
Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Australia, New Zealand, 
New Caledonia, Indo-China; Indian Ocean, India, Maldive 
Archipelago. 

172. Nereis jacksoni Kinberg. (Fig. 95, e) . 

Nereis jacksoni, Kinberg, 1865, p. 69: Augener, 1922, p. 18: 
Pruvot, 1930, p. 44: Fauvel, 1930b. p. 524; 1932, p. 97. 

Nereis denhamensis, Augener, 1913, p. 156, pL III, fig. 61: Fauvel, 
1917, p. 204, pi. VI, figs. 45-46. 

Nereis heirissonensis, Augener, 1913, p 169, pi. Ill, fig. 52. 

Q)Ceratonereis fakaria, {non Willey), Benliain, 1916, p. 136. 
pi. 46, figs. 4-10. 

Body small, cylindrical, slender. Prostomium not not- 
ched between the tentacles. Tentacular cirri short. Prob- 
oscis: group 1 = 0; H = two curved rows; III = a transverse 
cluster; IV=on each side, crescentic clusters; V=0; VI= 
on each side a small cluster of very small denticles; VII— 
VIII = a single row of about 7, wide apart. Dorsal ramus 
with two conical, subequal ligules. Dorsal cirri longer 
than the foot. Ventral setigerous lobe blunt. In the 
posterior feet, the dorsal ligule is more or less reduced. 
Ventral heterogomph falcigerous bristles with sickle-shap- 
ed ciliate terminal piece. In the middle and posterior 
feet, 1—2 large homogomph falcigerous bristles with 
prominent bi- or tridentate terminal piece. 

Remarks: Differs chiefly from N. kauderni Fauvel in 
having its prostomium not notched. 



190 NEREBOAE 

Length: 15—30 mm. 

Colour: Dorsal pattern variable. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Kilakarai; Maldive 
Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Australia, New Zealand, 
New Caledonia, Indo-China; Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea. 

173. Nereis re<J«cta Southern. (Fig. 94, d-g) . 

Nereis reducta, Southern, 1921, p. S93, pi. XXI, figs. 7a-7k. 

Body narrow. Palps long and pointed. Eyes small. 
Tentacular cirri rather short. Proboscis: Group I = a 
single large paragnath; 11=6 o£ varying size; III=;11; IV 
= 8-10; V--= 0; VI = minute paragnaths; VII-VIII = nu- 
merous paragnaths in longitudinal rows. Anterior feet 
with short fusiform, dorsal and ventral cirri, two upper 
and two lower lobes. In the posterior feet the upper 
dorsal lobe is much reduced in size and is smaller than 
the median ligule. The dorsal setae are few and the 
spinous heterogomph setae occur singly in the middle 
and posterior segments. The falcate setae have tips near- 
ly straight and of medium size. 

Length: 50 mm. 96 segments. 

Colour: Head and anterior segments pale brown. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake, about a mile inside the 
mouth. Only a single specimen, 

174. Ncfcis gisserana Horst. (Fig. 96, e-i) . 

Nereis gisserana, Horst, 1924, p. 151, pi. 5tXX, figs. 6—7: Monro, 
1939, p. 394, fig. 302. 

Palps short and stout. Tentacular cirri very long, 
the longest reaching back about the 15th setiger. Prob- 
oscis: Group 1=0; 11 = a transverse row of about 5; 111= 
three groups, a middle one of three rows of small parag- 
naths and two lateral groups each of two; IV- a small 
patch of rather larger denticles; V=0; VI, on each side, 3 
in a transverse row; VI— VIII = a single row of 5—6, widely 
separated. In the anterior region, the lobes of the feet 
are short and blunt, but they gradually lengthen from 



NER£IS 



191 



before backwards. Dorsal ramus with two unequal coni- 
cal lobes and long dorsal cirrus. The shorter lower dor- 
sal languet is fused for part of its length with a slightly 
middle languet. Ventral ramus much shorter, especially 
in the posterior feet where the dorsal ramus greatly over- 
shadows the ventral, but there is no special development 
of the upper dorsal langttet. Heterogomph falcigers with 
short and broad end-piece, which becomes longer and 
hooked in the posterior feet. 




Fig. 96.— Nereis heteromorpha Horst: a, posterior foot (after 
Horst). iV. (Neanthes) capensis Willey: b, foot from mid-body; 
c, d, proboscis dorsal and ventral view: N. gisserana Horst: 
e, f, proboscis, dorsal and ventral view; e, foot from mid- 
body; h, falciger from mid-body; i, falciger from hinder 
foot (after Monro). 

Length: 45 mm. by 2 mm. 



Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago; Maldive Archipe- 
lago; Amirante Islands. 



192 



NEREIDAE 



175. Ncfcis IongiIing«Iis Monro. (Fig. 97, a-c) . 
Nereis longihngults, Monro, 1937, p. 277, fig. 9. 

Body much tapered behind. Head longer than broad, 
not incised between the tentacles. Palps stout, about 
equal to the tentacles. Proboscis without paragnaths in 
the larger specimens. In the small ones, group 1 = 0; II 
= small crestentic patches; 111 = a transverse row o£ 4 rela- 
tively large paragnaths; IV = small crescentic patches; Y — 




Fig. dl.—Nereis longilinguUs Monro: a, 20th foot; b, ventral falciger 

from mid-body; c, ventral falciger from hinder region (after Monro). 

N. (Ceratonereis) burmensis Monro: d, 10th foot; e, hindei 

foot; /, falciger (after Monro). 

0; Vl=a single small one on each side; VII=a single small 
one; VIII=0. Anterior feet with two triangular lobes in 
each ramus, median feet with two dorsal flagelliform lan- 
guets longer than the dorsal cirrus; in the ventral ramus 
the lips of the chaeta-sac and the ventral languets are 
prolonged into a long slender process. At the 70th seti- 
ger all the languets are slender, but very much reduced 
in length. Ventral hemigomph falcigers with a long, 
straight blade, shorter in the posterior feet. There are 
no dorsal homogomph falcigers. 

Length: 45 mm. by 2 mm. 80 setigers. 



NEANTHES 193 

Remarks: Differs from C. flagellipes Fauvel in having 
one, and not two, flagelliform processes arising from the 
ventral chaeta-sac, different blades to the falcigers, and 
paragnaths on both rings of the proboscis. 

Occurrence: North Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: Arabian Sea. 

176. Nereis hetetomorpta Horst. (Fig. 96, a) . 

Nereis (Lycoris) heteromorpha, Horst, 1924, p. 152, pi. XXXI, 
figs. 1-2. Augener, 1926, p. 449. 

Male Heteronereis with body divided into three 
regions. Anterior atocous part with 14 segments, epito- 
cous part with 32—45 segments; posterior part atocous, 
with reduced lobes having neither lamellae nor swim- 
ming bristles. Head with two pairs of large coalescent 
eyes, tentacles and palps bent backwards under the head. 
Tentacular cirri rather short. Dorsal cirri of the anter- 
ior seven parapodia swollen below the tip. In the epito- 
cous parapodia the dorsal ligule is conically elongated, 
whereas the ventral one has a lamella-shaped distal extre- 
mity; a rather laige fan-shaped lamella is situated at the 
base of the dorsal cirrus which bears, along its venn-al 
border, 14 papillae. Ventral cirrus provided ventrally 
■svith a large lamella and, dorsally, with an elongated one; 
the neuropodial lobe bears a large cordiform lamella. In 
the caudal region, a dorsal, stout, pale aciculum and 
a ventral blackish one. Proboscis: Group 1 ::= 1—2 parag- 
naths behind one another; 11 = a crescentic cluster; 111=2 
a transverse curved group in 3—4 rows; IV = a curved tri- 
angular one; V=0; VI=on each side, a transverse row of 
5—6 denticles; VII— VIII=a monostichous belt of 12 
paragnaths. 

Length: 8—10 mm. Atocous phase unknown. 
Occurrence: Ceylon, Trincomali. 
Distribution: Malay Archipelago; India. 

Subgenus NEANTHES Kinberg. 
All groups of the proboscis present. 

177. Nereis (Neanthes) capensis Willey. (Fig. 06, b-d) . 

Neanthes capensis, WUley, 1904, p. 261, pi. XIII, fig. 10, pi. XIV, 
figs. 9-10: Fauvel, 1911, p. 384. 

Neanthes albanyensis, Augener, 1913, p. 149, pi. II, fig. 6: Fauvel, 
1917. p. 206, fig. 16; 1927, p. 430. 

F. 27 



194 NEREIDAE 

Longer tentacular cirri reaching backwards to the 
7th— 11th segment. Proboscis: Group 1=1 or 2; II=tri- 
angular clusters; 111= a transverse cluster; IV = rectangular 
duster; V=l or 3; VI = on each side, a cluster of 3-6; 
VII— VIII =3-4 rows. Anterior feet with short rounded 
lobes, 3 in the dorsal ramus, and short dorsal cirri. 
Middle and posterior feet with sharper lobes, dorsal lobes 
not increased. End-pieces of the falciform heterogomph 
setae small, short, broad. There are no posterior dorsal 
homogomph falcigerous bristles. 

Length: 30 mm. by 5 mm. 

Colour: Two dark glands in the feet. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Australia; New Zealand; Persian Gulf; 
Suez Canal; Cape of Good Hope. 

178. Nereis (Neanthes) meggitti Monro. 

Nereis (Neanthes) meggitti, Monro, 19S1, p. 580, figs. 1—6. 

Prostomium as broad as long. The longest tentacu- 
lar cirri reach back to the 7th— 10th setiger. Proboscis: 
Group I =a cluster of 4 very small paragnaths; 11= obli- 
que clusters of 10—12 small ones; III=about 4 rows of 
numerous small; IV = oblique groups of about 15; V=a 
group of 4—6 rather large ones; VI =4— 5 rather large 
paragnaths, on each side; VII— Vlll-a continuous band 
of 4 rows of small paragnaths. In the anterior feet, dor- 
sal ramus with three triangular, pointed, upper lobes of 
about equal size. Dorsal cirrus slender. In the posterior 
segments, there is no substantial enlargement of (he 
upper dorsal lamella but, relatively to the dorsal ramus, 
the ventral ramus is much reduced. There are ro dorsal 
homogomph falcigers. 

Length: 30 mm. by 2 mm. 

Colour: Male and female. Heteronereis: In spirit, 
vestiges of a narrow black stripe down the middle of the 
back. 

Occurrence: Rangoon River, forty miles from the 
mouth, in fresh water. 

Subgenus CERATONEREIS Kingberg. 
Paragnaths missing on the oral ring. 

17&. Nereis (Ceratonereis) costae Grube. (Fig. 98, a—f) . 

Nereis (Ceratonereis) costae, Fauvel, 1933, p. 349, fig. 136 a—f; 
J939, p. 320, 



CERATONEREIS 



195 



Nereis (Ceratonereis) fasciata Grube, Gravier, 1901, p. 174, pi. 
XXI, figs. 45. 

Nereis (Ceratonereis) lapinigensis, Grube, 1878. p. 69. 

Ceratonereis pectinifera Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 272, pi. IV, figs. 
90-91. 

Tentacular cirri rather short. Prostomium not in- 
cised. Proboscis: Group 1=0; 11=2 crescentic rows; 
111=3—8, set in a triangle or a lozenge; IV ^square clus- 
ters. In the anterior feet, three dorsal ligules, the median 
one shorter. In the posterior feet the dorsal ramus over- 




Fig. 98.— JV. (Ceratonereis) costae Grube: a, b, head and proboscis; 

c, d, 11th. and 18th feet X20; e, posterior foot x20; /, falciger 

XS50. C. kircinicola (Eisig): g-n (not yet found in India). 

shadows the ventral one. Dorsal cirrus longer; ventral 
cirrus short. Posterior ventral falcigerous bristles witli 
a stout yellow shaft and a hooked end-piece. There are 
no dorsal homogomph falcigOrs. 

Length: 20-80 mm. 

Colour: Very variable; yellowish, pink, green, with 
streajcs of brown dots. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Australia, Philippine Islands, Indo- 
China, Malay Archipelago; Indian Ocean,: Red Sea, Per- 
sian Gulf; Atlantic Ocean. 



196 



NEREIDAK 



180. Nereis (Cefatonereis) pachychaeta Fauvel. (Fig. 99, 
a—h) . 

Ceiatonerets pachychaeta, Fauvel, 1919, p. 403, fig. VIII, pi. XV, 
figs. 22-25; 1923. p. 41; 1933, p. 57. 

Body short, tapering backwards. Prostomium not 
notched. Tentacular cirri short. Proboscis: Group 1 = 
1; 11^4-8 in a single, curved, row; 111=2—3 behind one 
another; IV ^ triangular clusters of 4—6. Dorsal cirri 
slightly longer than the feet. Anterior feet with three 




Fig. 99.— iV. (Ceratonereis) pachychaeta Fauvel: a, anterior part X8; 
6, anterior foot X30, c, posterior foot x30; d, foot from mid- 
body X30; e, large upper ventral falciger X300; /, g, hete- 
rogomph and homogomph articulations X300; h, lower ven- 
tral falciger from 20th foot X300. 

dorsal, sub-equal, rounded ligules. In the posterior feet, 
two dorsal, unequal, pointed ligules; ventral ramus shorter, 
with several very stout heterogomph falcigers with end- 
piece hooked and more or less fused with the stalk. Lower 
falcigers with shorter hooked end-piece not fused. 

Length: 30—45 mm. by 3—4 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, copper coloured with transverse 
bands of tiny dark spots and dark glands. 

Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago, Hulu Male. 
Distribution: Tahiti, Gambler Islands; Maldive 
Archipelago; Red Sea; Gulf of Suez; Madagascar. 

181. Nereis (Ceratonereis) bttrmensis Monro. (Fig. 97, 
d-f). 
Nereis (^Ceratonereis) burmensis, Monro, 1937b, p. 532, fig. 1. 



CERATONEREIS 



197 



Prostomium not incised. Palpostyles small, button- 
like. Four small black eyes in a rectangle. Longer 
tentacular cirri reach back to the 6th setiger. Proboscis: 
No paragnaths on the proximal ring. Group I=a patch 
of very small paragnaths; II - narrow oblique clusters of 
relatively large ones; III - a rather wide transversal band 
of about thi-ee rows of very small denticles; IV=an obli- 
que cluster of about 10. Short subulate cirri. Dorsal 
ramus with 3 triangular ligules. Ventral ramus with 4 
languets, but only 3 in the posterior feet, which are not 
increased. Bristles delicate and slender. Ventral falci- 
gers with long, straight, slender end-piece: t/jey are con- 
fined to a shoit median region. Further back there are 
only spinigers. There are no dorsal homogomph falci- 
gers. Heteronereis male with modification of the feet at 
about the 21st setiger. 

Length: 45 mm. by 2 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, grey-green, with a black median 
dorsal stripe over about the first ten setigers and traces 
of black transverse segmented bands. Black pedal 
glands. 

Occurrence: Off Bombay; Maungmagan, Burma. 

Remarks: Feet very close to N. chingrighattensis. 
Allied to Ceratonereis similisetis Grube, which has no 
falcigers and a different shape of feet. 

182. Nereis (Ceratonereis) Ixipartita Horst. (Fig. 100, 

a—d) . 

Nereis (Ceratonereis) tripartita, Horst, 1924, p. 183, pi. XXXVI, 
figs. 1-2: Fauvel, 1932, p. 99, fig. 15. 




Fig. 100.— AT. (Ceratonereis) tripartita Hovst: a, 9th foot X46; 6, 

heterogomph falciger from hinder foot X400; c, upper ventral 

falciger from 9th foot x400; d, lower venttal falciger 

from 9th foot X400. 



198 



NEREIDAE 



Tentacular cirri reaching backwards to the 8th— 9th 
segment. Proboscis: Group I == 0; II and IV =triangular 
clusters of numerous small, pale paragnaths; III=a large 
transverse cluster of several rows. In the anterior feet, 
a dorsal cirrus longer than the foot, two sub-equal sharp 
conical dorsal ligules. Ventral setigerous lobe short and 
blunt; ventral cirrus long and slender. Posterior feet not 
increased. Homogomph and heterogomph spinigerous 
bristles. Ventral heterogomph falcigerous bristles with 
sickle-shaped, ciliate, terminal piece; some of them very 
stout, but compound. There are no posterior dorsal 
homogomph falcigerous bristles. Atocous specimen; 
those of Horst were all epitocous, divided into three 
regions. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands, in coral. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago; Andaman Islands. 

183. l^tttis (Ceratonefeis) fflicfoc^phala Grube, (Fig. 
101, a-h) . 

i^ereis (Ceratonereis) microcephala, Grube, 18^8, p. 65: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 99, fig. 16. 

Prostomium small, not notched between the tentacles. 
Font black eyes arranged in a widely opened trapezium. 





Fig. 101.— JV. (Ceratonereis) microcephala Grube: a, foot from mid- 
body X60; b, 20th foot X60. 

Tentacles shorter than the palpophores which are very 
large, blunt, conical and diverging. Two inferior pairs 
of tentacular cirri shorter than the upper ones, which 
reach backwards to the 7th— 8th segment. Proboscis: Maxi- 
llary ring small, oral ring (devoid of paragnaths) much 
larger. Group 1=0; II -- crescfentic clusters of 2—3 rows; 
111= a broad and transverse cluster of B— 4 irregular rows; 
IV = several curved rsws. The posterior feet are not 



CERATONEREIS 199 

modified. In the anterior feet, dorsal ramus with two 
triangular subequal ligules and dorsal cirrus about the 
length of the ligules: ventral setigerous lobe conical, as 
long as the dorsal ramus; ventral ligule blunt and much 
shorter. Ventral cirrus small, much shorter than the 
ventral ligule. Dorsal and upper ventral spinigerous 
bristles homogomph; lower ventral ones heterogomph. 
All setae long and slender. Falcigerous homograph ventral 
setae present in anterior feet, missing in the posterior ones. 

Differs from C. tripartita in (1) the shape of the feet 
which are shorter and more blunt; (2) its very much 
shorter ventral cirrus, and (3) the absence of posterior 
ventral falcigerous bristles and in its more slender setae. 
The armature of the proboscis is the same. 

Occurrence: Taleh-Sap, Gulf of Siam. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Gulf of Siam. 

184. Nefeis (Cetatoneteis) flagellipes Fauvel. (Fig. 102, 
a—h) . 

Nereis (Ceratonereis) flagellipes, Fauvel, 1932, p. 100, pi. Ill, 

figs. 1-8. 

Prostomium broader than long, not notched between 
the tentacles. Four rather large eyes, with a lens, arrang- 
ed in a widely opened trapezium. Tentacles about the 
length of the palpophores. Palps stout, ovoid. Tenta- 
cular cirri rather short, the longer reaching backwards to 
the 6th setigerous segment. Peristomium hardly longer 
than the succeeding segment. Jaws very pale yellow, 
transparent, with 5—6 teeth, the inferior ones blunt. 
Paragnaths missing on the oral ring. On the maxillary 
ring they are sharply conical, transparent, little conspicu- 
ous. Group 1=0 (or 1?); 11= small clusters of 3—4; III 
=a transverse row of 3; IV=small clusters of 2—5. Paro- 
podia: On the first 5—6 setigerous segments, the dorsal 
cirrus is more or less of the same lengfh as the dorsal 
ligule. The dorsal and ventral rami are divided each 
into two elongated conical ligules whose tip is already 
sligl^tly filiform in the upper dorsal one. The ventral 
cirrus is shorter. In the suceeding feet, the dorsal ligules 
become flagelliform (whip-like) and much longer than 
the cirrus. In the ventral ramus, the setigerous lobe is 
much elongated and divided at the tip into two filiform 
appendages corresponding to tjie two fillets. The ventral 
ligule is whip-like and nearly as long ^s the dorsal ligules, 
and the ventral cirrjj? is njudi shorter. Behind the 20th 
foot, the ligules still increase in length, especially the 



200 



NEREIDAE 



ventral one, and are more or less coiled. (The posterior 
feet are unknown.) The dorsal bristles are slender hom- 
ogomph spiningers. The upper ventral bristles are long 
and slender homogomph spinigers and heterogomph falci- 
gers; the lower ventral ones are hemigomph, or faintly 
heterogomph, spinigers and long heterogomph falcigers. 




Fig. 102.— Nereis (Ceratonereis) fiagellipes Fauvel: a, anterior end, 

dorsal view; 6, proboscis, ventral view; c, 5th foot, d, 21st foot; 

e, 35th fool; /, homogomph spinigerous bristle; g, inferior 

falcigerous bristle from posterior foot; It, inferior 

falcigerous bristle from anterior foot. 

Only a single anterior fragment, 32 mm. by 2 mm. 
and 36 segments, was collected. 

Occurrence: 25 miles south of Barwa Beacon, Gan- 
jam Coast, 93 fms. 

186. Nereis (Cetatoncteis) mit&h'Ais Kinberg. (Fig. 103, 
a~c) . 

Ceratonereis mirabillis, Kinberg, 1863, p. 70: Ehlers, 1887, p. 
117-172, pi. XXXVni, fig. 1-6: Gravier, 1901, p. 172, pi. XI, 
fig. 12: Fauvel, 1917, p. 207 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 98: Gravely, 
1927, p. 13, pi. X, fig. 21. 



CERATONEREIS 



201 



Ceratonereis tmtaculata Kinberg, Augener, 1913, p. 168. Horst, 
1924, p. 180, pi. XXXV. figs. 4-7. 

Prostomium deeply cleft between the tentacles. Palps 
elongated. Tentacular cirri and dorsal cirri very long. 
Proboscis: Group 1=0; II and IV=triangular clusters, 
III=a transverse cluster of several rows. Paragnaths miss- 
ing on the oral ring. Dorsal ramus with two long, 
slender, subequal ligules. Posterior feet little modified. 
Spinigerous setae homogomph and heterogomph. Falci- 
§erous setae heterogomph, with long, straight, ciliated 




Fig. 103— N. (Ceratonereis) mirabihs Kinberg: a, 40th foot X80; b, 

head; c, upper ventral falciger X500: Perinereis barbara Monro: 

dj e, proboscis, ventral and dorsal view X6; /, anterior foot x25. 



terminal piece, becoming shorter and more sickle-like in 
the posterior feet. Dorsal homogomph falcigerous bris- 
tles in the posterior feet. 

Length; 30 mm. 

Colour: In life^ semi-transparent. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands, Gulf of Mannar, 
Kxusadai Island, Pamban, Kilakarai, from coral reefs; 
Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Indian Ocean, Persian 
Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Brazil, West Indie?, 

F. 28 



202 



NEREIDAE 



Genus PERINEREIS Kinberg. 

Parapodia biramous. Horny paragnaths on both 
rings of the proboscis. Paragnaths of Group VI trans- 
verse, ridge-shaped, or a transverse row of more or less 
flattened denticles. 



Key to the species of Perinereis. 



1. Body divided into 3 regions . . 
Body not divided into 3 regions 

2. Paragnaths of groups VII— VIII 

absent 
Groups VII— VIII present 

3. Heterogomph spinigers absent . . 
Heterogomph spinigers present 

4. A transverse row of many small 

denticles m group VI 

Only one or two large flattened 
paragnaths m each group VI 

5. Groups I and II absent 

Groups II present 

6. Two transverse paragnaths in 

each group VI 

A single transverse paragnath in 
each group VI T 

7. A single paragnath in group V 

A triangular patch of three para- 
gnaths in group V 

8. Paragnaths of group VI narrow 

and little flattened 

Paragnaths of group VI broad 
and flattened 

9. Group V missing 

A triangular patch of three para- 
gnaths or a single large one, 
in group V 

10. A cluster of 4—12 paragnaths in 

group I. Posterior feet en- 
larged 

One, two or three paragnaths be- 
hind one another in group I. 
Posterior feet not materially 
enlarged 

11. Tentacular cirri reaching back- 

wards to the 5— 6th setigerous 
segment 

T'entacular cirri reaching back- 
wards to the 7— 9th setigerous 
segment 



mamdroni Fauvel, p. 203. 
2 



suluana Horst, p. 204. 

3 
Barbara Monro, p. 204. 

4 



neocaledonica Pruvot, p. 211. 
nuntia Savigny, p. 212. 



singaporiensis Grube, p. 205. 

8 

aibuhitensis Grube, p. 209. 

vancaurica Ehlers, p. 205. 
cavifrons Ehlers, p. 210. 

10 

mgropunctata Horst, p. 210. 

11 
cultrifera Grube, p. 206. 
helleri Grube, p. 208. 



PERINEREIS 



203 



186. Pcfmefcis maindfoni Fauvel. (Fig. 104, e-i) . 
Petinereis matndroni, Fauvel, 1943, p. 201, fig. 1, e—t. 

Body small, slender, divided into three regions. Four 
eyes set in a trapezium. Tentacles shorter than the coni- 
cal palps. The longer dorsal cirrus reaches back to the 
third setigerous segment. Proboscis with vejy small, 
transparent, conical paragnaths, not easily detected. 
Group 1=1 or 0; II and IV=curved rows; III=a small 
transverse cluster; V=0; VI=on each side, a transverse 
row of 5—6 conical or slightly flattened paragnaths; VII— 




Fig. 'Vai.—Perinei eis mamdroni Fauvel: e, f, long and short spinigers 

X380; g, anterior foot X80; h, foot from mid-body X80; i, 

semi-epitocous foot X80. 

VIII =3 rows. Anterior region with a score of segments, 
the feet of which carry three dorsal subequal ligules and 
three ventral ones, with the intermediate one shorter. 
Dorsal cirrus about the same length as the upper ligule. 
Ventral cirrus short. Middle region: 20—24 segments. 
Dorsal ligule narrow, and about twice or thrice as long 
as the two others and the dorsal cirrus, which is inserted 
at its base. Posterior region: 12—15 segments, the last 
ones very small. The dorsal ligule decreases rapidly. 



204 NEREIDAE 

Setae very small and slender. Falciform endpieces rather 
long and slender. There are no homogomph falcigers. 
Two long anal cirri. 

Length: 15—18 mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish, with, sometimes, a 
brown collar behind the head and a few streaks on the 
back of the anterior segments. 

Occurrence: Pondichery (M. Maindron col.) . 

Remarks: One of the specimens is a sub-epitocus 
male, with incipient lamellae on the ventral cirrus, but 
without oar-shaped setae. The others, though atocous, 
are nevertheless clearly divided into three regions, which 
is very unusual in atocous Nereids. 

187. Pmneteis tafbafa Monro. (Fig. 103, d-f) . 
Perinereis barbara, Monro, 1926, p. 316, figs. 3—5. 

Prostomium of the usual shape. Longest tentacular 
cirri reach back to the third setiger. Proboscis: Group I 
=2 paragnaths, a smaller followed by a larger; 11= an 
oblique distichous group of about 12 paragnaths; 111 = 
a small transverse group of about 9; 1V= a large crescentic 
group; V=a longitudinal row of 4 paragnaths; VI=2 
small paragnaths on the border of group V and a single 
larger linear paragnaih, on each side; VII— VIII = a band 
of paragnaths about four deep. (Variations occur in 
group VI.) Anterior feet with long dorsal cirrus and two 
dorsal lobes; the lip of the ventral seta-sac is just shorter 
than the inferior one. Ventral languet sub-digitiform. 
Posteriorly the languets all become longer and more 
pointed. There is nothing remarkable about the setae 
and their arrangement, except that there appear to be 
no heterogomph spinigers present. 

Length: 40 mm. by 2 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, pale yellow. 

Occurrence: Singapore Beach. 

Distribution: East Australia, Port Jackson; Singa- 
pore. 

188. Perinereis sal«ana Horst. (Fig. 105, e) . 

Pennerets suluana, Horst, 1924, p. 175, pi. XXXIII, fig. 9: Monro, 
1926, p. 318: Fauvel, 1932, p. 102. 

Posterior tentacular cirri, rather slender and streaked 
with brown pigment, reach backwards to the 4th setiger- 
ous segment. The palps, longer than the tentacles, are 



PnRINEREIS 205 

stout and q^lindrical. The eyes are large, blade, with a 
lens, and set in a squai-e. Proboscis: group 1 = 2—3 in a 
line; II and IV=clusters; III=a transverse cluster o£ 3—4 
rows; V=0; VI=on each side, a single ridge-shaped parag- 
nath. Groups VII—VIII absent. In the posterior feet, 
the dorsal ligule is larger and protrudes above the ventral 
ramus but is not foliaceous and flag-like. Falcigerous setae 
with a short terminal piece. 

Colour: Prostomium wliite with three longitudi- 
nal brown streaks. Back dark-brown with a narrow white 
line across the middle of each segment. Further on, the 
white line divides the segment into two unequal brown 
bands. In the posterior part, the pigment is reduced to 
two or three transverse, narrow, patches. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Sulu Arcliipelago; Andaman Islands; 
Darros Island in the Amirante Islands. 

189. Perinefeis singaporiensis Grube. (Fig. 105, a-d) . 

Perineieis singaporiensis, Grube, 1878, p. 84: Horst, 1924, p. 169, 
pi. XXXIV, figs. 1-2: Pruvot, 1930, p. 55, pi. Ill, Hgs. 62-04 
Fauvel, 19S2, p. 103: Monro, 1931, p. 36, figs. 1-2. 

Proboscis: group 1 = 1—3; 11= a rhomboidal cluster 
of 8—9; III=a transverse tristichous group; IV= crescentic 
groups; V=0; VI=on each side 2 transversely elongated 
paragnaths (with one or two conical ones between them?) ; 
VII— VIII ^ two or three rows. Terminal piece of the 
falcigerous bristles rather long, little curved and ciliated. 
Posterior feet not increased but dorsal ligules stout and 
protruding above the ventral ramus. 

Length: 80 mm. by 3 mm. 

Colour: A dark median stripe on anterior segments. 
Black pedal gland conspicuous. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Mergui. 

Distribution: New Caledonia; Malay Archipelago; 
Singapore; Mergui Archipelago, Jack and Una Islands; 
Burma, Diamond Island. 

190. Pctinercis vancaarica (Ehlers) . (Fig. 105, /-g) . 

Nereis vancaurica, Ehlers, 1864, p. 503, pi. XX: Fauvel, 1923, p. 
34 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 103. 

Nereis languida, Grube, 1867, p. 13, pi. II, fig. 1. 

Perinereis horsti, Gravier, 1901, p. 182, pi. XI, fig. 47. 

Perinereis nankaurica, Augener, 1922a, p. 23. 



m 



NEREIDAE 



Proboscis: group 1 = 1, 2; II=crescentic clusters; III 
—a square cluster; IV=triangular dusters; V=3, set in a 
triangular patch; VI=on each side, two transverse 
elongated paragnaths; VII— VIII =3 rows. There is some- 
times an accessory denticle in group V. Tentacular cirri 
reaching backwards to the 4— 5th setigerous segment. Ter- 
minal pieces of falcigerous bristles straight and ciliated. 
Posterior feet not enlarged. 




Fig. 105.— Perinereis singaporiemis Grube; a, posterior foot X32; 

b, c, proboscis, dorsal and ventral view; d, ventral falciger X240 

(after Pruvot). P. suluana Horst: e, foot x40 (after Horst). 

P. vancaunca (Ehlers): /, g, head and proboscis (after 

Monro). 



Length: 80 mm. by 3 mm. 

Colour: A dark median stripe on anterior segments. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Mergui. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands, Indo-China, New 
Zealand; Nankauri, Nicobar Islands, Red Sea; Atlantic 
Ocean, French Guiana. 

191. Pefinereis caltfifcra Grube. (Fig. 106, a-/) . 

Perinereis cultrifera, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 352, fig 137 (Synonymy); 

1932, p. 104. 
Perinerets floridana Ehlers, Gravier, 1901, p. 185, pi. XI, fig. 48. 
Perinereis perspicillata, Grube, 1878, p. 90, pi. IV, fig. 10. 
Perinereis striolata, Pruvot, 1930, p. 60. 
Perinereis helleri, Grube, 1878, p. 81: Pruvot, 1930, p. 62. 
Perinereis camiguina, Grube, 1878, p. 87. 

Perinereis obfuscate, Grube, 1878, p. 86: Hoist, 1924, 173, pi. 
XXXIV, figs. 5, 6. 



PERINEREIS 



207 



Proboscis: group I = 1, or a few in a line or a small 
cluster; II and IV=clusters; III=a rectangular cluster; V 
=1 or a triangular patch of 3; VI=on each side, a single 
broad, flattened paragnath; VII— VIII - 2—3 rows. Ten- 
tacular cirri of variable length. Falcigeious setae with 
short sickle-shaped terminal pieces. Posterior feet not 
modified. 




Fig. 106.— Pennereis cultrifera Grube: o, natuial size; &, c, head 
and proboscis, dorsal and ventral view; d, e, f, anterior, mid- 
body and posterior feet X15; g, hetexogomph. falciger X270; 
h, female, Heteronereis stage; t, male Heteronereis stage; k, 
its pygidium; I, male epitocous foot X20. 

Length: 10-250 mm. 

Colour: Dark or yellowish green. 

This species is liable to extensive variation, especially 
as regards the armature of the proboscis, the length of the 
cirri and the shape of the dorsal ligule. 

The principal varieties, or sub-species, are tabulated 
as follows: 



Key to the varieties of P. cultrifera Grube. 

1. Group V, a triangle of 3 paragnaths 2 
Group V, a single paragnath . . 4 

2. Group I, 1 to 3 in a longitudinal 

line . . . . 3 

Group I, a small cluster of 4—8 penpicillata Grube, p. 208. 



208 NEREIDAE 

S. Tentacular drri reaching back- 
wards to the 5— 6th setigerous cultrifera var. typica 
segment . . . . Grube, p. 208. 

TentaciOar cirri reaching back- 
wards to the 7— 8th setigerous 
segment . . . . helleri Grube, p. 208. 

4. Group I, 1 or 2 in a line . . floridana Ehlers, p. 208 
Group I, a small cluster of 4— S 5 

5. Tentacular cirri reaching back- 

wards to the 3id setigerous 
segment . . . . obfuscata Grube. 
Tentacular cirri reaching back- 
wards to the 9th setigerous 
segment .. .. striolata Grube, p. 209. 

var. typica Grube. 

Group 1 = 1—3 in a line; V=a triangular patch of 
three. Tentacular cirri reaching to the 5— 6th segment. 

Occurrence: Burma, Diamond Island; Nicobar Is- 
lands, Camorta I; Andaman Islands; Cape Comorin. 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan; Pacific, Indian and 
Atlantic Oceans. 

var. floridana Ehlers. 

Group 1 = 1—2 in a line; "V=a single large paragnath. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Cape Comorin. 

Distribution: Gulf of Siam; Malay Archipelago; 
India; Atlantic Ocean. 

var. pej-spicillata Grube. 

Group I = a small cluster of 4—8 paragnaths; V= 
triangle of three. 

Occurrence: Indo-China; Singapore; Mormugao Bay 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; New Caledonia; 
Singapore; India; Persian Gulf; coasts of France. 

var. Helleti Grube. 

Perinereis camiguina, Grube, 1878, p. 87: Augener, 1922, p. 23. 

Group 1=2, one behind the other; V=a triangular 
group of 3 large paragnaths. Tentacular cirri reaching 
backwards to the 8— 9th segment. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago; Gulf of Mannar; 
Bombay Harbour. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippine Islands; 
India; Atlantic Ocean. 



PERINEREIS 



209 



var. striolata Grube. 

Group I=a small cluster of 4—5; group; V=a single 
large paragnath. Tentacular cirri reaching backwards 
to the 9th setigerous segment. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Siam; Singapore. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Indo-China. 

Remarks: Perinereis obfuscate differs from P. strio- 
lata in having shorter tentacular cirri. 

192. Petinerels aibahitensis Grube. (Fig. 107, a) . 

Perinereis aibuhitensis, Grube, 1878, p. 89, pi. V, fig. 3: Horst, 
1924, p. 168, pi. XXXin, figs. 4-6: Fauvel, 1932, p. 106. 

Group 1=2 in a line; II and IV=clusters; III=a 
transverse cluster of 3 rows and, on each side, 3—4 in a 
longitudinal line; V=3, arranged in a triangle; VI=on 
each side, two stout obtusely conical, hardly flattened 




Fig. 101.— Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube: a, head and proboscis (after 

Grube). P. nigropunctata Horst {—S. marjoni Southern)- b, c, 

head and proboscis, dorsal and ventral view XlO; d, falciger 

X500; e, 10th foot XSO; /, 70th foot X50 (after Sout^i^rn) 

F. 29 



210 NEREIDAE 

paragnaths; VII— VIII=3 rows. Falcigerous bristles with 
long, straight terminal piece. Dorsal ligule of the posterior 
feet short and thick. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Vizagapatam; Mor- 
mugao Bay. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Batavia; Macassar; 
China; India. 

193. Perinereis nigf o-punctata Horst. (Fig. 107, h-f) . 

Perinereis nigro-punctata, Horst, 1924, p. 171: Fauvel, 1932, p. 

107. 
Perinereis marjorii. Southern, 1921, p. 695, pi. XXIII, fig. 10. 
Permereis yorkensis, Augener, 1922a, p. 24, fig. 6, a—e. 

Proboscis: group I=a cluster of 5—12 paragnaths; 
II and IV=triangular and crescentic clusters; III=a trans- 
verse group; V=2 large denticles arranged in a triangle; 
VI=on each side, a single, large, semi-circular tooth; VII 
—VIII a double row. Falcigerous bristles with short 
sickle-shaped terminal piece. Dorsal ligule greatly en- 
larged in the posterior feet. 

Length: 50—60 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: Pale purplish brown. A V-shaped band be- 
hind the eyes. Three transverse black spots on the back 
of the anterior segments. 

Occurrence: Nicobar Islands, Nankauri; Andaman 
Islands; Chilka Lake; Cape Comorin. 

Disribution: Malay Archipelago; Nicobar Islands, 
Nankauri; India. 

194. Perfnems cavifcons Ehlers. (Fig. 108, a~b) . 

Nereis (Perinereis) cauifrons, Ehlers, 1920, p. 47, pi. I, fig. 6— 
10, 

Proboscis: group 1=2—3, one behind the other; II and 
IV=crescentic clusters; II=a cluster; V=0; VI=on 
each side, a rather narrow transverse paragnath; VII— VIII 
=2 or 3 irregular rows. Tentacular cirri reaching back- 
wards to the 6th segment. Dorsal cirri about the length 
of the dorsal ligule. Posterior feet not modified. Falci- 
gerous bristles with short terminal piece. 

Occurrence: Gangetic delta; coast of Travancore; Mor- 
mugao Bay. 

Distribution: Java; Burma; India. 



PERINEREIS 



211 



195. Periner eis neocaledonica Pruvot. (Fig. 108, c-g) . 
Perinereis neocaledomca, Pruvot, 1930, p. 50, pi. Ill, figs. 77—79: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 107. 

Body of large size, about 300 segments. Prostomium 
broader than long, notched between the tentacles. Palps 
short, globular. Proboscis: groups I and II are missing; 
III— IV=a dense cluster of very numerous and very 
minute denticles, the three groups nearly coalescent; V=l, 
2 or 3 large paragnaths; VI=on each side, a transverse 
row of about 20 conical or slightly flattened paragnaths; 
VII— VIII=a belt of numerous very small denticles reach- 
ing to the groups VI. A similar patch of small denticles. 




Fig. 108.— Perinereis cavifrons Ehlers: a, anterior part X4; b, 10th 

foot Xl8 (after EMers). P. neocaledonica Pruvot: c, d, proboscis, 

dorsal and ventral view; e, 16th foot X30; /, hinder foot X30; 

g, heterogompfa falciger Xl75 (sifter Pruvot). 

sometimes continuous with the former, lies behind the 
large paragnaths of group V. Jaws large, dark and 
smooth. Tentacular cim very short. Dorsal cirri short. 
In the anterior feet, dorsal ramus with two ligules. 
Dorsal ligule of the posterior feet much enlarged, flag- 
like, with a small dorsal cirrus inserted near the tip. 
Heterogomph falcigerous bristles with a large shaft and a 
and a small terminal piece, easily deciduous. 



212 NEREIDAE 

Length: 175—220 mm. by 6 mm., setae included. 

Colour: Yellowish, in spirit, with traces of a longitu- 
dinal chestnut streak. 

Occurrence: North Andaman Islands, under stones; 
Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: New-Caledonia; New-Hebrides; Anda- 
man Islands; Arabian Sea. 

I9'6. Pci-inereis nuntia (Savigny) . (Fig. 1 09, a-g) . 
Ferinereis nuntia, Fauvel, 1919, p. 410 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 108. 

Proboscis: Group 1=0, or 1 to 3 behind one another; 
II=clusters; 111= rectangular patch; IV=triangular clus- 
ters; V=0, 1, 2 or 3 set in a triangle; VI=on each side, a 
single curved row of 5—18 conical, or flattened, or conical 
and flattened mixed together; VII— VIII=3 rows of 
large spikes, more or less flattened and, sometimes, 2—3 
rows of smaller ones. Tentacular cirri reaching back- 
wards to the 3rd— 16th setigerous segment. Dorsal cirri of 
variable length. Parapodia with dorsal ligules blunt, 
conical, or tapering. In the posterior feet, the dorsal 
ligule is enlarged. 

This wide-spread species, fairly common in warm seas 
all over the world, is also liable to extensive variations, 
and has been described under many names. 

These varieties may be tabulated as follows: 

Key to the varieties of P. nuntia Savigny. 

1. Group V missing . . 3 
Group V present 2 

2. Group V, 1 paiagnath . 4 
Group V, 3 in a triangle .. 5 

3. Tentacular cirri reaching badc- 

•wards to the 10— 15th segment; 
dorsal cirri longer than the 
dorsal ligule; paragnaths o£ VI 
mixed . . , , var. djiboutiensis Fauvel. 

Tentacular cirri reaching to the 
3rd— 5th segment; dorsal cirri 
shorter than the dorsal ligule; var. heterodonta 
paragnaths of VI flattened . . Gravier, p. 214. 

4. Group I, 1— S . . . . var. vallata (Grube), p. 215. 
Group I, 7—13 . . . . var. mafungaensis Fauvel. 

5. Tentacular cirri reaching to the 

10— 16th segment. Paragnaths 

of group VI all conical .. var. typica Savigny, p. 213. 



PERINEREIS 



213 



Tentacular cirri reaching to the 
7th— 8th segment. Paragnaths 
of group VI flattened or mix- 
ed 



var. brevicirris, (Grube), 
p. 214. 



var. typica (Fig. 109, f-g) . 

Lycoris nuntia, Savigny, 1920, p. 33, pi. IV, fig. 2. 
Neanthes nuntia, Gravier, 1901, p. 164: Fauvd, 1911, p. 382. 
Perinereis nuntia, Fauvel, 1919, p. 415 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 109. 

Proboscis: group 1=0, 1 or 2; II— IV=dusters; 111= 
a rectangular patch; V=3 set in a triangle; VI=on each 




Fig. 109.— Perinerets nuntia Savigny: var. hremciriis, a, b, head and 

proboscis, dorsal and ventral view; c, falciger (after Izulca); d, 

40th foot. var. heterodonta: e, proboscis (after Gravier), var. 

nuntia: f, g, mid-body and hinder feet. 

side, a curved row of 5—12, conical; VII— VIII=2 ante- 
rior rows of large ones and 2—3 rows of smaller ones. 
Tentacular cirri and dorsal cirri long. Dorsal ligules 
pointed. 

Length: 70—150 mm. by 3—4 mm. 



214 KERElDAl: 

Occurrence: Nicobar Islands, Nankauri; Orissa coast; 
Gulf of Mannar, Tuticorin, Pamban; Bandra, near 
Bombay. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

var. fctevJcims (Grube) . (Fig. 109, a-b) . 

Nereilepas brevicirris, Grube, 1867, p. 19, pi. II, fig. 2. 
Nereis mictodonta, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 118, pi. II, fig. 2: Izuka, 

1912, p. 148, pi. XVI, fig. 1-6. 
Perinereis mictodonta var. mictodontoides, Augener, 1915, p. 

177. 
Pemereis nuntia var. brevicirris, Fauvel, 1932, p. 110. 

Proboscis: group 1=1 to 3; II and IV=crescentic 
and triangular clusters; 111= a rectangular patch with 2—3 
denticles, on each side; V=3, set in a triangle (sometimes 
4) ; VI=on each side a transverse row of 8—10 conical or 
flattened, more or less mixed together; VII— VIII =3 irre- 
gular rows, and, sometimes, a few more. Tentacular drri 
reaching to the 5th— 8th segment. Dorsal cirri short. 
Dorsal ligules blunt, conical. 

Length: 65—140 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Occurrence: Nicobar Islands, Nankauri; Gulf of 
Marmar; Tuticorin, Cape Comorin; Bombay. 

Distribution: Japan; Australia; New-Caledonia; 
Malaya Archipelago; Indian Ocean; Saint Paul Island; 
Nicobar Islands; India; Red Sea. 

var. heterodonta Gravier. (Fig. 109 e) . 

Perinereis heterodonta, Gravier, 1901, p. 179, pi. XI, fig. 46. 

Perinereis heterodonta, Fauvel, 1911, p. 394. 

Perinereis nuntia var, heterodonta, Fauvel, 1919, p. 419; 1932, 

p. no. 

Proboscis: group 1=1 or 2; 11=2—6 very small; III 
— IV=irregular clusters; V=0; VI=on ecah side, a row of 
10—18 flattened, cutting; VII— VIII=3 irregular rows of 
large flattened spikes. Tentacular cirri reaching to the 
3rd— 6th segment, or more. Dorsal cirri short. Dorsal 
ligules blunt, conical. 

Length: 70-100 mm. by 2-3 mm. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Persian Gulf; Red Sea. 



PSEUDONEREIS 215 

var. vallata (Grube) . 
Nereis vallata, Grube, 1857, p. 159: Ehlers, 1901, p 110. 
Neanthes latipalpa Kinberg, Willey, 1905, p 200, pi. XIII, fig. 9 
Lycoris quatrefagesi, Grube, 1878, p. 79. 

Perinereis nuntia var. vallata, Fauvel, 1919, p. 418 (Synonymy); 
1932, p. 110: Augener, 1913, p. 175. 

Proboscis: group 1=1—3; II— III— IV=clusters; V=I, 
set far back; VI=oii each side a transverse row of 8—15 
paragnaths, conical, flattened, or both mixed together; 
VII— VIII =3 alternate rows of spikes somewhat flattened. 
Tentacular cirri reaching to the 3rd— 6th segment. Dorsal 
cirri short, dorsal ligules blunt. 

Length: 50—80 mm. 

Occurrence: Bombay, under rocks, in sand. 

Distribution: Chile; New-Zealand; Australia; Philip- 
pine Islands; India, Red Sea, Madagascar, Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Genus PSEUDONEREIS Kinberg. 

Paragnaths of the proboscis of three kinds: conical, 
pectinate and transverse. Posterior feet enlarged. 

Key to the species of Pseudortereis Kinberg. 

1. Group VI, on each side, a single 

broad flattened paragnatfa . . gallapagensis Kinberg, p. 215. 

Group VI, on each side, one or 

several rows of paragnaths . . 2 

2. Posterior dorsal homogomph fal- 

cigerous bristles present . . anomala Gravier, p. 217. 

Posterior dorsal homogomph fal- 

cigerous bristles absent . . rottnestiana Augener, p. 217. 

l&T. Psettdoneteis gallap^ensis Kinberg. (Fig. 110, a— 
c). 

Pseudonereis gallapagensis, Kinberg, 1857—1910, p. 52. pi. XX, 
fig. 3: Gravier, 1909, p. 629, pi. XVI, figs. 15-20: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 111. 

Paranereis elegans, Kinberg, 1857-1910, p. 53, pi. XX, fig. 8. 

Pseudonereis variegata, Fauvel, 1921, p. 13 (Synonymy). 

Pseudonereis ferox Hansen, Fauvel, 1914, p. 120, pi. VII, figs. 
13-17. 

Nereis longicirra (Schmarda), Michaelsen, 1892, p. 9, pi. I, fig 
9-10. 

Mastigonereis longfcirra, Schmarda, 1861, p. 109, pi. XXXI, fig. 
250. 



216 



NEREIDAE 



Proboscis: group 1=1—2; II— III=c[ense rows of small 
pectinate paragnaths; IV=rows of pectinate denticles and 
a few conical paragnaths in front; V=l; VI=, on each 
side, a single large, triangular or flattened paragnath; VII 
— VIII=two rows of laterally or longitudinally flattened 
spikes alternating. Tentacular cirri reaching backwards 
to the 3rd— 8th segment. Falcigerous setae without sickle- 
shaped terminal piece. Homogomph dorsal falcigerous 
bristles absent. Dorsal ligule of the posterior feet en- 
larged. 




Fig. llO.—Pseudonereis gallapagensis Kinberg: a, b, head and probos- 
cis, ventral and dorsal view; c, falciger (after Gravier) Ps. ano- 
mdla Gravier: e, proboscis, dorsal view; /, posterior foot X44; 
g, dorsal homogomph falciger XSOO. Ps rottnestima 
Augenei: ft, posterior foot x44; i, ventral fal- 
ciger XSOO. 

Length: 20—65 mm. by 3—5 mm. 

Colour: In life bluish-grey; in spirit, dark-brown with 
blue iridescence. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Diamond Island; 
Mormugao Bay. 



PLATYNEREIS 217 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Gallapagos, Peru, Chile, 
Magellan, Indo-China; Indian Ocean, India, Madagascar, 
Cape of Good Hope; Atlantic Ocean, Cameroon, San- 
Thome, Brazil. 

198. Psettdonereis anomala Gravier. (Fig. 110, e—g). 
Pseudonereis anomala, Gravier, 1901, p. 191, pi. XII, fig. 50—52: 
Fauvel, 1911. p. 395; 1932, p. 112: Gravely, 1927, p. 15, pi. X. 
%. 25. 

Proboscis: group 1=1—3; II-III-IV=several rows of 
small pectinate paragnaths; V=0; VI=, on each side 
a transverse row of 6-10 conical paragnaths; VII-VIII= 
a single row of large paragnaths, more or less flattened. 
Tentacular cirri long. Posterior dorsal ligules elongated, 
with dorsal ciiTus near the tip. Posterior dorsal falciger- 
ous bristles, with rather short, faintly curved, terminal 
piece. 

Length: 20—65 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Gulf of Mannar; 
Cape Comorin; Kilakarai; Mormugao Bay. 

Distribution: Australia, Malay Archipelago, Indo- 
China; India, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Mada- 
gascar. 

19'9. Pseudonereis tottaestiana Augener. (Fig. 1 10, ft, t) . 

Pseudonereis rottnestiana, Augener, 1913, p. 184, fig. 20, a—c, 
pi. m, fig. 46: Fauvel, 1932, p. 112. 

Proboscis: group 1=0, 1 or 2; 11—111=4—5 rows of 
pectinate denticles; IV=4— 5 rows of pectinate denticles 
and a few conical paragnaths in front; V=0; VI=on each 
side, a transverse row of 6—10 conical paragnaths; VII— 
VIII=two alternating rows. Tentacular cirri reaching 
backwards to the 6th— 9th setigerous segment. Dorsal 
ligule of the posterior feet enlarged, with dorsal cirrus 
near the tip. Falcigerous bristles with short, sickle-shaped, 
terminal piece. Homogomph dorsal falcigerous bristles 
absent. 

Length: 25—35 mm. by 2—3 mm. 
Colour: Head dark coloured, body pale yellow- 
ochre. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: South Australia; Andaman Islands. 



Genus PLATYNEREIS Kinberg. 

Horny paragnaths arranged in pectinate rows of 
minute denticles. All dorsal groups on th§ maxillary 

F. 30 



218 NEREIDAE 

ring, and at least the mid-dorsals (sometimes all, both 
dorsal and ventral) on the oral ring generally missing. 

Ke^ to the species of Platynereis. 

1. Dorsal cirrus of the 7th setiger- 

ous segment much longer than 

the others .. .. abnoimis (Horst), p. 222. 

Dorsal cirrus of the 7th setiger- 

ous segment normal . . 2 

2. Heteronereis stage with oar- 

shaped setae all compound 
and not conspicuously pecti- 
nate . . . . 3 

Heteronereis stage with pectinate 
oar-shaped setae, and single 
setae in the last segments . . 4 

3. Group II absent .. dumerilii (Aud. & M.- 

Edwards), p. 218. 
Group n present .. fusco-rubida Gruhe, p. 219. 

4. Oar-shaped setae boldly pecti- 

nate .. .. ;^ofyica?maChamberlin, p. 221. 

Oar-shaped setae faintly pecti- 
nate. Stout hooks in the ante- 
rior and posterior feet .. pulchella Gravier, p. 220. 

200. Platynems damefilii (Aud. & M.-Edwards.) (Fig. 
Ill, a—f) . 

Platynereis dumerilii, Fauvd, 1923a, p. 359, fig. 141; 1932, p. 113. 

Platynereis insohta, Gravier, 1901, p. 197, pi. XII, fig. 53: Grave- 
ly. 1927, p. 16, pi. X, fig. 23. 

Platynereis bengalensis Kinberg, Willey, 1905, p. 273, pi. IV, fig. 
92—94. 

Proboscis: paragnaths very minute, often pale and 
little conspicuous. Group 1=0; 111=0; III=a small trans- 
verse cluster in two rows; IV=several transverse pectinate 
rows; V=0; VI=on each side, 1-2 concentrtic curved 
rows; VII-VIII=5-7 clusters of small pale denticles 
(very variable) . Tentacular cirri long, extending to the 
10th— 15th setigerous segment. Posterior feet not enlarg- 
ed. Falcigerous bristles with short, hooked, sickle-shaped 
terminal pieces. Dorsal homogomph falcigerous setae 
with more elongated terminal piece in the posterior feet. 

Length: 20-60 mm. 

Colour: In life very variable, greenish, yellowish, 
pmk, reddish, with violet chromatophores and dark pedal 
glands. ^ 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Nicobar Islands, Nan- 
kauri; Gulf of Mannar; Madras Coast; Pamban; Ceylon. 



PLATYNEREIS 



219 



Distribution: Cosmopolitan; Pacific, Indian and 
Atlantic Ocean. 

201. Platynereis f«sco-r«bida Grube, 

Nereis (Platytiereis) fiisco-riibida, Grube, 1878, p. 70: Fauvel, 
1911, p. 403. 




Fig. 111.— Platynereis dumerilii Aud. & M.-Edw.: a, b, head and 

proboscis; c, foot from mid-body X30; d, posterior foot X30; e, 

dorsal homogomph falciger x350; f, ventral heterogomph 

falciger XS50. PI. coccinea Delle Chiage: g-n, (not 

yet found in the Indian area). 

In the atocous condition this species is very close to 
PL dumerilii. The chief differences lie in the armature 
of the proboscis. There is a small row of paragnaths in 
the groups II, which are missing in PI. dumerilii, and in 
groups VI a rectangular cluster, instead of the usual two 
rows. Such slight differences are hardly of specific value 
but, on the other hand, the proboscis agrees tolerably well 
with that of PI. polyscalma, whose atocous condition is 
still unknown. PI. fusco-rubida might, perhaps, be tliis 
atocous condition, as PL pulchella is the atocous condi- 
tion of a Heteronereis quite distinct from PL dumerilii. 

Length: 20—50 mm. 

Colour: Dark pedal glands. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Persian Gulf. 



220 



NEREID AE 



203. Pktynereis palchella Gravier. (Fig. 112, f-A) . 

Plalynereis pulchella, Gravier, 1901, p. 202, figs. 55-56, pi. XII, 
figs. 210-212: Monro, 1936, p. 380, fig. 1-3; 1937, p. 279, fig. 
10: Fauvel, 1939, p. 329. 

Platynereis dumerilii var. pulchella, Fauvel, 1911, p. 402, figs. 
30-32. 

In the atocoiis condition this species is so close to PL 
dumerilii that I considered it as a simple variety charac- 
terised by a single row of paragnaths in the groups VI, 
instead of two, and by slightly difEerent falcigers. In all 
but a few anterior segments, there are one or four dorsal 




Fig. 112..— Platynereis polyscalma Chamberlin: a, b, Heteronerest 

stage, anterior part, dorsal and ventral view (after Horst); c, 

simple bristle from the last segment X270; d, simple ribbed 

bristle from terminal segments X270; e, swimming bristle 

X270. PI. pulchella Gravier: /, ventr^ view of the 

proboscis; g, simple ribbed bristle (after Monro); 

h, dorsal homogomph falciger from anterior foot 

X380. PI. abnormis (Horst): i, 7th foot of 

the female X50; k, 7th foot of the male 

X50 (after Horst). 



PLATYNEREIS 221 

homogomph falcigers, the terminal piece with downward 
curved, smooth tip and conspicuous terminal ligament 
having its basal attachment as far down as the tip of 
the articular cup. 

But the epitocous condition is quite different from 
PI. dumerilii and close to that of PL polyscalma, differing 
only in the presence of the said dorsal homogomph falci- 
gers in the last segments of the anterior part and in the 
blades of the swimming bristles whose fringes are very 
fine and difiBcult to see, and, last, the terminal, simple, 
ribbed bristles are finer. 

Length: 15—30 mm. Heteronereis stage, about 15 
TDia., male with two regions. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Nicobar Islands, Nan- 
kauri. 

Distribution: Indo-China; Bay of Bengal, Arabian 
Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

203. Platyncreis polyscalma Chamberlin. (Fig. 112, a— 
e). 

Platynereis polyscalma, Chamberlin, 1919, p. 219, pi. XXX, 
XXXI: Horn. 1924, p. 186; Fauvel 1931, p. 23, pi. Ill, figs. 
1-6; 1932, p. 114; 1936, p. 323; 1939, p. 329: Gravler and 
Dantan. 1934, p. 121. figs. 123-124: Monro, 1935, p. 125. 
(?) Platynereis integer, Treadwell, 1920, p. 595, fig. 4. 

Atocous condition still unknown. Heteronereis stage: 
Prostomium snout-like, protruding, broadly rounded in 
front. Tentacles small, ventral, pointing backwards; the 
palps have a similar disposition, but concealed under the 
head and lowered over the mouth. Four enormous eyes 
with lenses, the anterior pair much larger than the pos- 
terior and nearly ventral in position. Proboscis: group 
1=0; II=chitinous areas destitute of paragraphs; 111= 
pectinate cluster; IV=crescentic clusters of small pectinate 
denticles; V=0 (or 1?) ; VI=on each side a round or oval 
cluster of pectinate paragnaths; VII— VIII a row of seve- 
ral oval clusters. Tentacular cirri reaching backwards to 
the 6th— 9th segment. Anterior dorsal cirri of the male 
swollen, the succeeding ones crenulated. Two laige 
anal cirri with a filiform tip and a rosette of papillae. 
Swimming bristles compound, with long oval blades, 
bearing, on one side, below the apex, very long and spine- 
like delicate marginal teeth projecting at an angle. In 
the last segments simple setae with a ribbed blade. 

In the male specimens, the epitocous transformations 
commence on the 15th setigerous segment. The inferior 



222 NEREIDAE 

ventral ligule has three processes and the dorsal lamella 
of the ventral cirrus is bifurcated. The last 15—16 seg- 
ments resemble a kind of narrow, slender, tail but the 
appearance is rather delusive as all these segments are 
provided v^^ith epitocous bristles and lamellae, only the 
ventral division is much smaller. The anus is surround- 
ed by a rosette of minute hollow papillae and the pygid- 
ium bears two anal filiform cirri. 

As already stated, it might be, perhaps, the epitocous 
condition of PI. fusco^ubida. 

Length: 10—20 mm. 

Occurrence: Nicobar Islands, Nankauri Harbour; 
Andaman Islands, in plankton. 

Distribution: Funafuti, Gilbert Islands (Philippine 
Islands?) , Java, Weiu Island, Indo-China, Gulf of Siam; 
Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands. 

304. Platyncreis afcnotmis (Horst) . (Fig. 112, i-k) . 

Nereis ahnormis, Horst, 1924, p. 163, pi. XXXII, fig. 6: Augener, 
1926b, p. 448: Fauvd, 1930, p. 23. 

Platynereis abnormis, Fauvel, 1932, p. 113. 

Proboscis: Group 1=0; II=a small concave row of 
paragnaths; 111=0; IV=a crescentic row of paragnaths; 
V=0; VI=a triangular row of paragnaths; VII— VIII=five 
small, transverse groups of paragnaths, three of them in 
the median part and one on each side. Tentacular cirri 
long. A very long dorsal cirrus on the 1th setigerous seg- 
ment. Falcigerous setae with sickle-shaped terminal 
pieces bent in the form of a hook with a dorsal promi- 
nence. Posterior dorsal homogomph falcigerous bristles. 

The atocous specimens resemble PI. dumerilii except 
in the characteristic, very long, dorsal cirrus of the 7th 
setigerous segment. The falcigers are also alike. The 
mutation of the feet occurs about the 14th to 15th feet 
in the male and 16th in the female, according to Augener. 
In Heteronereis stages from Trincomali he noticed three 
regions; an anterior of 14 segments, with a long cirrus on 
the seventh, a middle one of 43, and a posterior, atocous, of 
11 segments. Moreover, he mentions two other long fili- 
form cirri on the eighth segment of the posterior region. 

Length: male Heteronereis, 10 mm. 

Occurrence: Trincomali; Krusadai; Pamban; from 
weeds. 

Distribution: Malaya Archipelago; Ceylon. 



NEPHTHYS 223 



Incertae Sedis— 



205. Nereis (s. str.) sp. m. ezoensis Izuka, Gravely, 1927, 
p. 13, pi. X, fig. 22. 

Does not agree with Izuka's species, and description 
insufficient for identification. 

206. Nereis chlersiana Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 272. 

A male Heteronereis stage, which cannot be identified 
(Ceylon) . 

207. Nereis festiva Grube, 1874, p. 326. 
A Platynereis spec, from Ceylon. 

208. Nereis foliosa Schmarda, 1861, p. 104, pi. XXXI, 
fig. 243. 

Very likely an Eunereis spec, from Ceylon. 

209. Nereis spec, Fauvel, 1932, p. 116. 

A small Heteronereis, perhaps related to N. jacksoni 
Kinberg or kauderni Fauvel, from Pamban. 

Family NEPHTHYDIDAE Grube. 

Body elongate, subtetragonal in cross section. Seg- 
ments short and numerous. Prostomium small, flattened, 
polygonal. Four small tentacles. Proboscis with tenni- 
nal bifid papillae and longitudinal rows of soft papillae. 
Two horny jaws inside the pharynx. First foot rudi- 
mentary. Parapodia biramous, both divisions wide apart, 
provided with membranous lobes and simple setae; a 
branchia coiled between the rami: a single anal cirrus. 

Genus NEPHTHYS Cuvier. 
The characters of this genus are those of the family. 

Key to the species of Nephthys. 

1. Proboscis devoid of papillae . . inermis Ehlers, p. 224. 
Proboscis with papillae . . 2 

2. Branchiae long, slender, coiled . . 3 
Branchiae short, falciform or 

foliaceous .. .. 4 

3. Ventral ligule cirriform, gill-like. 

Bifurcate lyrifonn setae present dibranchis Grube, p. 225. 
Ventral ligule not gill-like. Bi- 
furcate lyriform setae ab- 
sent . . . . malmgreni Theel, p. 226. 



224 



NEPHTHYDIDAE 



4. Posterior bristles boldly 
ed 



scrrat 



Posterior bristles long, slender, 
capillary 

Branchiae missing in llie poste 

rior half of the body 
Bianchiae present in the poste 

rioi part of the body 



gravieri Augener, p. 226. 



oligobranchia South- 
ern, p. 228. 

polybianchia South- 
ern, p 227. 



210. Nephthys inei-mis Ehlers. (Fig. 113, a-f) . 

Nephthys inermis, Ehlers, 1887, p. 126, pi. XXXVIII, figs. 1-6; 
Fauvel 1923a, p. 375, fig. 147; 1933, p. 47, fig. 3 a~d: Monro, 
1937, p. 283. 

Prostomium square, with two anterior, very short, 
button-like tentacles and two posterior very minute ten- 
tacles at the hind part, in front of two very small eyes. 
Proboscis utterly devoid of papillae, with a pair of 




Fig. lit— Nephthys inermis Ehlers: a, head and proboscis Xl6; b, 

posterior part of the body Xl6; c, 95th foot X25; d, 45th foot 

X26; e, simple bristle X370; f, forked, lyriform bristle X370. 

triangular chitinous jaws inserted very far back in the 
pharyirx. Dorsal and ventral rami widely apart and short, 
with conical setigerous lobes, a digitiform dorsal cirrus, 
a gill, coiled inwards, a short dorsal lamella, and a 
rather long ventral cirrus. Anterior setae ciliated, but not 
camerated. Posterior setae of two kinds: (1) long, slen- 
der, faintly denticulate, and (2) short, bifurcate, lyriform. 



NEPHTHYS 



225 



Length: 60—80 mm.; 160 segments. 

Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Maldive Archipelago, 
South Coast of Arabia, Aden, Gulf of Suez; Atlantic Ocean, 
Gulf of Mexico, Adriatic Sea. 

221. Nephthys dibranchis Grube. (Fig. 114, e). 

Nephthys dibranchis. Grube, 1877, 536: Ehlers, 1904, p. 14: 
Augener, 1924, p. 297; 1927a, p. 116: Mcintosh, 1883, p. 161, 
pi. XXVI, figs. 8, 9, pi. XXVII, fig. 5: Fauvel, 1932, p. 117: 
Monro, 1937, p. 288. 

Nephthys spiribranchis, Ehlers, 1917, p. 235, pi. XVI, figs. 5—7. 

Branchiae from the fifth setigerous segment, reduced or 
missing in the posterior segments. In the segments of 
the mid-body they are long, coiled inwards, with a long 
dorsal cirrus. Setigerous lobe conical, lamellae short, a 
long, slender, gill-like ventral ligule and a short ventral 




Fig. 114.— Nephthys gravieri Augener: a, anterior part X40 after 
Augener); 6, foot X66; e, bristle from posterior row of- the 
foot X330. N. malmgreni Theel: d, foot X66. 
N. dibranchis Grube: e, foot x40. 

F. 31 



22$ NEPHTHYDIDAE 

cirrus. Setae long, slender, and also bifurcate, lyriform, 
bristles. 

Length: 20-30 mm. by 2 mm. 

Colour: Whitish or pink. 

Occurrence: Orissa Coast, Vizagapatam, Madras, Mal- 
dive and Laccadive Islands, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: New Zealand; New Guinea; Australia; 
Arafura Sea; India, Laccadive Sea, Arabian Sea, Gulf of 
Oman, Persian Gulf; South America. 

212. Nephthys gfavieri Augener. (Fig. 114, a-c) . 

Nephthys gravieri, Augener, 1913, p. 123, fig. 6, pi. 11, fig. 5; 
1927a, p. 116: Fauvel, 1932, p. 118. 

Setigerous lobes conical, blunt, anterior lamellae miss- 
ing or much reduced, dorsal posterior lamella oval, ven- 
tral larger and more rounded. Branchiae broad, short, 
oval, with a small dorsal cirrus and a bent process at 
its base. Anterior bristles barred and short, posterior 
ones very long, boldly serrated on the concave border. 

Length: 25—30 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish or pink. 

Occurrence: Off Puri, Orissa, Bay of Bengal, 847 fms. 

Distribution: South Australia; Bay of Bengal. 

213. Nephthys malrngfeni Theel. (Fig. 114, 6, d) . 

(?) Nephthys malmgreni Thed, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 371, fig. 145. 

The ventral cirrus of the first foot is longer than the 
posterior tentacles, the dorsal one is very small. Dorsal 
and ventral setigerous lobes sharp and conical, the dorsal 
and ventral anterior lamellae are mere rounded folds, 
shorter than the foot, the posterior lamellae are only a 
little larger. The gills are long, cylindrical, coiled in- 
wards, or straight, with a short conical dorsal cirrus. 
The anterior setae are barred, the posterior ones nearly 
smooth. 

Remarks: These Indian specimens differ slightly from 
the N. malmgreni from Europe, for the dorsal posterior 
lamella does not appear to be bilobed. 

Length: 70—80 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish-white, ix\ spirits. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea, 279 fms. Off Akyab, 
Burma, 250 fms. 



NEPHTHYS 



227 



Distribution: Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, Bay of 
Bengal; Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea. 

214. Neptttys polytr andiia Southern. (Fig. 1 15, a-c) . 

Nephthys polybranchia. Southern, 1921, p. 607, pi. XXIV, fig. 
11: Fauvel, 1932, p. 118. 

Prostomium with four tentacles on the anterior 
border; two small eyes. Ventral cirrus of the first foot 
very small, the dorsal is quite rudimentary. Setigerous 
lobes bluntly conical. Dorsal lamellae shorter than the 
setigerous lobe, ventral lamellae a little longer, both rami 




Fig. 115.— Nephthys polybranchia Southern: a, anterior end X46 

(after Southern); 6, 13th foot xSO; c, hind foot X50. N. oligo- 

branchia Southern: d, anterior end and proboscis X30 (after 

Southern); e, 14th foot X50; f, hind toot XSO. 

widely apart, but not very divergent. A small gill on the 
second foot, well developed ones from the seventh to the 
30th segment, where they become short, broad, foliaceous, 
with a median ridge, and the dorsal cirrus is reduced to a 
small knob. They persist to the end of the body. The 
camerated or barred setae are restricted to the anterior 
feet and are replaced in the middle and posterior feet by 
long, slender, capillary setae with slightly flattened blades. 



228 EUNICIDAE 

very finely serrated along one edge. The condition of the 
gills appears to be somewhat variable. 

Length: About 20 mm. A brackish-water form. 

Occurrence: Shanghai; Taleh-Sap; Calcutta Water 
Works (Pulta) ; Chilka Lake, Madras. 

215. Nephthys oligobranchia Southern. (Fig. 115, d--/) . 

Nephthys oUgobranchia, Southern, 1921, p- 610, pi. XXIV, fig. 
12: Fauvel, 1932, p. 119. 

" Differs from N. polybranchia in the distribution of 
the branchiae which occur fully developed on the sixth 
foot, and disappear on the 20th to the 23rd foot, whereas 
in N. polybranchia the branchiae are larger on the fifth 
foot and persist almost to the end of the body; in that the 
branchiae contain a double vascular loop whereas there 
is only a single loop in N. polybranchia; in that the pos- 
terior lamellae of the feet are considerably surpassed by 
the spiral lobe." (Southern) . 

Remarks: As there are also several vascular loops in, 
at least, the anterior branchiae of N. polybranchia, differ- 
ences on tliat account are not of much value. Both may 
be only varieties of one species. Both live in water of 
variable salinity. The number and disposition of 
the papillae of the proboscis have not the value gene- 
rally set on them for the identification of Nephthys for 
there is often a wide range of variation. 

Length: 10—20 mm. 

Occurrence: Calcutta Water Works (Pulta) and Salt 
Lakes; Chilka Lake; Vizagapatam; Cochin backwater. 

Distribution: Taleh-Sap; Kiangsee; Mergui; Bay of 
Bengal; India. 

Incertae Sedis— 

216. Nephthys dassamicri Valenciennes, Quatrefages, 
1865, p. 427. From the coast of Malabar. 

Family EUNICIDAE Grube. 

Body elongate, vermiform. Prostomium with lobate 
palps more or less united. Tentacles subulate, 1 to 7 or 
more. First two segments generally achaetous and apo- 
dous. Sometimes one pair of tentacular cirri on the 
second segment. Feet uniramous or sesquiramous. Dor- 
sal drri with or without branchiae, sometimes rudimen- 
tary or missing. Ventral cirrus sometimes missing. Setae 



EUNICIDAE 



229 



simple, or simple and compound, very varied in shape. 
Proboscis armed with lower jaw-plates (labrum) and a 
number of biserial toothed upper jaw-plates. Sometimes 
a membranous tube. 

The Eunicidae are divided into subfamilies and genera 
as follows: 



Key to the subfamilies and Genera of EuNicroAE. 



1. Prostomium without (visible) 

tentacles and palps. Dorsal 
cirri Tudimentary; no ventral 
cirri 
Prostomium with tentacles 

2. No ventral cirri. Dorsal rirri 

foliaceous. Three tentacles .. 

Ventral cirri present. Doisal 
cirri foliaceous 

3. Two tentacles and two cylindri- 

cal palps. Upper jaw com- 
posed of from 2 to 4 longitu- 
dinal series of very small and 
numerous pieces 

From 1 to 7 tentacles. Palps 
short, globular. Upper jaw 
consisting of 4—5 pairs of 
pieces 

4. Seven tentacles, 5 occipitals, 

mounted on ringed ceratopho- 
res and 2 frontals ovate 

From 1 to 5 occipital tentacles, 
ovate frontals absent 

5. Branchiae present. 5 tentacles .. 
Branchiae absent 

6. Tentacular cirri present 
Tentacular diri absent 

7. Three tentacles. Tentacular cirri 

absent 

One tentacle. Tentacular cirri 
absent 

8. Tentacular cirri absent 

Tentacular cirri present 

9. Branchial filaments inserted spi- 

rally 

Branchiae dniform or pectinate 
10. Three anterior feet much enlarg- 
ed, directed forwards and 
bearing long capillary bristles 



Subfamilv 

L UMBRICONERINAE 

Grube, 14. 

2 

LYSARETINAE 
Kinberg, 12. 



STA UROCEPHALINAE 
Kinberg, 11. 



ONUPHIDINAE 

Levinsen, 8. 

EUNICINAE Kinberg, 5. 

6 

7 
Eunice Cuvier, p. 231. 
Marphysa Quatrefages, p. 224. 

Lysidice Savigny, p. 248. 

Nematonereis Schmarda, p. 249. 

Hyalinoecia 

Malmgren, p. 260. 

9 

Diopaira Aud. & M.- 
JEdwards, p. 251. 

10 



Rhampkobrachium 
Ehlers, p. 261. 



230 



EUNICIDAE 



Anterior feet little modified, 
bearing hooked bristles, sim- 
ple or compound 

11. Tentacles and palps very large, 

more or less articulate. Dor- 
sal and ventral cirri well 
developed 
Tentacles and palps rudimen- 
tary. Dorsal and ventral cirri 
very short .. .. 

12. Three short tentacles. Branchiae 

absent 

Tentacles rudimentary or absent. 
Branchiae present 

13. Three subulate tentacles folded 

backwards into a dorsal groove 

Three short rounded tentacles 
partly hidden under the bor- 
der of the first segment 

14. Small parasitic worms 

Free, and often very large worms 

15. Cirriform branchiae present 
Branchiae absent 

16. Capillary setae and hooks simple 

or compound 

Only winged capillary setae 

17. With a stout acicular bristle. 

Jaws III and IV single hooks 

Dorsal acicular bristle absent. 
Jaws HI and IV toothed plates. 
Four eyes 

18. Lower jaw well developed, with 

2 hooks. Parasitic on Syllids 

Lower jaw reduced, without 
hooks. Parasitic on Spio and 
Bonellia 



Onuphis, Aud. & 
M.-Edwards, p 253. 



Staurocephalus 
Gnibe, p. 278. 

Ophryotrocha Clap. & 
Mecynikow. 



13 



Iphitime Marenzeller. 
Halla Costs. 



Aglaurides Ehlers, p. 260. 

18 

15 
Ninoe Kinberg, p. 277. 

16 
Lumbriconereis Blainville 
(Grube rev.), p. 263. 

17 
Drilonereis 
Claparfede, p. 276. 

Arabella Grube, p. 274. 

Labrorostrattis 

Saint-Joseph. 

OUgognathus 
Spengel. 



The genera Iphitime, Halla, Labrorostratus, OUgogna- 
thus and Ophryotrocha are not yet recorded from India. 

The genus Nicidion which difEers only from Eunice 
in the absence of gills may be regarded as a subgenus of 
the latter, if not as simple varieties. Other genera, such 
as Paramarphysa, Paradiopatra, Paraonuphis, are doubtful 
and further investigations are still wanted to settle their 
status. 



Subfamily EUNICINAE Kinberg. 

Two palps. One, two or five occipital tentacles. Fron- 
tal tentacles absent. Anterior feet not modified. Bran- 



EUNICE 231 

chiae pectinate or simple, or missing. Setae simple, com- 
pound and acicular. A lower jaw and 3—5 pairs of upper 
jaws. 

Genus EUNICE Cuvier. 

Leodice Savigny. 

Eriphyle Kinberg. 

Body very long. Head with five tentacles: cirrophcre 
not ringed; two bulbous palps. A pair of tentacular cirri 
inserted on the second apodous segment. Dorsal cirri 
elongate; ventral cirri short or knob-like. Branchiae 
simple, or more generally pinnate. Parapodia sesquiia- 
mous, with acicular setae, simple pectinate (or comb-like) 
and compound setae. Lower jaw of two pieces. Upper 
jaws with a pair of mandibles and two or three pairs of 
toothed plates, an unpaired left plate and sometimes 
paragnaths. 

Key to the species of Eunice. 

1. Gills simple, or with only two 

filaments; beginning very far 

from the head . . 2 

GUIs branched . . . . 4 

2. Comb and acicular setae absent sidliensis Grube, p. 241. 
Comb and acicular setae present 3 

3. Gills begin about 28th foot . . marenzelleri Gravier, p. 242. 
Gills begin about 80th— lOOth 

foot . . . . gracilis Crossland, p. 243. 

4. Gills bipectinate ., investigatoris Fauvd, p. 239. 
Gills pectinate . . . . 5 

5. Acicular setae tridentate . . 6 
Acicular setae bidentate . . 8 

6. Gills well developed in the pos- 

terior part of the body . . antennata Savigny, p. 240. 

Gills absent in the posterior part 

of the body .. .. 7 

7. Gills begin on 3rd or 5th foot. 

Tentacles smooth .. indica Kinbei^, p. 241. 

Gills begin about 6th— 7th foot. 

Tentacles annulate . . australis Quatrefages, p. 240, 

8. Forming tubes of characteristic 

structure . . . . 9 

Without special tubes .. 10 

9. Compound setae with sword- 

shaped terminal piece anter- 
iorly, sickle-shaped posteriorly tubifex Crossland, p. 232. 

Compound setae all sickle-shaped floridana Pourtales, p. 233. 



232 



EUNIODAE 



10. Gills occur only on the anterior 

third of the body, beginning 
about 6th to 9th foot 

Gills continue nearly to the hind 
end of the body 

11. Gills begin about 3rd to 8th 

foot 

Gills begin about 10th to 30th 
foot and attain to from 4 to 16 
filaments anteriorly but are 
simpler in the posterior region 

12. Gills begin about 10th to 20th 

foot and attain to from 6 to 
16 filaments 

Gills begin about 25th to 30th 
foot and attain to from 4 to 
6 filaments 

13. Very large species. Tentacles 

smooth. Gills up to 25—30 
and more filaments 

Smaller species. Tentacles annu- 
lated 

14. Gills begin about 4th to 6th 

foot and consist of 6—20 fila- 
ments 

Gills begin on 3rd or 4th foot 
and consist of 2 to 4 filaments 

15. Gills suddenly disappear about 

80th segment 

Gills continue nearly to the last 
segments 



coccinea Giube, p. 236. 
11 
13 

12 

a/ra Peters, p. 235. 

o/ra var. paupera 
Grube, p. 236. 

aphroditois Pallas, p. 233. 

14 

tentaculata 
Quatrefages, p. 234. 

15 

savignyi Grube, p. 238. 

grubei Gravier, p. 237. 



S17. Etmice tofcifex Crossland. (Fig. 116, a-g) . 

Eunice tubifex, Crossland, 1904, p. 303, figs. 52-55, pi. XXI, 
figs. 1-8: Willey, 1905, p. 282: Fauvel, 1930, p. 26. 

Prostomium bilobed. Tentacles short, smooth. Gills 
begin about 20th— 35th foot and attain 3—6 filaments. 
Body widi very large, thick, ventral glandular pads for 
about 60 segments, 3ien rounded and decreasing. In the 
anterior feet, the compound setae have a smooth elongate 
knife-like end-piece. In the middle and posterior regions 
the end-pieces are bidentate, sickle-shaped hooks as in 
other species. A membranaceous tube. 

Length: 150—220 mm. by 5—10 mm. 

Colour: in spirit, dark mahogany, more or less 
checkered. 



EUNICE 



233 



Occurrence: Ceylon, Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Is- 
land. 

Distribution: South Australia; Philippine Islands: 
Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean. 




Fig. 116— Eunice tubifex Crossland: a, 20th foot Xl6; b, 80th foot 
X16; c, 120th foot X16: d, hind foot X16, e, falciger; f, knife- 
ended compound seta from 20th foot; g, anterior part (after 
Crossland). £. afra Peters: h, falciger x245; t, head 
(after Crossland). 

S18. Etmice aptfoditcMS Pallas. (Fig. 117, a-g). 

Eunice aphioditois, Fauvel, 1917. p. 213, pi. VII (Synonymy); 

1930b, p. 633; 1932, p. 133: Prmot, 1930, p. 65: Monro, 1931, 

p. 44; Augener, 1926, p. 455. 
Eunice roussaei, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 309, pi. X, figs. 1—4: 

Fauvel, 1917, p. 220, pi. VIII (Synonymy). 
Eunice gigantea, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 311. 

A very large species. Palps bilobed or multi-lobed. 
Tentacles short, blunt, smooth or faintly wrinkled. Ten- 
tacular cirri short. The gills, which begin about the 5th 
to 10th foot, are generally branched on the 5th— 6th foot 
and attain up to 25, 30, and even 40 filaments. Acicuiar 
bristles black, blunt, missing in old specimens or irre- 
gularly distributed in the posterior region. Acicuiar, 
black, compound bristles with short sickle-shaped end- 
piece. 

F. 32 



234 



EUNICIDAE 



Length: Up to 1 metre, and more, by 20—25 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, a brown chequered pattern, often 
with a white collar on third and fourth setigerous segments. 
The colour fades in alcohol. Dark blue in life, pata- 
podial lobes tipped with white, yellowish brown spots 
(when young) . 




Fig. 117.— Eunice aphroditois (Pallas): a, anterior part, reduced; 

b, 32nd foot x2; c, d, falcigers x70; e, comb-seta xI75; /, acicular 

bristle X105; g, simple bristle X105. E. fioridana Pourtales, 

a', anterior part Xl^; b', 31st foot X8; (f, superior jaws; 

d', labium (lower jaw); e', acicular bristle X85; 

f, comb-seta X210; g', falciger X105. 

Occurrence: Singapore, Andaman Islands, Gangetic 
Delta, Ceylon, Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceaiis; 
Mediterranean Sea. 

2.19. Eunice tentactilata Quatrefages. (Fig. 118, m— p) . 

Eunice tentaculata, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 317: Fauvel, 1917, p. 
209. fig. XVn (Synonymy); 1930, p. 26; 1932, p. 134. 

Eunice pycnobranchiata, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 294, pi. XXIV, figs. 
13-15. r r a 

Eunice elseyi, Baird, 1870b, p. 344. 

Eunice martensi, Willey, 1905, p. 281, pi. IV, figs. 102-104. 

Palps more or less bilobed. Testacies annulated, 
rather long. Tentacular cirri articulate. Gills begin about 
3rd to 6th foot and attain to 6-20 filaments and conti- 



EUNICE 235 

nue to the hind part of the body. Acicula and acicular 
setae black. 

Length: 200-350 mm. by 10-15 mm. 

Colour: Purple-violet in life. Brown or spotted in 
spirit, sometimes a white collar on the fourth setiger. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Galle, Gulf of Mannar, Lacca- 
dive Islands. 

Distribution: New Zealand; Australia; Malaya Seas; 
Nicobar Islands; Andaman Islands; India; Laccadive Is- 
lands. 

220. E«nke fIo«<iana Pourtales. (Fig. 117, a'-g). 

Eunice floridana, Ehleis, 1887, p. 88, pi. XXII, fig. 17: Fauvel, 
1923, p. 402, 1914b, p. 149, pi. I, figs. 5, 8. 11; 1912, p. 134. 

Eunice gunneri, Roule, 1907, p. 33, pi. II, fig. 11. 

Eunice amphiheliae, Roule, 1896, p. 446. 

Eunice philocorallia, Buchanan, 1893, p. 173, pi. IX, figs. 2—6; 
pi. X, figs. 7-9; pi. XI. 

Palps bilobed. Tentacles articulate or moniliform, 
the median twice as long as the laterals. Tentacular cirri 
smooth. Gills begin about 7th to 10th foot and attain 
to 8—10 filaments, and continue nearly to the last seg- 
ments. Acicula and acicular setae black. Commensal 
with corals. A membranaceous tube. 

Length: 100-200 mm. 

Colour: Black, pink, or brown, with mahogany spots. 
Sometimes a pale collar on the fourth setigerous segment. 

Occurrence: Laccadive Sea. 

Distribution: Indian and Atlantic Oceans, Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 

221. Eunice afra Peters. (Fig. 116, h-i) . 

Eunice afra, Crossland, 1904, p. 289, pi. XX, fig. 15: Willey, 1905, 
p. 279: Augener, 1926, p. 456: Fauvel, 1930b, p. 25; 1932, 
p. 135: Pruvot, 1930, p. 69. 

Tentacles smooth or faintly annulate. Gills begin 
about 13th to 20th foot and attain to 4—16 filaments, and 
continue to the hind part of the body. Acicula and aci- 
cular setae dark. Body nearly cylindrical anteriorly, 
broad and flattened posteriorly. 

Length: 150-250 mm. 

Colour: Dark coloured, more or less spotted with 
white dots, sometimes a clear collar on the fourth setiger- 
ous segment. 



236 EUNICIDAE 

Occurrence: Mergui; Gulf of Mannar; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippine Islands, 
Malaya Seas; Indian Ocean, Zanzibar, Madagascar, Red 
Sea. 

var. patipera Grube. 

Eunice paupera, Grube, 1878, p. 160: PRivot, 1930, p. 69; Fauvel, 
1930b, p. 537: 1932, p. 135. 

Palps slightly bilobed, tentacles smooth or faintly 
wrinkled; the median reaches backwards to the fourth seti- 
gerous segment. Tentacular cirri smooth, subulate, some- 
what shorter than the buccal segment. Gills begin about 
23rd— 27th foot. First 2, 3 or 9 gills are simple; succeed- 
ing ones are bifid or trifid and the following ones decrease 
to two, or even one, filament. Gills are missing on the 
last tenth of the body, or more. Acicula and acicular 
setae black. The section of the body is semi-cylindrical, 
and flattened in the hind part. 

Remarks: This is a variety of E. afra, differing only 
in its simpler gills (reduced to 3—4 filaments) beginning 
farther from the head. There is a whole range of inter- 
mediate forms. 

Length: 200-250 mm. 

Colour: Colourless in spirit. 

Occurrence: India. 

Distribution: New Caledonia; Philippine Islands; 
Malay Seas; Red Sea. 

223. Ettnice coccinea Grube. (Fig. 118, a-e) . 

Eunice coccinea, Grube, 1878, p. 153, pi. IX, fig. 1: Crossland, 
1904, p. 297, pi. XX, figs. 6-7: Willey, 1905, p. 280: Ehlers, 
1908, p. 85: Fauvel, 1919, p. 375, fig. 5; 1932, p. 136. 

Tentacles smooth. GiUs begin about 6th, 9th, to 13th 
foot; they attain to 6—20 filaments and occur only on 
the anterior third of the body, which is highly arched 
dorsally throughout its length. Acicular setae bidentate 
or blunt. Hind body rounded. 

Length: 100-130 mm. 

Colour: red or red violet, in spirit, with small white 
dots. A pale collar on the fourth setigerous segment. 

Remarks: Differs chiefly from E. afra by the posterior 
part of the body being rounded instead of flattened, and 
gills more numerous and with more filaments. 



EUNICE 



237 



Occurrence: Ceylon; Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Malayas Seas; Indian 
Ocean, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea. 




Fig. \l&.— Eunice coccinea Grube: a, b, c, more or less worn out fal- 

cigers X245; d, comb-seta X230; e, acicular bristle X230. E. 

antennata Savigny, /, hind toot's falciger X230; g, acicular 

bristle X105. E. australis Quatrefages : h, i, acicular 

bristles Xl05; k, falciger XI05; /, comb-seta X105. 

B. tentaculata Quatrefages: m, n, falcigers Xl05; 

0, acicular bristle Xl<)S; p, comb-seta X230. 

223. Eunice gtishei Gravier. (Fig. 119, a-e) . 

Eunice grubei, Gravier, 1900, p. 258, pi. XIV, figs. 87—88: Cross- 
land, 1904, p. 288: Pruvot, 1930, p. 68 (Synonymy): Fauvel, 
1932, p. 136; 1939, p. 334. 

(?) Eunice micropion, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 135, pi. V, fig. 1: 
Monro, 1924. p. 55. 

Tentacles articulate. Gills begin on 3rd— 4th foot; 
they attain to 4—10 filaments and continue nearly to the 
last segments. Acicula dark or yellow. Acicular setae 
bidentate. 

Length: 150—230 mm. by 7 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, uniformly dark grey-brown, irides- 
cent. 



238 



EUNICIDAE 



Occurrence: Singapore; Camorta Island, Nicobars; Off 
Akyab, Burma. 

Distribution: Japan (?), New Caledonia, Amboina, 
Indo-China, Philippine Islands, Malayas Seas; Nicobar Is- 
lands, Maldive Archipelago, Red Sea, East Africa. 

224. E«nice savignyi Grube. (Fig. 119, h-k) . 

Eunice savignyi, Grube, 1878, p. 150: Ehlers, 1908, p. 88, pi. IX, 
figs. 7-13: Fauvel, 1932, p. 136. 

Tentacles articulate. Gills begin on 3rd or 4th foot; 
they attain to 8—15 filaments, but further back become 
reduced to one and finally disappear altogether about 




Fig. 119.— Eunice grubei Gravier: a, comb-setae; 6, falciger; c, aci- 

cular bristle; d, anterior foot; Cj 37th foot (after Gravier). E. 

marenzelleri Gravier: /, foot. E indtca Kinberg: g, talciger 

XS33. E. savignyi Grube: h, ZHh. foot X23 (after Ehlers). 

i, falciger x333; k, acicular bristle X133. 

30th— 40th feet. Acicular setae yellow, bidentate. The 
edge of the labrum is prominent, white and toothed. 

Length: 60—70 mm. by 3—4 mm. 

Colour: Brown-yellow, iridescent. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Ceylon, Persian Gulf, 
Agulhas Current. 



EUNICE 



239 



226. Ecoice investigatofis Fauvel. (Fig. 120, a-f). 
Eunice investigatoris, Fauvel, 1932, p 137, fig 19. 

Body cylindrical anteriorly, semi-cylindrical in the 
middle and flattened in the hind part. Palps bilobed. 
The three median tentacles are subequal and reach back- 
wards to the 6th— 7th setigerous segment; the two outer 
tentacles are hardly as long. The tentacles are all subu- 
late, slender and smooth. The buccal segment (peristo- 
mium) is thrice as long as the succeeding one. Two ten- 
tacular cirri set on a short achaetous segment. Gills from 
the 6th setigerous segment, the first one small, but already 
compound; they are very large about the 7th— 8th, with 
18—20 filaments about the 14th setiger. Well developed 




Fig. 120.— Eunice investigatoris Fauvel: a, 5th foot X23; b, 10th 

foot X23; c, fragment of branched gill X23; d, comb-seta X29S; 

e, compound seta X117; /, acicular bristle X117. 

on about forty segments, they decrease in size in the mid- 
body and increase again very much in the posterior 
region, where they continue to the 6th— 7th small seg- 
ments preceding the pygidium. The posterior gills are 
dichotomously branched. In the mid-body there are al- 
ready a few bifid or trifid filaments. Dorsal cirri long and 
smooth in the first segments, then shorter than the gills: 
they are not knife-like, and, except the first ones, hardly 
thicker than the branchial filaments. Ventral cirri finger- 
like in the first 5—6 feet, in the succeeding ones short and 
moniliform; they again become digitiform in the posterior 



240 EUNICIDAE 

half of the body, becoming longer and longer toward the 
Iiind part, where they are twice as long as the feet. Pygi- 
dium with two long, smooth, ventral cirri. Acicula black. 
Acicular setae black, bidentate, hooded, beginning about 
the 44th— 45th foot. Comb-setae long, narrow, with 8— 
10 teeth and equal sides, or, sometimes, one longer. 
Capillary setae long, slender, faintly winged. Terminal 
pieces of the compound setae strongly bidentate, with a 
hood not protruding above the tip, the shaft is slighdy 
enlarged. Labrum dark, with anterior edge toothed. A 
single specimen, 110 mm. long and 7 mm. broad, colour- 
less or light yellowish-grey in spirit. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf, 25 fms. " Investigator ''. 

226. Etttiice antennata Savigny. (Fig. 118, f—g). 

Eunice antennata, Crossland, 1904, p. 312, pi. XXII, figs. 1—7; 
Waiey, 1905, p. 280: Augener, 1926, p. 456: Gravely, 1927, 
p. 17: Fauvd, 1917, p. 225, fig. XX; 1932, p. 138; 1939, p. 334; 
Pruvot, 1930, p. 72. 

Tentacles deeply annulated. Gills beginning about 
the 4th— 6th foot, continued to near the anus; they attain 
to 10—15 filaments and are much more developed in the 
anterior and posterior regions than in the mid-body. 
Acicular setae yellow, tridentate. 

Length: 100—160 mm. by 5—8 mm. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Andaman Islands; Gulf of 
Mannar, Ceylon; Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Indo-China; 
India, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

237. Eanice aostealis Quatrefages. (Fig. 118. h-l) . 
Eunice australis, Fauvel, 1917, p. 228 (Synonymy), Fig. XXI: 

Augener, 1926, p. 437. 
Eunice murrayi Mcintosh, Crossland, 1904, p. 310: Willey, 1905, 

p. 281. 

Tentacles deeply annulated. Gills beginning about 
6th— 7th foot; they attain to 10—15 filaments. They are 
found only on the anterior third of the body and disappear 
suddenly. Acicular bristles yellow, tridentate. 

Length: 60—90 mm. by 5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, yellowish, with sometimes a white 
spot on the back of each segment. 

Occurrence: Nankauri, Nicobar Islands, Andaman 
Islands; Off Cape Negrais, Burma; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Australia; New-Zealand; India, Maldive 
Archipelago, Gulf of Oman, Zanzibar, Cape of Good Hope. 



EUNICE 241 

228. Eaniceindica Kinberg. (Fig. 119, g) . 

Eunice mdica, Crossland, 1904, p. 318, pi. XXI, figs. 9—12: 
Willey, 1905, p. 280: Fauvel, 1919, p. 378 (Synoiivmv); 1932 
p. 139: Monro, 1937, p. 296. 

Tentacles smooth. Gills begin on 3rd foot; they 
attain to 10—20 filaments and are found only on the 
anterior third of the body. Acicular setae yellow, numer- 
ous (4—5) , tridentate. Terminal piece of the compound 
setae sometimes tridentate with a sharp protruding guard. 
Closely allied to the European E. vzttata D. Ch. 

Length: 50—70 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish, discoloured in spirit. 

Occurrence: Nankauri, Nicobar Islands; Mei^i; Bay 
of Bengal; Ceylon; Maldive Archipelago; Gulf ot Oman. 

Distribution: Japan, New Caledonia, Gambler Is- 
lands; Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

220. Ettnice siciliensis Grube. (Fig. 121, e— m) . 

Eunice siciliensis, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 405, fig. 159, e—m; 1917, p. 
231 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 138; Crossland, 1904, p. 323, pi. XXII. 
figs. 8—9: Willey, 1905, p. 282: Augener, 1926, p. 457: Gravely, 
1927, p. 17. 

Eunice leucodon, Ehlers, 1901, p. 128, pi. XVI, figs. 1—10. 

Body divided into two distinct regions, an anterior 
narrow and rounded, and a posterior soft and flattened. 
Tentacles short, smooth or faintly annulate. Gills sim- 
ple, beginning very far from the head, about 60th, 70th, 
or 100th foot. Comb-setae and acicular setae absent. 
Lower jaw (labrum) white, calcareous, gouge-like. 

Length: 150—300 mm. 

Colour: Anterior part pink or brown; middle body 
slate-blue or dark green. In mature specimens, posterior 
part long, swollen, soft, with a brownish-red spot in the 
middle of the ventral part of each segment, as in the 
Palolo worm. In the short uncoloured posterior part, 
preceding the pygidium, this brown spot fades gradually 
or disappears altogether in different specimens. The 
sexual region very likely breaks off when mature and is 
regenerated later, as is the case of the Palolo worm, which 
is also an inhabitant of corals. 

Occurrence: Nankauri, Nicobar Islands; Andaman 
Islands; Gulf of Mannar; Ceylon; Maldive Archipelago; 
Muskat Shore, Gulf of Oman; Persian Gulf. 

F. 33 



242 



EUNICIDAE 



Distribution: Cosmopolitan; Pacific, Indian and 
Atlantic Oceans, Mediterranean Sea. 




Fig. 15J1 —Eunice siciliensis Grube: e, f, head, dorsal and ventral 

view; g, upper jaws; h, anterior foot Xl5; i, one ot the hrst 

branchiate feet Xl6; h, foot from mid-body X15; /, hind 

foot Xl5; m, falciger x400. 

230. Etoxice marensellefi Gravier. (Fig. 119, /) . 

Eunice marentelleri, Gravier, 1901, p. 229, figs. 78—82, pi. XIII, 
figs. 68. 69: Fauvel, 1919, p. 378. 

Palps bilobed. Tentacles snaooth, short and slender. 
Tentacular cirri smooth. Gills begin about the 28th foot; 
they are all simple, very long and persist to the hind part 
of the body. The dorsal cirri decrease from before back- 
wards. Acicula and acicular setae brown. Simple setae, 
compound setae, and comb setae present. 

Length: 140 mm. by 6 mm. 

Colour: Uniform red-brown. 

Remarks: The presence of acicular and comb-setae 
clearly differentiates tnis species from E. siciliensis Grube. 



EUNICE 243 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 
Distribution: Red Sea; Persian Gulf. 

231. Eunice (Nicidion) gracilis Crossland. (Fig. 122, 
a-f) . 

Eunice gracilis, Fauvel, 1930a, p. 26, fig. 6; 1932, p. 140, fig. 20. 
Nittdion gracilis, Crossland, 1904, p. 327, figs. 65—66; pi. XXII, 
figs. 10, 11: Augener, 1913, p. 284. 

Body small, filiform, rounded. Tentacles short, 
smooth or very faintly annulate. Gills beginning very far 
from the head, about 80th— 100th foot or even farther 
back. They are simple, or consist of two fiaments. Comb- 
setae and acicular setae present. Prostomium broad, 
slightly notched in front. Eyes large, reniform. 




Fig- 122— Eunice (JNicidion) gracilis Crossland: a, anterior abran- 
chiate foot X45; 6, foot, with simple gill X45; c, foot with bihd 
gill X45; d, posterior falciger X380; e, acicular bristle X380; 
/, comb-seta X380. 

Length: 20—60 mm. 

Remarks: The gills coimnence very far back from the 
head, at first small and simple, occurring very irregularly, 
except in the posterior region, where they consist of two 
filaments, and are longer than the dorsal cinrus; they are 
missing on incomplete specimens and on the young. Such 
was the case in Crossland's and Augener's specimens. 
The genus Nicidion differs only from Eunice in wanting 
gills: but already in several so-called Nicidion, which 



244 EUNICIDAE 

proved to be only varieties or anomalies o£ Eunice species, 
gills were found in adult specimens, very far from the 
head. Thus Nicidion gracilis is, perhaps, a young speci- 
men, or a variety, of E. marenzellen Grube, as AT. edentulum 
is a variety of E. siciliensis Grube. 

Occurrence: Mergui; Gulf of Mannar. 
Distribution: Australia, Indo-China; Indian Ocean, 
Mergui, Gulf of Mannar, Zanzibar. 

Genus MARPHYSA Quattefages. 

Prostomium rounded or trilobed. Two bulbous 
palps. Five tentacles. Two eyes. Tentacular cirri ab- 
sent. Dorsal cirri elongated, ventral cirri short. Gills 
simple or pectinate. Dorsal setae simple, capillary; ven- 
tral setae simple or compound, with loiife-like, or sickle- 
shaped, terminal pieces. Comb-setae. Acicular setae. 
Lower jaw (labrum) of two pieces. Upper jaw with a 
pair of mandibles, two pairs of toothed plates, an unpair- 
ed plate and sometimes paragnaths. 

Key to the species of Marphysa. 

1. Compound setae of two kinds, fallax Mar. & 

knife-like and sickle-shaped . Bobretzky, p. 247. 

Ventral setae all of ore kind . 2 

2. Gills only on a short anterior 

part of the body .. stragulum (Grube), p 247. 

Gills on the greater part of the 

body 3 

3. Ventral setae simple .. mossambica Peters, p. 246. 
Ventral setae compound . 4 

4. Terminal piece of the compound 

setae sickle-shaped . . corallma Kinberg. 

Terminal piece of the compound 

setae knife-like . . 6 

5. Prostomium horse-shoe shaped macmtoshi Crossland, p. 246. 
Prostomium bilobed .. 6 

6. Compound setae present on the 

anterior and posterior parts 

of the body . . . . sanguinea Montagu, p. 245. 

Compound setae absent in the 
anterior and posterior parts 
of the body .. .. gravelyi Southern, p. 246. 

Marphysa corallina Kinberg, recorded from Madagas- 
car, Red Sea, Cape of Good Hope and Pacific Ocean, has 
not yet been found in the area of the Indian fauna. 



MARPHYSA 



245 



232'. Mafptysa sangttinea Montagu. (Fig. 123, a-h) . 
Marphysa sanguinea, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 408, fig. 161, (Synonymy); 

1932, p. 141. 
Marphysa furcellata, Crossland, 1903, p. 141, pi. XV, figs. 13— 
14: Gravely, 1927, p. 18. 

Prostomium bilobed. Tentacles short. Gills, which 
begin about 16th— 30th foot, attain up to 4—7 filaments, 
and continue to the hind part o£ the body. Dorsal setae 
capillary, ventral setae compound, with long knife-like 

V \ / ^^'^£o 




Fig. IZi-— Mat physa sanguinea Montagu: a, anterior part, natural 

sizej b, foot trom mid-body X12; c, upper jaws; d, lower jaw; 

e, t, two kinds of comb-setae X80; g, aciculax bristle X9(V;, h, 

knite-ended compound bristle X195; M. betlii Aud. & M.- 

Edw. (a species hardly distinct from M. stragulum 

(Grube); i, anterior part x5; ft, upper jaws; Z, acicular 

bristle X120; m, falciger X400; n, comb-seta 

XlOO; o, cultriform seta X250; p, foot 

from mid-body X2S; q, branchiate 

foot X25. 

terminal piece. Comb-setae very variable; in the poster- 
ior segment they are shorter, with a few large teeth. Aci- 
cular setae irregularly present in the posterior part of 
the body, sometimes almost entirely missing. 
Length: Up to 300-600 mm. 

Colour. In life pink-gray, iridescent, bright red gdls. 
Very brittle. Posterior part often regenerated. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam, Pondichery, Gulf of Mann- 
ar, Pamban, Tuticorin, Travancore, Mormugao Bay, Goa. 



246 EUNICIDAE 

Distribution: Australia, New Caledonia; Indian Ocean, 
Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

233. Marphysa macintoslii Crossland. 

Marphysa macintoshi, Crossland, 1903, p. 137, pi. XIV, fig. 3-6: 
Fauvel. 1930, p. 28. 

Body long, slender, nearly cylindrical. Prostomiiim 
broad, undivided, horse-shoe shaped. Setae and branchiae 
as in M. sanguinea Montagu. 

Length: 200-300 mm. by 4 nun. 

Colour: No regular pigmentation. 

Occurrence: Krusadai Island. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, India, Red Sea, Zanzibar. 

234. Marphysa gravelyi Southern. 

Marphysa gravelyi. Southern, 1921, p. 617, pi. XXIV, fig. 13: 
Gravely, 1927, p. 19: Fauvel, 1932, p. 142. 

Prostomium bilobed. Tentacles subequal, a little 
longer than the prostomium. The gills, which begin 
about 36th— 52nd foot, and attain up to 8—9 filaments 
continue to the hind part of the body. Dorsal setae sim- 
ple, capillary. In the posterior segments the ventral com- 
pound setae, with knife-like terminal piece, are gradually 
replaced by capillary setae. Bifid acicular bristles. Body 
flattened. 

Length: Up to 240-270 mm. by 5 mm. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake, Adyar, Madras (in brackish 

water) . 

235. Marphysa fflossambica Peters. 

Marphysa mossambica, Fauvel, 1919, p. 380 (Synonymy); 1932, 
p. 142: Crossland, 1903, p. 139, pi. XV, figs. 7—10: Gravely, 
1927, p. 19: Monro, 1931, p. 43. 

Nauphanta nooae-hollandiae, Kinberg, 1857—1910, p. 43, pi. XVI, 
fig. 23. 

Prostomium bilobed. Tentacles longer than the 
head. The gills which begin about 30th— 33rd foot, attain 
to 7-8 filaments, and continue to the hind part of the 
body. Dorsal and ventral setae simple. Compound setae 
missing altogether. 

Length: Up to 280 mm. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Nicobar Islands, Nankauri, 
in Coral Reefs; Pondichery; Kilakarai; Gulf of Mannar. 



MARPHYSA 247 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Australia; Bay of 
Bengal, India, Red Sea, East Africa. 

236. Mafphysa stfagtflam (Grube) . (Fig. 123, i-q) . 

Eunice stragulum, Grube, 1878, p. 163. 
Marphysa stragulmn, Crossland, 1903, p. 136. 

Body slender, elongated. Pr&stomium broad, round- 
ed, undivided. Tentacles slightly longer than the head. 
The gills, which begin about the 12th— 13th foot, are very 
large, with numerous filaments, covering the back entire- 
ly, but present only on 12—20 segments. Dorsal seiae 
simple, capillary. Ventral setae compound, with a long 
knife-like terminal piece. In the posterior feet falciger- 
ous setae. Acicular setae pale, unidentate. 

Length: 20-90 mm. by 2-4 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Cochin State Coast. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Ceylon. 

Note—'Vias species is hardly distinct from M. hellii Aud. Edw. 

23T. Maxphysa fallax Marion and Bobretzky. (Fig. 124, 
o—v) . 

Marphysa fallax, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 410, fig. 162, o—v. 
Marphysa chevalensis, Willey, 1905, p. 282. 

Body long and slender. Prostomium rounded, bilob- 
ed. Branchiae, with 1—3 filaments, from about 10th— 14th 
foot, absent on the 15—20 last ones. Upper setae simple; 
inferior ones of two kinds: (1) compound falcigerous with 
bidenate end-piece, (2) compound with knife-like end- 
piece. Comb setae. Acicula yellow. Acicular setae 
bidentate. 

Length: 15—40 mm. 

Colour: Back red, with white dots, second segment 
pale (In life) . Mimics a Lysidice. 

Occurrence: Cheval Paar, Gulf of Mannar. 

Distribution: Gulf of Mannar; Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea, Alexandria, Adriatic Sea, English Channel. 

Genus PARAMARPHYSA Ehlers. 
Differs from Marphysa in the absence of branchiae. 

238. Pafamafphysa orientalis Willey. 

Paramarphysa orientals, Willey, 1905, p. 283, pi. IV, fig. 105: 
Fauvel, 1939, p. 336, Okuda, 1937, p. 287, figs. 42-33. 



248 EUNICIDAE 

Prostomium bilobed. Tentacles short. Two eyes. 
Gills absent. Acicula and acicular bidentate setae dark. 
Upper setae simple, capillary. Comb-setae with, long mar- 
ginal laciniae. Compound setae all with falcigerous 
bidentate end-piece. 

Length: 10—28 mm. by 1 mm. 90—104 setigerous 
segments. 

Occurrence: Cheval Paar, Gulf of Mannar. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Palan Islands, Indo- 
Ghina, Gulf of Siam, Poulo Gondore; Ceylon. 

Genus LYSIDICE Savigny. 

Three tentacles. Tentacular cirri absent. Dorsal 
and ventral cirri. Branchiae absent. Setae: simple capi- 
llary; comb-like, compound falcigerous and acicular setae. 
Lower jaw (labrum) of two pieces. Upper jaw with a 
pair of mandibles, two toothed plates, an unpaired plate 
and paragnaths. 

339. Lysidice collatis Grube. (Fig. 124, a-g) . 

Lysidice collaiis, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 28, pi. V, fig. 2: Fauvel, 
1917, p. 236 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 143: Gravely, 1927, p. 19: 
Monro, 1931, p. 45: WiUey, 1905, p. 284. 

Lysidice sulcata, Treadwdl, 1902, p. 200, fig. 47. 

(?) Lysidice fallax, Ehlers, 1898, p. 15. 

Eyes reniform or semilunar. Lysidice fallax Ehlers, 
often met with, like the " Palolo " worm, in swarms, is 
probably the epitocous condition of L. collaris, with large 
eyes, provided with a lens. 

Length: 50—150 mm. 

Colour: Preserved specimens are generally more or 
less completely colourless or light brown. Sometimes there 
are still traces of the white ring near the anterior end. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Andaman Islands; Kilakarai; 
Pamban; Ceylon; Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Japan, Gambler Islands, New Caledo- 
nia, Philippine Islands, Australia, Gulf of Siam; Indian 
Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

JVote.— Differs from L. ninetta Aud. and M.-Edwards only by the 
shape of its eyes, reniform instead of rounded. 



NEMATONEREIS 



249 



Genus NEMATONEREIS Schmarda. 



Body filiform. A single tentacle; no palps. 2—4 eyes. 
No tentacular cirri. Dorsal and ventral cirri present. 
Branchiae absent. Simple capillary setae, comb-setae, fal- 
cigerous compound setae, acicular setae. Lower jaw of 
two pieces. Upper jaw with a pair of mandibles, two pairs 
of jaws, an unpaired plate. 

240. Ncmatonercis anicomis Grube. (Fig. 124, h—n) . 

Nematonerets unicornis, Fauvel, 192Sa, p. 412, fig 162, h—n; 
1927, p. 28: WiUey, 1905, p. 284. 

Prostomium rounded anteriorly. Two large poster- 
ior eyes, with, sometimes, a smaller anterior pair. An 
occipital spindle-shaped tentacle. Dorsal cirri subulate. 
Ventral cirri pyriform. Acicula dark. Acicular setae 
bidentate, dark. Compound setae falcigerous, bidentate. 
Comb-setae. Upper setae simple, capillary, limbate. 




Fig. IZi.—Lysidice ninetta Aud 8: M.-Edw, (only differing from L. 
coUaris Grube in the shape of the eyes, which are rounded): o, 
anterior part X3; b, upper jaws; c, anterior foot X20; d, 
toot trom mid-body x20; e, comb-seta X310; /, acicular 
bristle X235; g, falciger X310. Nematonerets unicornis 
Grube: h. anterior part X5; i, anterior foot X120; k, 
foot from mid-body Xl20; /, falciger X350; m, 
acicular bristle X300; n, comb-seta X350; Mar- 
physa fallax Mar. & Bobr. o, anterior part; p, 
lower jaw; q, upper jaws; r, foot from mid- 
body; s, bidentate falciger, t, comb-seta, w, 
acicular bristle; v, cultriform compound 
bristle. 

F. 34 



250 EUNICIDAE 

Length: 150—200 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: Pink, iridescent, anteriorly orange, posterior- 
ly greenish. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Pamban; Ki-usadai; 
Cheval Paar. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago, Indo-China; Indian 
Ocean, India, Suez Canal; Atlantic Ocean; Mediterranean 
Sea. 

Sub-family LYSARETINAE Kinberg. 

No palps. Three tentacles. Very large flattened 
dorsal cirri. Branchiae absent. All setae simple. Four 
anal cirri. Mandibles toothed. Jaws more or less sym- 
metrical. 

Genus AGLAURIDES Ehlers. 

Syn. Aglaura and Oenone Savigny. 

Prostomium rounded. Eyes present. Palps absent. 
Three short tentacles more or less hidden under the 
anterior border of the peristomium. Nuchal organs pro- 
trusible. Parapodia sesquiramous. Dorsal cirri large, 
thick, flattened. Setigerous lobe with two unequal ligu- 
les. Setae simple, capillary. Acicular setae. Lower jaw 
of two pieces. Upper jaw with five pairs of symmetrical 
or asymmetrical toothed plates and two long supports. 

241. Aglamides fulgida Savigny. (Fig. 125, a-f) . 

Aglaurides fulgida, Willey, 1905, p 284, pi. V, fig. 107: Michael- 
sen, 1892, p. 9: Fauvel, 1917. p. 240, pi. VI, figs. 62-55 (Syn 
onymy); 1930a, p. 31; 1932, p. 151. 

Aglaurides erythraeensis, Gravier, 1900, p. 278, pi XIV, figs 99— 
103: Fauvel, 1914d, p. 131, pi. VII, figs. 1-4. 

Aglaurides symmetrica, Fauvel, 1919, p. 388. 

Oenone fulgida, Augener, 1913, p. 290: Crossland, 1924, p. 85, 
figs. 106-111. 

Prostomium rounded. Two pairs of eyes, anterior 
large, posterior small. Tentacles very short, rounded. 
Peristomium biannulate on the sides, with longitudinal 
ventral folds. Dorsal cirri chopper-shaped. Anterior 
ligule short, rounded; posterior ligule more elongated. 
Adcular setae yellow, bidentate, hooded. Upper jaw 
plates very variable in shape. One pair of mandibles and 
four pairs of toothed plates. 

Length: 100-250 mm. by 5-10 mm. 



DIOfATRA. 



251 



Colour: Orange above, light yellow at sides and below. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Mergui Archipelago, Paway 
Island; Nicobar Islands, Nankauri; Kilakarai; Pedro 
Shoal; Ceylon, Colombo; Maldive Archipelago. 




Fig. 12&.—Aglaundes fulgida (Savigny): a, var. asymmetrica; upper 

jaws, dorsal ™w of the plates X16; b, var. symmetrica, upper 

jaws, plates flattened XiG; c, 70th foot X25; d, 13th foot 

X25; e, head; /, acicular bristle X134. 

Distribution: Polynesia, Australia, Philippine Is- 
lands, Indo-China; Nicobar Islands, Ceylon, India, Mal- 
dive Archipelago, Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, 
Gulf of Guinea, West Indies, Florida. 



Sub-family ONUPHIDINAE Levinsen. 

Two globtilar palps; two frontal tentacles (frontal 
palps) ; five occipital tentacles. Anterior feet more or 
less modified. Gills simple, or pectinate, or spiral. Capil- 
lary setae; compound or pseudo-compound setae only 
on the first setigerous segment; comb-setae. Four anal 
cirri. A labrum; upper jaws 3—5 pairs with an odd plate. 



Genus DIOPATRA Audouin and Milne-Edwards. 

Head rounded. Two pad-like palps. Two small 
oval frontal tentacles. Five long occipital tentacles borne 
on long ringed ceratophores. An achaetous segment bear- 
ing two small tentacular cinri. Dorsal drri subulate. 



252 



EUNICIDAE 



Ventral cirri subulate in a few anterior feet, the follow- 
ing ones pad-like. Pseudo-compound bristles in the ante- 
rior feet, succeeded by simple setae, comb-setae and aci- 
cular setae. Gills large, with a number of filaments in- 
serted spirally. Lower jaw (labrum) of two pieces. 
Upper jaw with a pair of mandibles, three pairs of toothed 
plates and an unpaired one. Tube membranaceous, 
sticking in the sand or mud. 

242. Diopatra neapolitana Delle Chiaje. (Fig. 126, a- 
h). 

Diopalra neapohtana, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 419, fig. 166, a—h (Syn- 
onymy); 1930, p. 29; 1932, p. 144; 1933, p. 28: Crossland, 1903, 
p. 132, pi. XIV, fig. 1. 

Diopatra amboinensis, Willey, 1905, p. 274, pi. IV, figs. 95-97. 

Diopatra variabilis, Southern, 1921, p. 611, pi XXV, fig. 14. 
(?) Diopatra phyllocirra, Schmarda, 1861, p. 133, pi. XXXII, fig. 
261. 

Body large and very long, rounded anteriorly, depres- 
sed and brittle in the posterior region. Palps small, glo- 




Fig. IZG— Diopatra neapolitana Delle Chiaje: a, anterior part X2J 
b, 10th foot with gilfi X8; c, foot from mid-body X8; d, comb- 
seta X120; e, acicular bnstle X120; /, hook from 3rd setiger- 
ous segment X120; g, spmulose capillary bristle X80; h, 
kneed aciculum X45. Hyalinoecia tubicola (O. F. Muller); 
i, anterior part (after Mcintosh); fe, foot from mid- 
body X80; I, 12th foot X80; m, first setigerous seg- 
ment X45; n, comb-seta X310; o, acicular bristle 
X3I0; p, hook from first foot xl95; q, winged 
capillary bristle Xl95. 



ONUPHlS 253 

bular. Ringed ceratophore of tentacles much shoi-ter 
than the palpostyle. Two anterior tentacles shorter than 
the three posterior ones, which are subequal. Eyes absent. 
Gills begin on 4th or 5th foot. They are very large, 
covering the back, but decrease in size and disappear about 
the 50th— 70th foot. On the first 4—5 setigerous segments, 
simple winged setae and pseudo-compound bristles, end- 
ing m a bidentate hook with a sharp pointed hood. In 
the succeeding ieet, simple setae with two wings and comb- 
setae with numerous fine teeth, or a few large teeth. 
Hooded acicular setae bidentate. A number of yellow, 
tapering, geniculate acicula. Membranous tube partly 
buried in sand, the upper part thick, tough, more or less 
coated with debris. 

Length: 160—500 mm. 

Colour: Body pale yellow, iridescent; back and feet 
with white dots. Branchiae with green spiral streaks. In 
spirit, yellowish with brown spots. 

Occurrence: Burma, Mergui; Gangetic Delta; Orissa 
Coast; Madras Coast; Ceylon; Gulf of Mannar; Maldive 
Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, China Sea, Gulf of Siam; 
Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, 
Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 



Genus ONUPHIS Audouin and Milne-Edwards. 

Head rounded. Eyes present or absent. Two pad- 
like palps. Two small fusiform frontal tentacles. Five 
occipital tentacles borne on long ringed ceratophores. An 
achaetous segment bearing two small tentacular cirri. 
Dorsal cirri subulate; ventral cirri subulate in the ante- 
rior feet, pad-like in the succeeding region. Pseudo- 
compound bristles in the anterior feet, succeeded by sim- 
ple setae, comb-setae and acicular setae. Gills simple or 
pectinate. Lower jaw (labrum) of two pieces. Upper 
jaw with a pair of mandibles, 2—3 pairs of toothed plates 
and an unpaired plate. Tube membranaceous, sometimes 
free. 

Key to the species of Onuphis. 

1. Gills simple . . . . 2 
Gills not simple .. 3 

2. Gills begin on the first foot .. holobranchiata 

Marenzeller, p. 256. 



254 EUNICIDAE 

Gills begin abotit 11th— 13th 

foot . . . . conchy lega Sars, p. 2S5. 

3. Gills bifid . . . . dibranchiata Willey, p. 254. 
Gills pectinate . . . 4 

4. Furcate pseudo-compound bristles furcatosetosa Monro, p. 254. 
No furcate bristles . 5 

5. Gills begin at the 1st or 2nd 

foot . .. 6 

Gills begin on the 5th— 6th foot investigatoris Fauvel, p. 258. 

6. Gills begin on the first foot and 

remain simple on the next 10 eremita Aud. & M.- 
—20 feet, then pectinate . Edw. p. 257. 

Gills begin on 2nd foot and are aucklandensis 
pectinate on the 4th . . Augener, p. 257. 

243. Oaaptis dikanciiiata Willey. 

Onuphis dibranchiata, Willey, 1905, p. 277, pi. IV, fig. 100: 
Gravely, 1927. p. 20, pi. IX, fig. 7. 

Gills begin as a simple filament on the first foot and 
continue simple on the first 17 parapodia, thereafter be- 
coming bifid and considerably longer than the dorsal cirri. 
First dorsal cirrus tumid at the base, rather shorter than 
the first filament. Pseudo-compound bristles with bi- or 
tri-dentate terminal piece in the first 3—5 feet. Tentacles 
with long ringed ceratophores. Tube covered with coarse 
sand grains. 

Width: S mm. 

Occurrence: Lagoon, Krusadai Island. 

244. Onaphis fofcatosctosa Monro. (Fig. 127, a~b) . 
Onuphis furcatosetosa, Monro, 1937, p. 290, fig. 15. 

The gills have a woolly appearance. They begin on 
the first foot vnth two minute filaments and rapidly in- 
crease to 18 about the 15th foot and remain highly 
ramified. The first 3 setigers have flattened capillary bris- 
tles and the place of the usual compound hooks is taken 
by ourious simple, or incipiently pseudo-compound, 
bristles having a very slight and scarcely noticeable notch, 
marking the place where the usual articulation is found, 
and very long hoods the ends of which are prolonged into 
two tapering points which form a terminal fork. Inside 
the hood an ill defined bidentate hook can be seen. Tubes 
formed of mud. 

Length: 35 mm. by 3 mm. 



ONUPHIS 



255 



Colour: A brown streak on the head and brown trans- 
verse segmental bands in the anterior region. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Oman; Gulf of Aden; Red Sea, 
at depths of 186-375 m. 




Fig. 127— Onuphis furcatosetosa Monro: a, 12th foot; 6, forked bristle 

(after Monro). O. aucklandensis Augener; c, hook from first foot 

X225; d, comb-seta X350; e, acicular bristle from mid-body 

X225 (after Augener). O. holobranchiaia Marenzeller: /, 

compound hook from 3rd foot X260; g, 33rd foot X28; ft, 

first foot (after Maxenzeller). 

245. Onaphis conchylega Sars. (Fig. 128, a-m) . 

Onuphis conchylega Sars, Fauvel. 1923a, p. 145, fig. 164, (Syno- 
nymy); 1932, p. 145: WiUey, 1905. p. 276. 

All the branchiae are simple and begin about lldi- 
ISth foot. First and second feet larger and pointing 
forwards with a few stout, blunt, simple hooks, replaced 
in the third foot by pseudo-articulate, uni- or bi-dentate 
bristles. Tube membranaceous, flattened, coated with 
mud and shells. 



256 



EUNICroAE 



Length: 100-150 mm. 

Colour: Variable, body anteriorly with transverse 
brown stripes. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea; Gulf o£ Mannar; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean. 




Fig. l2S.—0nuphis conchylega Sars: a, b, anterior part, dorsal and 

ventral view X3; c, first toot X23; d, 8th foot X23; e, 20th foot 

X23; f, tube, reduced; g, comb-seta X310; h, acicular 

bristle X117; i, pseudo-compound bristle X117; k, hook 

from 2nd toot X78; I, wmged capillary x78; 

m, capillary bristle X78. 

246. Onapliis holobranctiata Marenzeller. (Fig. 127, 
f-h). 

Onuphis holobranchiata, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 132, pi. IV, fig. 1: 
Willey, 1905, p. 278, pi. IV, fig. 101: Angener, 1913, p. 283: 
Crossland, 1903, p. 155, pi. XVI, fig. 2: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 30; 
1932, p. 146. 

Gills all simple, beginning on the first foot. Eyes 
more or less conspicuous. Pseudo-compound bristles on 
the first four feet, with bi-dentate or tri-dentate terminal 
piece. 

Length: 40 mm. 

Colour: Transverse pigment streaks on the anterior 
segments. 



ONUPHIS 



257 



Occurrence: Nankauri, Nicobar Islands; Gulf of 
Mannar. 

Distribution: Japan; Nicobax Islands, Gulf of 
Mannar, Maldive Archipelago. 

247. Onaptis aacklandensis Augener. (Fig. 127, c-e) . 
Onuphis aucklandensis, Augener, 1924, p. 418, fig. 11: Fauvel. 

1932, p. 146. 
Onuphis tenuisetis, Benham {non Mcintosh), 1909, p. 5. 

Gills begin on the second foot, and are pectinate on 
the 3rd— 4th feet, and attain to 6—7 filaments. Tentacles 
long, reaching to 24th— 27th segment, with short rinqed 
ceratophore. Bi- or tri-dentate pseudo-compound hooks 
in the first 3 feet. Eyes absent. 

Length: 8—120 mm. by 6—7 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Off Puri, Orissa. 

Distribution: New Zealand; Andaman Islands, India. 

248. Onuphis eremita Audouin and Milne-Edwards. 
(Fig. 129, a-l). 

Onuphis eremita, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 414, fig. 163 (Synonymy); 
1932, p. 146. 




Fig. 1Z9.— Onuphis eremita Aud. & M.-Edw.. a, anterior partxS; b, 

first foot Xl2; c, 7th foot Xl2; d, foot from mid-body Xl2; e, 

16th foot X12; f, hind foot Xl2; g. upper jaws; /i, acicular 

bristle XllV; i, compound hook from 5th foot XllV; K 

compound hook from 2nd foot Xll7; /, comb-seta X319. 

F. 35 



258 EUNICEDAE 

Onuphis basipicta, Willey, 190S, p. 275, pi. IV, figs. 98, 99: 

Augener, 1926, p. 457. 
Onuphis landanaensis, Augener, 1918, p. 339, pi. V, figs 135— 

138, pi. VI, fig. 197. 

Gills begin on the first foot, simple on the 10—22 suc- 
ceeding feet, pectinate in the succeeding region, and 
attain 5—6 filaments. Pseudo-compound bristles with bi- 
or tri-dentate terminal piece, in the first 3—5 feet. Ten- 
tacles with long, ringed ceratophores. Eyes absent. 

Length: 80-120 mm. 

Colour. Back violet, ventral side white. In spirit, 
yellowish-grey, iridescent, with brown spots. 

Occurrence: Akyab, Burma; Mergui Archipelago; 
Madras; Ceylon, Galle and Trincomali. 

Distribution: Indo-China; Bay of Bengal, India; 
Madagascar; Suez Canal; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean 
Sea. 

349. Onaphis investigators Fauvel. (Fig. 130, a-/; 131, 

a-g)- 

Onuphis investigatoris, Fauvel, 1932, p. 147, fig 21, pi. VI, figs. 
1-6. 

Body elongated, depressed, about the same breadth 
all over, except the first 5—6 segments which are rounded, 
longer and narrower. Segments numerous. Palps oval 
globular. Two small oval or sub-cylindrical front tenta- 
cles. Five occipital tentacles with short, ringed, cerato- 
phore and long, smooth, subulate cirrostyle. Median ten- 
tacle reaching backwards to the 7th setigerous segmefit, 
the outer pair reaching to the 15th. Eyes absent. Buccal 
segment (peristomium) , which is shorter and narrower 
than the succeeding, bears two smooth filiform, tentacular 
cirri inserted in its anterior margin behind the lateral 
posterior tentacles. Dorsal cirri subulate in the first feet, 
swollen at their base in the succeeding ones. Ventral 
cirri subulate in the 6— 7th feet. There is no conical tuber- 
cle between the setigerous process and the hose of the 
dorsal cirrus. Gills begin on the 5th— 6th foot, simple 
(or rarely bifid) , bifid on the intermediate region, pecti- 
nate further back, with as many as 10 filaments. They 
continue to the last segments where they are again simple. 
Posterior ligule well developed in the first feet, in foim 
of a short conical knob about the 12th— 15th foot. The 
change is progressive. Pygidium, an oval knob with two 
long filiform cirri. Up to the 5th— 6th setigerous seg- 



ONUPHIS 



259 



ment, capillary setae and pseudo-compound hooks with 
bi-dentate or tri-dentate hooded terminal piece. In the 
succeeding segments, winged capillary setae and yellow, 




Fig. ISO.— Onuphis investigations Fauvel, a, first foot X20; b, fourth 

foot X20; c. Sixth foot X20; d, tenth foot X20; e, SOth foot 

X20; /, foot from mid-body X20. 



bi-dentate, hooded acicular setae. From about the 10th— 
I5th foot, yellow acicula ending in a capillary tip. A 
bundle of very slender capillary acicula enclosed in the 
base of the dorsal cirri. Lower jaw soft, chitinous, elong- 
gate, with blackish outer edge. Jaws soft, pale edged, 
light brown. M. I.; 1+1 mandibles without basal teeth; 
M. II, 9+9; M. Ill, 10+10; M. IV, 7+12 to 13, with 
a triangular, dark, chitinous plate at the base. Tube 
thin, membranaceous, more or less coated with fine mxid. 
A deep sea species. 



260 



EUNlClDAi 



Length: Up to 60 mm., or more, by 4-5 mm. 

Colour: Discoloured in alcohol. 

Occurrence: Laccadive Sea, Arabian Sea, Gulf of 
Oman, Persian Gulf, 35 fms. to 600—700 fms., in brown 
mud, grey mud, green mud or globigerina ooze. 




Fig. ISl.—Onuphis investigatoris Fauvel: a, 6, hooks from first foot 
X270; c, d, hooks from 4th foot X270; e, hooded hook from mid- 
body X270; f, worn hook from mid-body X270; g, hook en- 
closed in a foot from mid-body x270. 



Genus HYALINOECIA Malmgren. 

Eyes present or absent. Two pad-like palps. Two 
small fusiform frontal tentacles. Five occipital tentacles, 
borne on ringed ceratophores. An achaetous segment 
devoid of tentacular cirri. Dorsal cirri subulate in the 
anterior feet, pad-like in the following ones. Simple or 
pseudo-compound hooks in the anterior feet, simple capil- 
lary setae, comb-setae and adcular setae in the succeed- 
ing ones. Gills generally simple. Lower jaw of two 
pieces. Upper jaw with a pair of mandibles, 2—3 pairs 
of toothed plates and an unpaired plate. Tube mem- 
branaceous or horny, sometimes free. 



RHAMfHOBRACHlUM 261 

250. Hyalinoecia tobicola O. F. MuUer. (Fig. 126, i- 
?)• 

Hyalinoecia tubicola, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 421, fig. 166, i—g; 1932, 

p. 149: Augener, 1924, p. 422: Monro, 1937, p. 293. 
Onuphis tubicola, Ehlers, 1908, p. 83. 
Hyalinoecia camiguina, Grube, 1878, p 142. Willey, 1905, p. 279. 

Gills simple, beginning about 18th— 26th foot. The 
first two pairs of feet rather stout and pointing forwards, 
armed with simple capillaiy setae and stout hooks, bluntly 
bi-dentate and hooded (on young specimens they are 
pseudo-compound) . Tube free, horny, transparent cy- 
lindrical, very slightly bent, open at both ends and 
provided with internal valves. It has the appearance 
and rigidity of a large goose quill. 

Length of the tubes: 20—200 mm. by 8—10 mm. 
Hyaline, colourless or yellow. Animal up to 215 mm. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal, Laccadive Sea, Arabian 
Sea, Gulf of Oman; in deep (hredgings, down to 1,005 fms. 

Distribution; Japan, New Zealand; Indian Ocean, 
Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus RHAMPHOBRACHIUM Ehlers. 

Two pad-like palps. Two small rounded frontal 
tentacles. Five occipital tentacles, borne on ringed cera- 
tophores. An achaetous segment bearing two small 
tentacular cirri. Dorsal cirri subulate. Ventral cirri pad- 
like. Three anterior feet very large, directed forwards and 
bearing very long capillary bristles with a hooked end- 
piece. Gills pectinate. Lower jaw of two pieces. Upper 
jaw with a pair of mandibles, paired tooth-plates and an 
unpaired pfate. Tube membranaceous. 

Key to the species of Rhamphobrachium. 

Compound bi-dentate hooks con- diversosetosum 
fined to the 4th foot .. Monro, p. 262. 

Pseudo-compound tri-dentate 

hooks on the 3rd foot . . ckuni Ehlers, p. 261. 

251. Rhamphobfachiam chuni Ehlers. (Fig. 132, a-b) . 

Rhamphobrachium chuni, Ehlers, 1908, p. 76, pi. IX, figs. 6— 
15: Augener, 1927, p. 178, fig. 8: Fauvel, 1932, p. 150. 

Tentacles short, subulate, nearly equal, borne on 
short ringed ceratophores. Eyes absent. The three an- 
terior feet flattened, nearly imbricated, directed forwards 



262 



EtJNICtDAE 



and enclosing the head, provided with subulate dorsal 
and ventral cirri and very long and slender setae ending 
in a pseudo-articulate tri-dentate hook enclosed in a hood 
(it is smooth in grown-up specimens) . Gills begin 
about 12th foot and consist of as many as 6 filaments. 
Tube membranaceous, covered with mud. 

Length: 190 mm. by 4 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish-grey with small dark dots on the 
anterior part and larger spots on the base of the dorsal 
cirri. 

Occurrence: North Andaman Island: S. W. of Ceylon, 
480 fms.; Laccadive Sea, 719 fms. 

Distribution: New Zealand, Australia; Andaman Is- 
lands, Ceylon, Laccadive vSea, East Coast of Africa. 

262. RhamphobfachitJin dhrersosetostjm Monro. (Fig. 
132, c-h). 

Rhamphobrachium diversosetosum Monro, 1937, p. 295, fig. 17. 

Palps globular, frontal tentacles ovate. Occipital 
tentacles slender, with short ceratophores. Two small 
eyes. The three anterior feet are elongated and carried 




Fig. IS2-— Rhamphobrachium chuni Ehlers' a, anterior part, side view 

X4; 6, 34tli foot X20 (after Ehlers). Rh. diversosetosum Monro: 

c, 2nd foot, bristles not figured; d, 4th foot; e, compound bristle 

from 10th foot; f, hook from 4th toot; g, acicular bristle; 

h, tip of hook from 2nd foot (after Monro). 



LUMBRICONEREIS 263 

forwards beside the head: they have large dorsal and 
venti-al cirri and carry a cirriform process and the usual 
enormously long bristles with curved tip. There is no 
tri-dentate hook. The 4th foot carries capillary bristles 
and compound bi-dentate hooks with sickle-shaped ends. 
These compound bristles are confined to the 4th foot. 
For about the following 10 setigers the place of the com- 
pound bristles with sickle-shaped blades is taken by com- 
pound bristles with cultriform blades, which in turn 
disappear, their place being taken by a pair of yellow, 
bi-dentate, hooded, acicular hooks, and the four acicula 
are replaced by a pair of stout acicula with pointed ends. 
Comb-setae present. Gills begin with a simple filament 
at the 10th setiger and reach a maximum of about 8 
filaments. On the terminal segment (52nd) of the larger 
fragment the gills are still richly branched. 

Length: 19—30 mm. by 3 mm. and 52 setigers (in- 
complete) . 

Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago, 183—274 m. 

Sub-family LUMBRICONEREINAE. 

Palps absent. Tentacles missing. Prostomium more 
or less conical. Dorsal cirri rudimentary or missing. No 
ventral cirri. Branchiae absent, or very rarely present. 
Setae: simple winged capillary, compound or simple hooks. 
Four anal cirri. A lower jaw (labrum) . Uijper jaws 3 
—5 pairs, without unpaired plate. 

Genus LUMBRICONEREIS Blainville. 

Body long and cylindrical. Prostomium conical or 
globular, devoid of palps and tentacles. Eyes absent. 
First two segments apodous and achaetous. Dorsal cirri 
absent or reduced to a small knob. Ventral cirri absent. 
Gills absent. Feet with two unequal ligules. Simple wing- 
ed setae and simple or compound hooks. Lower jaw 
(labium) bodica-like. Upper jaw with a pair of mandi- 
bles, three pairs of toothed plates and two supports. 

Key to the species of Lumbriconereis. 

1. Capillary setae present. Hooks 

absent . . . . 2 

Capillary setae and hooks present 3 

2. Ligules of the feet short . . simplex Southern, p. 264 
Ligules of the feet long .. pseudobifilaris Fauvel, p. 269 



264 



EUNICIDAE 



3. Two long cirrifonn ligules in 

the posterior feet 
A single cirrifonn ligule 

4. Hooks compound and simple 
Only simple hooks present 

5. Prostomium conical 

Prostomium globular 

6. Small dorsal cini piesent 
Dorsal cirri absent 

7. Long ligule in posterior feet 

LiguIes of posteuor feet shorter 
and not erect. No capillary 
setae in posterior feet 

8. Long posterior ligules erect 

Long posterior ligules not erect 
Capillary setae in all feet 



bifilaris Ehlers, p. 269. 

4 

6 

6 

latretlb Aud. & M.- 
Edw., p. 266. 

sphaerocephala Schmarda, 

p. 267. 
notocirrata Fauvel, p. 271. 
7 



impattens Clapaxide, p. 267 

heteropoda 

Maienzeller, p. 268. 

polydesma Southern, p 264. 



253. LttmbricoQeieis simplex Southern. (Fig. 133, g-i) . 

Lumbriconereis simplex. Southern, 1921, p. 625, pi. XXVI, fig. 
16. 

Prostomium triangular, with rounded angles. Feet 
very vascular, with a large heart-shaped structure full of 
blood. Anterior lobe rounded, posterior lobe blunt coni- 
cal. All the setae are simple, capillary, more or Jess 
broadly winged. There are no hooks. Mandibles broad, 
fused throughout almost the whole length. Carriers 
short. Maxillae stout and boldly curved. M. Ill, bi- 
dentate, M. IV, a stout tooth which may be slightly bifid 
at the tip. 

Length: 32 mm. by 1.7—2.7 mm. 

Colourless, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake, in mud. 

254. Ltjmtflconefcis polydesma Southern. (Fig. 133, a 
-f). 

Lumbriconereis polydesma. Southern, 1921, p. 622, pi. XXVI, 
fig. 15. 

Very slender elongated body. Prostomium rounded. 
Feet uniform in the middle and posterior parts, with an 
anterior short rounded lobe and a posterior longer, coni- 
cal or cirriform one. Only capillary winged setae in the 



LUMBRICONEREIS 



265 



28 anterior feet, which do not disappear in the middle 
and posterior feet. The hooks, from the 29th -foot, ate all 
unjointed, with 6—10 small denticles above the main fang. 
M. Ill bi-dentate; M. IV unidentate. Acicula colourless. 

Length: 185 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: In spirit opaque white with a faint green 
sscence. 



Colour. 
iridescence 




Fig. \ZZ.—Lumbriconereis polydesma Southern: a, anterior end, ven- 
tral view X20; b, 80th foot X80; c, 10th foot x90; d, 300th foot 
X80; e, 3rd and 4th pairs of iaws X45; /, hook X435: L. 
simplex Southern: g, anterior end, ventral view; h, 100th 
foot, showing blood vessels X60; i, 10th foot X67 (after 
Southern). 

Occurrence: In sand, just above high water mark, 
on the shore of Chiriya Island, Chilka Lake. 

Remarks: This species is a connecting link between 
L. impatients Claparede and L. heteropoda Marenzeller, 
differing from the latter by its much shorter feet, which are 
not erect. 

F. 36 



266 



EUNICIDAE 



255. LamWconeteis latfeilli Audouin and Milne- 
Edwards. (Fig. 134, m-r). 

Lumbnconereis latreilli, Faiivel, 1923a, p. 431, fig. 171 n—r 
(Synonymy); 1932, p. 162: Ciossland, 1924, p. 10, figs. 8-40. 

Lumbnconereis japonica, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 137, pi. V, fig. 3: 
Izuka, 1912, p. 139, pi. XIV, figs. 17, 18: Augener, 1926, p. 460, 
fig. 8. 

Body narrowed anteriorly. Prostomium blunt coni- 
cal. Feet well developed; setigerous process with an 
anterior rounded lobe and a posterior elongate conical 
ligule, which is greatly elongated in the posterior seg- 






^S(Mm 



a- 







■t 




Fig. IH.— Lumbnconereis impaiiens Clapartde: a, b, head dorsal and 

ventral view x3; c, anterior foot; d, foot from mid-body x78; 

e, posterior foot X78; /, upper jaws Xl2; g, lower jaw Xl2; 

h, winged capillary X117, i, posterior hook Xll7. L. fragi- 

lis O. F. MuUer: k, head x4; I, Srd and 4th jaws Xl2. 

L. latreilli Aud. & M. Edw.: m, head X3; n, 10th 

foot X78; 0, foot from mid-body X78; p, capillary 

bristle X155; q, anterior compound hook x233; 

r, unjointed hook X233. 

ments. In the anterior feet capillary setae and compound 
hooks; in the succeeding feet, unjointed hooks. The 
capillaries disappear about 40th— 60th feet. The variety 
japonica is hardly distinct. 

Length: 50—150 mm. 



Colour. Pink, red or brown, in life, 
cphol red. 



Colour in al- 



LUMBRICONEREIS 267 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Tuticorin Pearl-Oyster Banks. 

Distributions. Pacific Ocean; Indian Ocean, Maldive 
Archipelago, Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, 
Mediterranean Sea. 

266. Lttnatriconcfeis sphacroccphala Schmarda. (Fig. 
135, c~f). 

Lumbiiconereis sphaerocephala, Augener, 1924, p. 424; 1927, p 
88: Ehlers, 1904, p. 33, pi V, fig. 3-11: Fauvel, 1930a, p 30; 
1930b, p. 540; 1932, p. 152. 
(?) Lumbriconereis obtusa Kinberg, Augener, 1926, p. 459. 

Prostomium short, globular. Feet with an anterior 
rounded lobe and a posterior longer conical ligule, slight- 
ly more elongated in the posterior feet. In the anterior 
feet, capillary setae and compound hooks with short ter- 
minal piece, followed by simple hooks with denticles above 
the main fang. 

Length: 30—40 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Ceylon. 

Distribution: New Zealand, New Caledonia, Gambia 
Islands, Tasmania, Bass Straits, Indo-China; Andaman 
Islands, India. 

267. Lismhticoae-tcis impatiens Clapar^de. (Fig. 134, 
a—i) . 

Lumbriconereis impatiens, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 429, fig. 171 a—i 
(Synonymy); 1932, p. 152: Augener, 1918, p. 364: Monro, 1937, 
p. 297. 

Prostomium cylindro-conical. Feet with an anterior 
short, rounded lobe and a posterior longer, conical, or 
cirriform ligule, slightly erect. Acicula yellow. In the 
posterior feet, simple winged and unjointed hooks with 
denticles above the main fang and a long guard. In the 
middle and posterior feet, the capillaries disappear and 
the guard of the hooks is shorter. 

Length: 150-300 mm. 

Colour: In alcohol a lilac-red. 

Occurrence: Ganjam Coast; Vizagapatam; Laccadive 
Sea; Maldive Archipelago; Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, 
India, Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterra- 
nean Sea. 



268 



EUNICIDAE 



258. Lumbriconereis heteropoda Marenzeller. (Fig. 1S5, 

Lumbriconereis heteropoda, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 30, pi. VI, fig. 
1: Izuka, 1912, p. 141, pi. IV, fig. 19: Crossland, 1924, p. 4, 
figs. 1-7: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 30; 1932, p. 158- Monro, 1937, p. 
297. 

Lumbriconereis erecta, Moore, 1903, p. 454. 

Prostomium conical. Feet increase in length poster- 
iorly, with posterior cirriform ligule long and often 




Fig. VSS— Lumbriconereis bifdaris Ehlers : a, anterior part X20 ; b, 

105th foot X52. L. sphaerocephala Schmarda : c, d, anterior part, 

dorsal and ventral view X16; e, 4th foot X70; /, 60th foot 

X62 (after Ehlers). L. heteropoda Marenzeller : g, hook ; 

h, hind foot. 



erect. Only simple capillary setae in the anterior feet, 
followed by winged capillaries and unjointed hooks with 
small denticles above the main fang. 

Remarks: differs from L. impatiens Clapar^de in 
having only winged capillary setae in the 10—40 anterior 
feet and the longer posterior ligules erect, or turned back- 
wards, in the middle and posterior feet. 

Length: 150-300 mm. 



LUMBRICONEREIS 269 

Occurrence: Portuguese India, Mormugao Bay; Bom- 
bay; Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Japan, Indo-China; India, Persian Gulf, 
Red Sea. 

259. Lamfcrfconereis bifilaris Ehlers. (Fig. 135, a-b) . 

Lumbriconereis hifilaiu, Ehlers, 1901, p. 139, pi. XVIII, figs. 1— 
10: Fauvel, 1932, p. 153 

Body long and slender. Prostomium long, conical. 
Anterior feet with two rounded lips, the anterior shorter 
than the posterior. Posteriorly they gradually change to 
two very long cirriform processes of about equal length. 
In the anterior feet winged capillary setae and unjointed 
hooks with small denticles above the main fang and a long 
guard. About the 65th foot, only hooks with shorter guajd 

Length: About 110 mm. by 1 mm. 

Occurrence: Taleh-Sap, Gulf of Siam. 

Distribution: Coast of Chile; Taleh-Sap; Atlantic 
Ocean, Coast of Morocco. 

200. LtimbMconeteis psettdobIfiIa*is Fauvel. (Figs, 1S6, 
a—g, 137, a—d) . 

Lumbriconereis pseudobifilaris, Fauvel, 1932, p. 164, text fig. 22, 
pi. VI, figs. 7-13. 

Body cylindrical, deeply annulated. Prostomium coni- 
cal, rather sharp, eyeless. The first two achaetous seg- 
ments each about the same size as the following. On the 
ventral side of the peristomium, three longitudinal 
grooves reaching across the next segment. Two large 
lateral mouth-pads. Anterior feet with a short rounded 
anterior lip and a posterior one tapering at the tip. On 
the succeeding segments the lips, or lig-ules, of the feet 
increase in length and become cirriform, but the anterior 
one rea ains shorter and blunter than the posterior one. 
Setigerous lobe rounded, flattened between the lips and 
bearing only capillary winged setae, which are short in 
the first segments. Farther back, they are less numerous 
and have a yellow cylindrical shaft and a broad, flattened, 
transparent, sabre-like distal part ending in a long slender 
tip, straight or bent. Hooks absent. Several dark acicula. 
Dorsal and ventral cirri absent. Lower jaw (labrum) 
whitish, broad and denticulate. Upper jaws; mandibles 
with long smooth fang destitute of basal teeth, two very 



270 



EUNICIDAE 




Fig, 136.— Lumbriconereis pseudobifilaris Fauvel: a, anterior end, side 

view, x9 : b, anterior end, dorsal view, x9 ; c, anterior end, 

ventral view x9; d, anterior foot x64; e, anterior foot, 

slightly farther back X64; f, foot from mid-body 

X90 ; g, posterior foot X64. 



LUMBRICONEREIS 



271 



long and slender dark supports; M. II, two symmetrical 
plates with 5 teeth on the right and 8 on the left; M. Ill, 
two dark hooked plates with several fine denticles on the 
edge. 




Fig. 131,—Lumbriconereis pseudobifilaris Fauvel : a, &, flat setae 
X220; c, d, winged setae X220 

Length: Up to 40 mm. or more by 2 mm. 
Colour: In spirit, iridescent pearl-grey. 
Occurrence: OflE Akyab, Burma, 250 fms. in soft 
green mud; West Narrakal, Cochin State; Travancore. 

261. Lttrnfeficonereis notociwata Fauvel. (Figs. 138, 
a-h; 139, a-d). 

Lumbriconereis notocirrata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 156, pi. VII, figs. 1— 
8, text, fig. 23. 

Body cylindrical, conspicuously annulate, segments 
up to several hundreds. Prostomium blunt, conical, 
without eyes. The first two achaetous segments equal and 
the same length as the succeeding ones. The ventral side 



272 



EUNICIDAE 



of the peristomium divided into faint longitudinal fur- 
rows which do not extend on to the next segment. Two 
lateral mouth pads. Feet of the anterior segments small, 
succeeding ones with a setigerous process with two ligu- 
les, an anterior short and rounded, and a posterior long 
and conical, becoming more and more elongated poster- 




Fig. lS8.—Lumbnconereis notocirrata Fauvel: a, anterior end, dorsal 

view X5; b, anterior end, ventral view X5, c, foot from mid-body 

X25; d, anterior foot x25; e, posterior toot X2S; f, anterior 

foot X25; g, foot from mid-body x25; h, semi-anterior X25. 



iorly, and erect in the middle region and posterior seg- 
ments. Dorsal cirrus reduced to a small knob in the 
anterior feet; long and finger-like in the middle; bent, 
erect, and translucent in the posterior region, where the 
feet are long and protruding. In the hind part of the 
body, a little above and in front of the base of the foot, 



LUMBRICONEREIS 



273 



the border o£ the segment protrudes as a small dorsal knob, 
or a transparent vesicle. Acicula yellow, four in the 
anterior feet, followed by three, two, or only one, in the 
posterior feet. A small bundle of very fine acicula en- 
closed in the base of the dorsal cirrus. In the anterior 
feet, smooth, sword-like, capillary setae with an unpaired 
wing; in the succeeding ones, simple setae and simple 
hook, with bifid tip and rounded guard. In the posterior 




Fig. lS9.—Lumbriconereis notocirrata Fauvel : a, anterior seta X270; 
6, seta from mid-body X270 ; c, hook X270 ; d, hook-tip X380. 

feet, hooks and 1—2 capillary setae. Lower jaw (labrum) 
black, short, broad, with parallel semi-circular streaks and 
a faintly denticulate anterior border. Upper jaws with 
long lanceolate supports. Mandibles with a smooth base; 
M. II, two symmetrical platfes with 4+4 teeth; M. Ill, 
2-f2; M. IV, 1+1. 

Length: 350 miii. or more, by 8 mm. 

Colour: In spirit. Pale salmon-colour, with traces of 
transverse pale brownish-red streaks. 

F. 37 



274 



EUNICIDAE 



Occurrence: Vizagapatam, channel connecting back- 
waters with the sea and beyond the ferry; Orissa Coast, 
7 fms. 

Genus ARABELLA Grube. 
Syn. Aracoda Schmarda; Mactovia Grube. 

Prostomium ovate, devoid of palps and tentacles. 
Eyes present. First two segments apodous and achaetous. 
Dorsal cirri reduced to a mere tubercle. Ventral cirri 
absent. Feet with two unequal ligules. Simple winged 
setae. Lower jaw of two short pieces. Upper jaw with 
a pair of mandibles and 3—4 more or less asymmetrical 
pairs of toothed plates. Two or three long supports. 

Key to the species of Arabella. 

Acicular setae with peculiar asym- 
metrical hood .. nutans (Chamberlin), p. 276. 
No such setae . . iricolor (Montagu), p. 274. 

263. Arafcella iricolor (Montagu) . (Fig. 140, a-h) . 

Arabella iricolor, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 438, fig. 175 (Synonymy); 

1932, p. 158: Augener, 1924, p. 430. 
Aracoda multidentata, Augener, 1913, p. 291. 




Fig. 140.— Arabella iricolor (Montagu): a, b, anterior part, dorsal and 
ventral view X4 ; c, lower jaw X23 ; d, upper jaws X31 ; e, ante- 
rior foot X39 ; /, hind foot X39 ; g, upper bristle, kneed and 
Granulate X117; h, lower winged capillary X117. A. geni- 
culate (ClaparMe) (a species conspecific with A. mutans 
(Chamberlin) ?) : t, crenate bristle X117 ; ft, ante- 
rior foot X39 ; I, upper jaws. 



ARABELLA 275 

Prostomium blunt, conical, with four eyes set near 
the posterior margin in a ti-ansverse line. Dorsal cirri 
reduced to a small bent knob, often wanting in the pos- 
terior part of the body and on young specimens. All the 
setae are simple, short, stout, geniculate; the upper ones 
with a denticulate crest, the lower ones with smooth wings. 
The mandibles are large dark hooks with a toothed base. 

Length: 50—120 mm. 

Colour: Body grey, iridescent, sometimes with trans- 
verse rows of dark dots in the anterior segments. 

Occurrence: Camorta Island, Nicobar Islands; Madras 
Coast, Vizagapatam; Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, 
Pamban, Shingle Island. 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan; Pacific, Indian and 
Atlantic Oceans. 

263. Amfcefla matans (Chamberlin) . (Fig. 140, i-l; 
Fig. 143, g-i) . 

Arabella mutans, Monro, 1933, p. 88: Faiivel, 1943, p. 24. 

Cenothrix mutans, Chamberlin, 1919, p. 330, pi. XLI, fig. 1—9, 
pi. LXII, fig. 1. 

Arabella novecrinita, Crossland, 1924, p. 71, figs. 89—95. 

{})Aracoda obscura, WUley, 1905, p. 283, pi. V, figs. 108-112. 

Prostomium a pointed cone with four eyes at its base. 
Feet prominent though small. Dorsal cirri rudimentary. 
Setae include: (1) capillaries with narrow plain borders; 
(2) capillaries with broad borders bearing denticles prox- 
imally; (3) acicular setae with peculiar asymmetrical 
hoods. Acicula yellow. Jaws almost perfectly symmetri- 
cal: in var. logani, the first pair is nearly so, the second 
asymmetrical; in var. asymmetrica, while one of the first 
pairs ends in a long slender hook as usual, the other is 
toothed nearly its whole length, as in the genus Notocirrus. 

Length: Up to 500 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: Flesh colour or orange. Dark in spirit, 
sometimes with green dots. 

Remarks: The jaws of Aracoda obscura Willey, a very 
small (16 mm.) dark specimen from Ceylon, agree with 
those of A. mutans var. asymmetrica Crossland. The 
specimens from the Maldives belong to the typical form 
with jaws almost perfectly symmetrical. 

Occurrence: Ceylon (?), Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: California, Galapagos Islands; India (?), 
Maldive Archipelago, Suez, Zanzibar; Cape Verde Island. 



276 



EUNICIDAE 



Genus DRILONEREIS Claparede. 

Body elongated cylindrical. Prostomium devoid of 
palps and tentacles. Eyes may be present. The first two 
segments apodous and achaetous. Dorsal cirri reduced 
to a mere tubercle. Gills and ventral cirri absent. Feet 
with two unequal lobes. Simple winged setae and a 
large acicular spine. Lower jaw small, or sometimes mis- 
sing. Upper jaw with a pair of mandibles, a pair of 
toothed plates, and 2—3 pairs of small hooks. 

JsTey to the species of Drilonereis. 
small, lanceolate. 



Prostomium 
flattened 

Prostomium almost circular in 
outline, peculiarly ridged on 
dorsal surface 



filum Claparfede, p. 276. 



major Crossland, p. 277. 

364. IkHoneteis iihaa Claparede. (Fig. 141, a—h) . 

Drilonereis filum, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 436, fig. 174, a—h, (Synony- 
my); 1932, p. 159. 

Body long and slender. Prostomium lanceolate, 
flattened, often with a longitudinal median groove. Two 
dark spots at the base. Peristomium with ventral longi- 




Fig. 141— Drilonereis filum ClaparMe : a, b, anterior part, dorsal and 

ventral view ; c, upper jaws ; d, lower jaw ; e, winged capillary 

Xl20j /, acicular bodkin-like bristle X120; g, tip oi aciciflum 

X310 ; h, foot X8. Dr. macrocephala Sain,t-Joseph : i, head 

X9 ; k, upper jaws ; /, lower jaw ; m, acicular bristle, 

(Not yet found m tbe ladiaft area). 



NINOE 277 

tudinal folds. Feet with an anterior rounded lobe and a 
posterior long, blunt, conical one. Dorsal cirrus reduced 
to a mere knob with five enclosed acicula. Capillary 
setae with two wings set at an angle. A very large blunt 
acicular bristle. Acicula with a filiform protruding tip. 

Remarks: The dark spots on the back of the pros- 
tomium are pigmented nuchal organs. 

Length: 40-120 mm. by 2 mm. 

Colour: In life pink, yellow or grey-green. 

Occurrence: Off Akyab, Burma. 

Distribution: Gambier Islands; Bay of Bengal, Per- 
sian Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean. 

265. DtHoaeteis aiajo*, Crossland. (Fig. 143, k, I) . 

Drilonereis major, Crossland, 1924, p. 57, figs. 73—79: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 159. 

Body large, up to 4S0 mm. Prostomium fiat, almost 
semi-circular in outline, peculiarly ridged on dorsal sur- 
face. No sense organs of any kind (?) . Setae all simple, 
the long capillaries slender, but slightly bent and not 
distinctly bordered. A very large blunt acicular bristle. 
Jaws of normal type. No teeth on bases of mandibles. 
Accessory plate of supports triangular, generally more 
or less equilateral. Rudiments of labrum usually absent, 
sometimes conspicuous. 

Length: 200—450 mm. by 3 mm. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal. 

Distribution: Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Suez. 

Genus NINOE Kinberg. 

Prostomium conical. Palps and tentacles absent. 
The first two segments apodous and achaetous. Gills fila- 
ments cirriform, sessile. Simple setae, and hooks. Four 
pairs of upper jaws. Labrum of two pieces. 

266. Ninoe ctilensis Kinberg. (Fig. 142) . 

Ninog chilensis, Kinberg, 1857, 1910, p. 45, pi. XVIII, fig. 32: 
Ehlers, 1904, p. 141: Fauvel, 1932. p. 160, pi. VU, fig. 18. 

Prostomium conical, rather long, eyeless. Nuchal 
organs present. Dorsal and ventral cirri missing in the 
anterior feet; further back, a large flattened process above 
the gills is, perhaps, a modified dorsal cirrus. Gills rudi- 
mentary on the second foot, they have three filaments on 
the third and their number may reach beyond 10—12. 
They are well developed on about 30 segments, then they 



278 EUNICIDAE 

dwindle and suddenly disappear. They represent the pos- 
terior lip of the feet. Behind the branchial region the 
feet are like those of Lumbriconereis, with a short round- 
ed setigerous process, devoid of cirri, and with simple 
winged setae and long simple hooks. 




Fig. UZ—Ninoe chilensis Kinberg, twelfth foot X60. 

Length: 10—30 mm. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal, 105 fms. 

Distribution: Coast of Chile; Bay of Bengal. 

Sub-family STAUROCEPHALINAE. 

Two palps. Two tentacles. A labrum. Upper jaw 
with four rows of very numerous toothed plates. Para- 
podia sesquiramous. Simple and compound setae. Dor- 
sal and ventral cirri. Gills absent. Four anal cirri. 

Genus STAUROCEPHALUS Grube. 

Syn. Prionognathus Keferstein; Dorvillea Parfitt; Stauro- 
nereis Verrill; Anisoceras Grube. 

Two long palps, two tentacles, 2—4 eyes, two nuchal 
organs. A lower jaw (labrum) . Upper jaw, several rows 
of maxillary teeth on each side. First two segments 



STAUROGEPHALUS 



279 



adiaetous. Sesquiramous parapodia. Dorsal cirri joint- 
ed, ventral cirri unjointed. Upper setae simple capillaries, 
geniculated or forked; lower setae compound, falciger, or 
spiniger. 

Key to the species of Stamocephalus. 

Dorsal cirri unjointed. Without 

forked setae .. .. gardmen Crossland, p. 280 

Dorsal cirri jointed. Forked 

setae .. .. mceitus Schmarda, p. 279. 



267 



. Statifoceplialos incertus (Schmarda). (Fig. 143, a-c). 
Cirrosyllis incerta, Schmarda, 1861, p. 79. 
Stauronereis incerta, Ehlers, 1904, p. 36. 
Stauronereis australis, Augener, 1913, p. 293. 
Staurocephalus australis, Haswell, 1886, p. 747, pi. LIU, figs. 1— 
5; Fauvel, 1930, p. 32. 




Fig. US.— Staurocephalus incertus (Schmarda) : a, head ; 6, foot ; 
forked bristle (after Haswell). St. gardineri Crossland; d, ante- 
rior part, dorsal view X5; e, lower jaw Xl2; /, 20th foot 
Xl2. Arabella mutans (Chamberlin): g, anterior region, 
dorsal view Xl2; h, i, two hooded acicular bristles 
X270; Drilonereis major Crossland: k, anterior 
part, dorsal and ventral view X5 ; I, two forms 
of acicular bristles (after Crossland). 



280 EUNICIDAE 

Prostomium rounded. 1—2 pairs of eyes. No nuchal 
papilla. Two tentacles with 6—13 joints; they are not 
much longer than the palps, which are faintly wrinkled, 
with a short terminal piece. There is no dorsal cirrus 
on the first segment. Dorsal cirri rather short, two-joint- 
ed, with the cirrophore longer than the cirrostyle. On 
the first segment 1—2 capillary setae and a short bent 
seta. Ventral setae compound, with a long sickle-shaped 
end-piece, gradually decreasing in size. The forked Y- 
shaped setae with very unequal limbs, begin on the 
second setigerous segment. Four anal cirri. Toothed 
maxillary plates in two rows on each side. 

Length: 3—8 mm. 

Colour: Light-red. 

Occurrence: Shingle Island, Gulf of Mannar. 

Distribution: New Zealand, Australia, Pacific Ocean; 
Indian Ocean. 

268. Sta«foc6phalas gardineii Crossland. (Fig. 143, d- 
/)• 
StauTocephalus (Dorvillea) gardineri, Crossland, 1924, p. 93, 
figs. 112-118. 

Body of large size. Prostomium rounded, remarkably 
flattened. Two pairs of eyes (?) . Tentacles jointed, same 
length as wrinkled palps. A nuchal papilla present. No 
dorsal cirrus on the first segment (?) . Dorsal cirri long, 
thick below, gradually passing to a point; there is no end- 
joint. It is supported by the usual very slender acicu- 
lum. A stout aaculum in the foot. Dorsal setae slender, 
slightly curved, finely denticulated along the convex edge 
and ending in one or two very minute hooks. No forked 
setae occur. A longer ventral bundle of compound setae 
with a long bi-dentate sickle-shaped end-piece of gradually 
decreasing size; the shaft is not denticulated. Toothed 
maxillary plates in two rows on each side. 

Length: 50 mm. by 2.5-4 mm. 100 segments. 

Occurrence: Hulule, Male Atoll, Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Maldive Archipelago; Off Wasin, East 
Africa. 



Incertae sedis. 

. Etinice 
XXXII, 

From Ceylon. Is a Marphysa. 



269. Ettnicc terctiascala Schmarda 1861, p. 129, pi. 
XXXII, fig. 259. ^ ^ 



GONIADA 981 

270. Diopatra ptiyllocitt-a Schmarda, 1861, p. 133, pi. 
XXXII, fig. 261. ^ 

From Ceylon. Diopatra neapolitana Delle Chxaje? 

371. Diopatra malabarensis Quatrefages 1865, p. 346. 
From Malabar. Very likely an Onuphis spec. (?) . 

273. Tf adopia macalata Baird 1870, p. 355. 
From Madras. An Onuphis (?) . 

273. Notocifi'tts trigonocephalws Schmarda, 1861, p. 118. 
From Ceylon. A Lumbriconereis spec. ind. 

274. Lwmbficonei'eis indica Kinberg, 1857—1910; p. 48, 
pi. XIX, fig. 40. 

From Bangka Straits. Insufficiently characterised. 

Family GLYCERIDAE Grube. 

Body elongated, tapering at both extremities; seg- 
ments numerous, bi- or tri-annulate. Prostomium conical, 
ringed, with four small tentacles at the tip. Proboscis 
long, cylindrical or club-shaped, beset with papillae and 
armed with horny jaws. Parapodia biramous (Hemipo- 
dus excepted) . Branchiae compound, simple or absent, 
often retractile. Dorsal setae simple, capillary; ventral 
setae compound. 

Key to the sub-families of Glyceridae. 
Body divided into 2—3 regions Goniadinae, p 281. 
Body not divided into regions .. Glycemnae, p. 289. 

Sub-family GONIADINAE. 

Body divided into 2—3 regions. Jaws and pai-agnaths 
numerous. Anterior feet uniramous, middle and posterior 
biramous. Posterior region flattened. 

Key to the genera of GONIADINAE 

1. Body divided into three regions Goniadopsts Fauvel, p. 285. 
Body divided into two regions . . 2 

2. Lateral V-shaped paragnaths on Goniada And. & M.- 

the base of the proboscis . . Edw., p. 281. 
Lateral V-shaped paragnaths ab- 
sent .. .. Glycinde MuUer, p. 288. 

Genus GONIADA Aud. & M.-Edwards. 

Body divided into two regions, the posterior one 
broader and flattened. Proboscis beset with papillae, 

F. 38 



282 



GLYCERIDAE 



Two large horny jaws and a number of paragnaths. On 
each side of the base of the proboscis, a longitudinal row 
of V-shaped paragnaths (chevrons) . Anterior feet unira- 
mous, those of the posterior region biramous. Branchiae 
absent. Dorsal setae simple, ventral setae compound. 

Key to the species of Goniada. 

1. Dorsal setae few, stout, acicular 

Dorsal setae slender, capillary 

2. Dorsal posterior rami with two 

ligules; vential rami with 
three triangular hgules 
Dorsal posterior rami with one 
ligule, ventral rami with two 
triangular and a broad round- 
ed ligule 



emerita Aud. & M.-Edw., 
p. 282. 
2 



annulata Moore, p. 2S3. 



eximia Ehlers, p. 285. 



2.75. Gonkda cmetita Aud. & M.-Edw. (Fig. 144, h-q) . 

Goniada ementa, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 391, fig. 154, 1932, p. 120: 
Ehlers. 1868, p. 718, pi. XXIV, figs. 49-51. 



^^Z. 




tfifi r ff^ (Gonmdo^^ii) a^esiae Fauvel: a, anterior foot 

Xbb, b, foot from intermediate region X66; c, foot from the 

posterior region X66 ; d, huge, short falcigerous bristle from 

the anterior region x270;- e, posterior compound bristle 

with long end-piece x270; /, jaw X46. Goniada emerita 

Aud. & M.-Edw.: h, head; i, chevrons; k, jaw 

X20 (after Ehlers) ; J, paragnaths x47 ; m, 

50th foot X47 ; n, 140th foot X31; p, q, 

stalks of compound bristles, front and 

side view, X272. 



GONIADA 283 

(?) Goniada australensis Quatrefages, Augener, 1927a, p. 197, 

fig. 9. 
(?) Goniada japonica, Izuka, 1912, p. 238, pi. XXIII, figs, 1-6. 
(?) Goniada longicirrata, Monro, 1937, p. 285. 

The prostomium has nine rings, of which the basal 
ones are larger than the others. 60—70 anterior feet uni- 
ramous, with a dorsal cirrus, a setigerous process with three 
iigules, a thick short ventral cirrus, an aciculum and a 
bundle of compound setae. The suceeding parapodia bi- 
ramous; dorsal ramus v/ith a conical cirrus, foliaceous in 
the posterior segments, a blunt setigerous process with an 
aciculum and 2—3 straight, stout, blunt acicular bristles; 
ventral ramus with a posterior and two anterior tapering 
Iigules, a stout ventral cirrus and a bundle of compound 
spinigerous setae. In the posterior region both rami <tre 
widely apart. 6—12 V-shaped paragnaths (chevrons) on 
each side of the proboscis, which is armed with two large, 
toothed, horny jaws and 25—55 X-shaped paragnaths in a 
nearly continuous belt. 

Length: 35—350 mm. 

Colour: In spirit brownish especially in the posterior 
part. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam; Vandrutti, Cochin State. 

Distribution: Japan?, Australia?, India; Atlantic 
Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

276. Goniada annokta Moore. (Fig. 145, a-h) . 

Goniada annutata, Moore, 1905, p. 549, pi. XXXVI, figs. 45-48: 

Fauvel, 1932, p. 121, pi. Ill, figs. 9-16. 
(?) Goniada echinulata, Grube, 1869, p. 39. 

Body divided into anterior cylindrical and posterior 
somewhat flattened regions. Prostomium conical, indis- 
tinctly annulate. Eyes absent (?) . Proboscis thickly 
covered with pointed, hooked, papillae. Two horny jaws 
with a large hook and 3—4 smaller teeth; 5—6 double, X- 
shaped, ventral paragnaths and about 15 smaller ones. 
About 20 V-shaped chevrons on each side of the base of 
the proboscis. Anterior region of 48 segments, of which 
27 are uniramous and the succeeding 21 already provided 
with capillary dorsal setae. Dorsal cirrus heart-shaped, 
foliaceous, pedunculate. Setigerous lobe with three coni- 
cal tapering Iigules; a thick ventral cirrus, an aciculum 
and compound heterogomph spinigers. A small dorsal 
ramus with two unequal Iigules, an aciculum and 5—6 
very slender capillary setae are gradually developed from 
the 28th foot backwards. In the posterior region the dor- 



284 



GLYCERIDAE 



sal ramus consists of a large heart-shaped foliaceous dorsal 
cuTus, a short setigerous lobe with an aciculum, two coni- 
cal ligules and a bundle of slender simple capillary setae: 
ventral ramus with three triangular, subequal ligviles, an 




Fig. 145.— Gontada annulata Moore: a, 8th foot X50; b, 19th foot 

X50: c, S9th foot x50; d, 97th foot X50; e, 112th foot 

XSO : f, dorsal papilla X88 ; g, hooked papillae 

X88; h, ventral papillae X88. 

aciculum and a bundle of compound spinigerous setae, 
and a conical ventral cirrus. The papillae of the probos- 
cis are very peculiar, inserted on a low conical lobed base. 

Length: 50 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: In spirit whitish, with rusty brown specks. 

Occurrence: South of Ceylon, 660 fms. 

Distribution: Gulf of Georgia; North Pacific Ocean; 

Ceylon. 



GONIADA 285 

377. Goniada eximk Ehlers. (Fig. 147, e, f) . 

Goniada eximia, Ehlers, 1901, p. 157, pi. XX, figs. 7—17: Monro, 
1936, p. 141, fig. 25, a-j; 1937, p. 285. 

Body divided into two regions. Prostonaium very small, 
blunt, eyeless. Prosboscis densely covered with small kid- 
ney-shaped papillae. Two large jaws, each with five teeth, 
a circle of about 22 small X-shaped paragnaths and a second 
row of smaller ones; 18 pairs of chevrons in the young, 
absent in the adult. Anterior region with 58—59 unira- 
mous feet and the change to biramous is complete about 
the 96th foot. Anterior feet with a large, flattened, dorsal 
cirrus, a setigerous lobe with two digitiform ligules and a 
third, triangular, behind, and a large venti-al cirrus, an 
aciculum and compound heterogomph spinigers. In the 
posterior region, the dorsal ramus consists of a broad, 
flattened, dorsal cirrus, a triangular dorsal ligule, of about 
the same size, an aciculum and a bundle of simple capi- 
llary bristles, almost entirely enclosed. In the vential 
ramus, the two anterior lips are fused proximally, only 
their pointed ends remain free and the posterior lip is a 
broad flattened structure resembling a tenms racket in 
shape with a triangular process at the apex. A broad 
flattened ventral crrrus. Compound heterogomph falci- 
gers. 

Length: 250-760 mm. by 4-13 mm. 
Colour: In spirit yellowish-green. 
Occurrence: North Arabian Sea, 1519—1705 m. 
Distribution: Magellan; Falkland Islands; Arabian 



Sea. 



Sub-genus GONIADOPSIS Fauvel. 



V-shaped paragnaths absent on the sides of the pro- 
boscis. Body divided into three regions: (1) an anterior, 
with uniramous parapodia, short cirri and stout falciger- 
ous setae; (2) intermediate, with uniramous parapodia, 
long cirri and spinigerous setae and (3) a posterior, with 
biramous parapodia, dorsal acicular setae and long spini- 
gerous ventral setae. 

Key to the species of the sub-genus Goniadopsis. 

Posterior vential rami bilobed . . incerta Fauvel, p. 286. 
Posterior ventral rami trilobed agnesiae Fauvel, p. 287. 



286 



GLYCERIDAE 



278. Goniada (Goniadopsis) incerta Fauvel. (Fig. 146, 
a—k). 

Goniada (Goniadopsis) incerta, Fauvel, 1932, p. 122, pi. IV, 
fig. 1-10. 

Anterior and intermediate regions narrowly q^lindri- 
cal, posterior region broader. Prostomium sharp conical, 
ringed, with four small tentacles at the tip, and two very 
small black, widely separated, eyes at the base. Proboscis 
cylindrical and apparently smooth, but covered with very 
minute globular papillae. No V-shaped chevrons. An- 




Fig. 146— Goniada (Goniadopsis) incerta Fauvel- a, anterior end, 
dorsal view, enlarged; 6 and c, two anterior feet X50; d, ante- 
rior foot with long ventral cirrus X50; e, 37th foot, inter- 
mediate region X60; /, one of the first feet with dorsal 
bristles (about 50th) x50; g, foot of the enlarged bira- 
mous region X50; h, posterior foot x50; i, and k, com- 
pound biistles from anterior region X225. 



GONIADA 287 

terior region of 23—24 setigerous segments, with uniramous 
parapodia, including a broad, short, foliaceous dorsal 
cirrus, a setigerous process with three ligules, one poster- 
ior and broadly triangular and two anterior finger-shaped 
and sub-equal, a thick short club-shaped ventral, cirrus, 
an aciculum and two bundles of stout compound setae, 
with a short, rather broad, ciliate end-piece. Middle 
region of about 30 segments, with uniramous parapodia 
including a long finger-shaped dorsal cirrus, a setigerous 
process with three ligules, one posterior triangular and 
two anterior slightly longer; a ventral cirrus twice or 
thrice as long, an aciculum and two bundles of mere 
slender compound setae, with a long tapering delicately 
spinose terminal piece. Posterior region with conspicu- 
ously biramous feet including, in the dorsal ramus, a short 
cirrus, a bilobed setigerous process, with an aciculum and 
2—3 short acicular setae, blunt at the tip; in the ventral 
ramus, a triangular posterior ligule, two anterior, slighily 
longer, finger-shaped ligules, a large blunt conical ventral 
cirrus, an aciculum and two bundles of compound spini- 
gerous setae like those of the middle region. 

Length: 50 mm. by 1.5—2 mm. The single specimen 
is a female with eggs. 

Occurrence: Off Akyab, Burma, 530 fms. 

279. Goniada (Goniadopsis) agnesiae Fauvel. (Fig. 144 
a-f). 

Goniada (Goniadopsis) agnesiae^ Fauvel, 1930, p. 32, fig. 7, a—f. 

Body divided into three regions: the anterior and 
middle ones slender, cylindrical, and the posterior one 
somewhat broader and more flattened. 150 segments and 
more. Prostomium elongated, tapering conical, ringed, 
with four slender tentacles at the tip and two small black, 
widely separated, eyes at the base. Proboscis cylindrical, 
armed with two large pectinate jaws, four bi-dentate para- 
gnaths between the jaws and, on the other side, a semi- 
circular row of about twelve smaller bi-dentate denticles 
apparently simple. There are no V-shape chevrons. 
Anterior region of about 28 segments, with uniramous 
parapodia including a broad, short, lanceolate dorsal 
cirrus, a setigerous process with three ligules, one posterior 
broadly triangular, and two anterior finger-shaped, un- 
equal, a short ventral cirrus, an aciculum and a bundle 
of stout compound setae with a short blunt, slightly bent, 
end-piece. Middle region of 39 segments, wiSi uniram- 
ous parapodia including a finger-shaped dorsal cirrus. 



288 GLYCERIDAE 

two ligules, one short, triangular, the other longer, finger- 
shaped; a ventral cirrus, twice or thrice as long, an acicu- 
lum and two bundles of compound setae, thinner than 
the former, with long, narrow, delicately spinose end- 
piece. Posterior region with biramous parapodia includ- 
ing, in the dorsal ramus, a short conical cirrus, a blunt 
setigerous process with an aciculum and two short acicu- 
lar setae, blunt at the tip; in the ventral ramus, a tri- 
angular posterior ligule, an anterior one longer and 
finger-shaped, a short, thick, ventral cirrus, an aciculum 
and two btmdles of compound spinigerous setae, with a 
long terminal piece, like those of the middle region. 

Length: 105 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: Bright-red in front, pale ochraceous behind. 
In the posterior region only, a ventral spot in the middle 
of each segment. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island; in 
sand; a single specimen, incomplete behind. 

Genus GLYCINDE Miiller. 
Syn. Eone Malmgren 

Body divided into two regions. Proboscis beset with 
papillae. Two big horny jaws and numerous paragnaths. 
Lateral V-shaped paragnaths (clievrons) absent. Anterior 
paiapodia uniramous; posterior parapodia biramous. 
Branchiae absent. Dorsal setae' acicular, ventral setae 
compound. 

280. Glycindc oligodon Southern. (Fig. 147, a-d) . 

Glycinde oligodon. Southern. 1921, p. 629, pi. XXVIII, fig. 18: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 123. 

Anterior part of the body rounded, middle and pos- 
terior regions flat. Prostomium with a basal ocular seg- 
ment and eight rings. Four small tentacles. Proboscis 
nearly square in section, with two dorsal bands, each of 
four irregular rows of transparent, homy, hooked papillae 
and two ventral bands of smaller soft mammillate papillae. 
Two large ventral jaws and a dorsal row of 4—5 small 
denticles. Anterior feet uniramous, with a large, broad, 
blunt, dorsal cirrus indented near the tip, a rounded seti- 
gerous lobe and a longer ligule, and a blunt, thick, coni- 
cal ventral cirrus; compound spinigerous bristles. Middle 
and posterior feet biramous, a dorsal cirrus with a short, 
stout, swollen base, a dark spine accompanied by two or 
three dark brown setae having a curved tip, and a long. 



GLYCINDE 



289 



slender, curved, spine on the crest; a small rounded papilla. 
Ventral ramus as in the anterior feet, except that the 
posterior lobe is rather longer and wider. 




Fig. liT.—Glycinde oligodon Southern : a, anterior end, ventral view 

X78; b, 10th right foot, posterior view, setae omitted XZ'ZZ; c, 30th 

foot X117; d, 90th foot X117 (after Southern). Goniada exi- 

mia Ehlers: e, 45th foot; /, foot from middle region, front 

view (after Monro). Glycera lancadivae Schmarda: g, h, 

parapodial hgules (after Willey). Gl. sagittariae 

Mcintosh : i, 30th foot X31 (after Mcintosh). 

Length: 20 mm. 97 segments. 

Colour: The body dark greenish-yellow. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake, on muddy bottom; off 
Santapalli, Vizagapatam, Bay of Bengal, 840 fms. 

Sub-family GLYCERINAE. 

Body not divided into regions. Proboscis with only 
four horny jaws. Gills present or absent. 

F. 39 



290 



GLYCERIDAE 



Kej to the genera of CLYCERINAE. 
Parapodia uniramous. Gills ab- 



sent 



Hemtpodus (1) 



Parapodia biramous; gills pre- 
sent or absent, often retractile Clycera Savigny, p. 290. 

Genus GLYCERA Savigny. 

Body rounded, tapering at both extremities; se^ents 
two or three-ringed. Prostomium acutely conical, ringed, 
with four small terminal tentacles. Proboscis club-like, 
with four hooked horny jaws. Parapodia biramous, with 
a stumpy dorsal cirrus, two anterior lobes, one or two pos- 
terior lobes, a ventral cirrus. Branchiae present or absent, 
simple or branched, permanent or retractile into the 
foot. Ventral setae compound, spinigerous; dorsal setae 
simple, capillary. 



Key to the species of Glycera. 



1. Branchiae absent 


.. 


2 


Branchiae present 

2. A single posterior lobe in 
feet 


the 


3 
lancadivae Schmarda, p. 291. 


Two rounded posterior lobes . . 


tesselata Grube, p. 291. 


3. Branchiae simple 
Branchiae branched 




5 

4 


4. Branchiae bifid 




manorae Fauvel, p. 298. 


Branchiae multifid 




cirrata Grube, p. 297. 


5. Branchiae permanent 
Branchiae retractile 




6 
9 


6. A single posterior lobe in the feet 
Two posterior lobes in the feet 


lonppinnis Grube, p. 291. 

7 


7. Posterior lobes unequal 
Posterior lobes equal 


•• 


alba Rathke, p. 292. 
8 


8. Posterior lobes short, blunt 
Posterior lobes pointed 

9. Branchiae rounded, vesicular. 

Posterior lobes equal, round- 
ed 

Branchiae cirriform. Posterior 
lobes unequal 


sagjittariae Mcintosh, p. 295. 
prashadi Fauvel, p. 294. 

gigantea 
Quatrefages, p. 296. 

rouxii Aud. 8: M.- 
Edw., p. 297. 



(1) Not yet recorded from India. 



GLYCERA 291 

281. Glycera tessekta Grube. (Fig. 152, a-c) . 
Glycera tesselata, Fauvel, 1923a, p. 387, fig. 152; 1932, p. 124. 

Branchiae absent. Parapodia with two anterior equal 
elongated lobes and two posterior lobes much shorter, 
rounded and equal to each other. Papillae of the pro- 
boscis long and slender. Supports of the jaws (ailerons) 
with two long dagger-like processes. 

Length: 15—35 mm. 

Colour: White spots on pink ground, in life. In 
spirit, brown with tesselated pattern. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Doarakara, Sunder- 
bans; off Puri, Orissa; Hulule and Heratera Islands, Addu 
atoll, Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 

282. Glycera lancadivae Schmarda. (Fig. 147, g, h) . 

Glycera lancadkiae, Schmarda, 1861: Michadsen, 1892, p. 12: 
Willey, 1905, p. 286, pi. VI, figs. 113-116; Fauvel, 1930b, 
p. 540; 1932, p. 125: Monro, 1937, p. 184. 

Branchiae absent. Parapodia with two anterior, 
equal, elongated lobes and a single posterior, rounded, 
slightly emarginate lobe. Papillae of the proboscis of 
two kinds, acuminate, and rounded, destitute of terminal 
nail-like appendage. Supports of the jaws (ailerons) with 
short unequal processes. 

Length: 40—60 mm. and more. 

Occurrence: Burma; Madras Coast; Ceylon; Lacca- 
dive and Maldive Archipelagoes. 

Distribution: Burma, Ceylon, Laccadive and Maldive 
Archipelagoes, Persian Gulf. 

282, Glycera longipinnis Grube. (Fig. 148, a-d) . 

Glycera longipinnis, Grube, 1878, p. 182, pi. VIII, fig. 9: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 125. pi. IV, figs. 11-14, 

Branchiae simple, large, inserted on the dorsal edge 
of the foot. Parapodia elongated, with two anterior sub- 
equal, cirriform lobes, and a single posterior, rounded or 
f^ntly emarginate, lobe. Papillae of the proboscis long, 
cylindrical, destitute of terminal nail-like appendage. 



292 



GLYCERIDAE 



Supports of the jaws (ailerons) with two long dagger-like 
processes. 




Fig. IA8—Glycera longipinnis Grube: a, foot of specimen from Sta. 

168, with large gills X35 ; b, branchiate foot of specimen from Sta. 

292x35; c, abranchiate foot of the same specimen X35; 

d, papillae of the proboscis XI 17. 



Length: 100 mm, by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: Flesh-brown. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Bay o£ Bengal, Per- 
sian Gulf. 

284. Glyceta alba Rathke. (Fig. 149, i-m) . 

Glycera alba, Fauvd, 1923a, p. 385, fig. 160 (Synonymy); 1932, 
p. 126: Gravely, 1927, p. 9. 

Glycera alba var. cochinensis. Southern, 1921, p. 627, pi. XXVII, 

fig. 17. 
Q7) Glycera cinnamomea, Grube, 1874, p. 327. 



GLYCERA 



293 



Branchiae simple, inserted on the dorsal edge of the 
foot. Parapodia with two anterior, subequal, triangular 
or cirriform lobes and two posterior lobes, the upper one 




Fig. 149.— Glycera rouxii Aud. & M.-Edw.: a, foot fiom mid-body, 
posterior view Xl5 ; b, hind foot X23 ; c, papillae, d, compound 
seta X270. Glycera alba Rathke: i, papillae XI 90; k, jaw's 
wing X23; /, foot from mid-body X3I; m, hind foot X3]. 



triangular, shorter than the anterior, the lower rounded 
and still shorter. Papillae of the proboscis obliquely 
truncated (unguiculate) , with a transparent nail-like 
appendage. Supports of the jaws triangular, with a single 
process. 

Length: 60—100 mm. by 3 xnm. 

Colour: Milk-white in life, yellowish in spirit. 

Remarks: The variety cochinensis differs from the 
type only in possessing longer branchiae and more acute 
lobes of the feet. 

Occurrence: Ganjam Coast; Cochin Backwater; Mor- 
mugao Bay. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, India, Red Sea; Atlantic 
Ocean. 



294 



GLYCERIDAE 



285. Glycera ptashadi Fauvel. (Fig. 150, a-h) . 

Glycera praskadi, Fauvel. 1932, p. 126, pi. V, figs. 1-8. 

Body tapering posteriorly, segments bi-annulate, Pros- 
tomium acutely conical, faintly ringed, with four very 
small filiform tentacles. Proboscis long, cylindrical, 
covered with minute cylindrical unguiculate papillae, 
obliquely truncated, with a kind of transparent chitinous 
nail at the tip. Supports (ailerons) of the jaws triangu- 




Fig. IbO.-Glycera prashadi Fauvel: a, support of the jaw (aileron), 
enlarged; b, joint of compound bristle X290; c and d, papillae 
of the proboscis, front and side view x290, e, foot from mid- 
body x26; /, posterior foot X26; g, foot from mid-body 
X26; h, anterior abranchiate foot x26. 

lar, with unequal, rather long, diverging processes. 
Paxapodia with two equal anterior long, acutely conical, 
lobes and two equal posterior triangular lobes, but shorter 
than the anterior ones. Dorsal cirrus globular, knob- 
like, near the base of the foot. Ventral cirrus triangular, 
shorter than the posterior lobes. A bundle of simple 



GLYCERA 



295 



dorsal setae. Two bundles of ventral compound hotno- 
gomph bristles with a long terminal piece, winged and 
finely serrated. Posterior feet more elongated and slender. 

Length: 8—10 mm. by 3—4 mm. feet included. 

Colour: Discoloured in spirit. 

Occurrence: Burma Coast, Mergui; Nankauri, Nico- 
bar Islands; Bay of Bengal; Persian Gulf. 



286. Glycera sagittariae Mcintosh. (Fig. 147, i; Fig. 151, 
a—d) . 

Glycera sagittariae, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 346, pi. XLII, fig. 8, pi. 
XXIIA, fig. 10: TreadweU, 1903, p. 1174: Faiivel, 1932, p. 127, 
fig. 17. 

Branchiae simple, short, inserted on the dorsal edge 
of the feet. Parapodia with two equal anterior, elongat- 
ed, tapering lobes, and two equal posterior blunt tri- 
angular lobes, but much shorter than the anterior ones. 
Dorsal cirrus more or less remote. Papillae of the pro- 
boscis of two kinds: short globular or ovate, and long 



r- 




Fig. 151.— Glycera sagittaiiae Mcintosh: a, b, feet, setae omitted 
X6S; c, d, globular and elongated papillae XloO. 



296 



GLYCERIDAE 



slender, without terminal nail-like appendage. Supports 
of the jaws (ailerons) with two long dagger-like processes. 
Only an anterior fragment. Might be described as a 
branchiate Gl. tesselata Grube. 

Occurrence: Seven Pagodas, Madras Coast. 

Distribution: Hawaii; Aru Islands; Madras Coast. 

287. Glycera gigantea Quatrefages. (Fig. 152, d-k) . 

Glycera gigantea^ Fauvel, 1923a. p. 387, fig. 152, d—k (Synonymy); 

1932, p. 128 Monro, 1931, p. 18. 
Glycera siphonostoma D. Ch., Augener, 1927, p. 138 

Branchiae simple, rounded, vesicular, retractile into 
the anterior side of the feet. Parapodia with two anterior, 
digitiform equal lobes and two very short, rounded. 




Fig. 152.— Glycera tesselata Grube: Oj proboscis papillae Xll7; b, jaw 

X73 ; c, foot from mid-body X39. Glycera gigantea Quatrefages: 

d, proboscis papillae Xll7 ; e, f, jaw's wings x23 ; g, compound 

bristle Xl90 ; h, foot from young stage X31 ; i, k, foot from 

mid-body, front and back view, setae omitted Xl5. 

slightly unequal lobes. Papillae o£ the proboscis of two 
kinds: a few globular and others elongated, destitute of 
terminal nail-like appendage. Supports of the jaws tri- 
angular, with a long process on one side. 

Length: 200-350 mm. 

Colour: Piiik anteriorly, grey behind, in life. Yellow- 
ish or copperish, in spirit. 



GLYCKRA 297 

Occurrence: Laccadive Sea, 430 fathoms. 
Distribution: New Pomerania; Great Barrier Reef; 
Laccadive Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

288. Glycefa rottxii Audouin and Milne-Edwards. (Fig. 
149, a-d). 

Glycera rouxii, Fauvel. 1923a, p. 389, fig. 153, a-c; 1932, p 128: 
Momo, 1937, p. 284. 

Glycera goesi, Malmgren, 1867, p. 184, pi. XV, fig. 81; Anvidsson, 
1898, p. 22, pi. I, figs. 13-14: Izuka, 1912, p. 238, pi. XXIV, 
fig. 1-2. 

Glycera decipiens, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 140, pi. VI, fig. 3. 

(?) Glycera tiicobarica, Grube, 1867, p. 24, pi. Ill, fig. 1. 

Branchiae simple, slender, retractile into the anterior 
side of the feet. Parapodia with two equal anterior 
pointed lobes and two posterior sub-equal shorter, 
broader, lobes. In the postei'ior feet, the posterior upper 
lobe is pointed and the inferior lobe is much shorter ajid 
blunt. Papillae of the proboscis either globular or lan- 
ceolate, conical, destitute of terminal nail-like appendage. 
Supports of the jaws triangular, with a long process on 
one side. The branchiae being retractile, in preserved 
specimens very often only a few, or none, are exserted, the 
animal then appearing as quite abranchiate. 

Length: 100-200 mm. 

Colour: Yellowish-brown, in spirit, with, often, feet 
darker. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Chandipore, Orrisa 
Coast; Vizagapatam; Gulf of Mannar; Pamban Backwater; 
Laccadive Sea. 

Distribution: California; Japan; Andaman Islands, 
India, Persian Gulf; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

2S9. Glycera cirtaXa. Grube. (Fig. 153, a-e) . 

Glycera chrata, Grube, 1869b, p. 35: Fauvel, 1932, p. 129, fig. 18. 

Body large, tapering and very slender posteriorly, 
numerous bi-annulate segments. Prostomium acutely coni- 
cal, with 11-12 faintly bi-annulate rings and four small 
terminal tentacles. Parapodia with two anterior long, 
sharp, equal lobes and two posterior similar, but shorter, 
equal lobes. Dorsal cirrus an ovoid knob, inserted near 
the base of the foot. Ventral cirrus sharp, triangular, 
about the same length as the posterior lobes. Branchiae 
retractile, beginning from about the 17th to the 25th— 

F. 40 



298 



GLYCERIDAE 



30th foot, first simple, long, cirriform, then bifurcate, and 
next divided into S, 4 or 5 branches; in the posterior seg- 
ments they are again simple. They are inserted at the 
base of the foot, near the dorsal cirrus, on the posterior 




Fig. lS5.—Glycera ciirata Grube: a, b, anterior feet, setae omitted 

X34; c, foot from mid-body X34; d, posterior foot X34; e, 

unguiculate papillae XllO. 

side of the upper border of the dorsal ramus. Proboscis 
lon^, club-like, beset with cylindrical unguiculate papillae 
obliquely truncated, with a transparent nail-like app^m- 
dage at the tip. Supports of the jaws (ailerons) triangu- 
lar, with an elongated process on one side. 

Length: 10-15 mm. by 5 mm., feet included. 
Colour: Yellowish in spirit. 

Occurrence: Burma, Andaman Islands, Madras Coast. 
Distribution: Burma, Andaman Islands, India, Per- 
sian Gulf, Red Sea; Brazil. 

290. Glycera manorac Fauvel. (Fig. 154, a~i) . 
Glycera manorae, Fauvd, 1982, p. 130, pi, V, figs. 9-17. 

Body rather large, tapering posteriorly; segments 
numerous, bi-annulate. Prostomium acutely conical, with 
10-12 rings and four small terminal tentacles. Parapodia 
with two anterior sharp triangular, mucronate, equal 
lobes and two posterior nearly equal, similar, but shorter 



GLYCERA 



299 



and more blunt lobes. Dorsal cirrus an elongated knob 
inserted near the base o£ the foot. Ventral cirrus triangu- 
lar, about the same length as the posterior lobes. Poster- 
ior feet more slender and elongated. Branchiae retractile, 
beginning about the 17th foot, first simple, large, digiti- 
fonn; those following divided into two long, more or less 
equal, branches. In the posterior feet, they are again 
simple. They are inserted at the base of the foot on its 
upper border, or slightly behind, near the dorsal cirrus. 
On a number of feet, one or two small retractile vesicular 




Fig. 154.— GZjicera manorae Fauvel : a, papillae o£ the proboscis x98 ; 
b, support o£ the jaw (aileron) X21 ; c, joint of compound bristle 
X23S ; d, foot from mid-body with bifid gill X21 ; e, foot with 
small accessory gill X21 ; /, posterior foot with simple gill 
X21; g, anterior foot with large simple gill X21; K ante- 
rior foot with posterior dorsal ligule bilobed X21 ; 
i, foot from mid-body with two small accessory 
gills X21. 

gills, of a more or less elongated knob-like shape, are in- 
serted on the posterior side o£ the foot, slighdy behind the 
superior lobe. Proboscis covered with small cylindrical 
unguiculate papillae, obliquely truncated, with a trans- 
parent nail-like appendage at the tip. Supports of the 
jaws (aileron) triangular with an elongated process on 



300 ARICIIDAE 

one side. Dorsal setae capillary, with a narrow wing; 
they are grouped in two bundles. Ventral setae homo- 
gomph, compound, or hemigomph with a long, slender, 
finely serrated terminal piece. 

Length: About 70 mm. by 5 mm., feet included. 

Colour: In spirit, rusty yellow, pedal lobes very dark 
at the tip. 

Occurrence: Manora Shoal, Karachi. 

SEDENTARIA. 

Family ARICIIDAE Aud. & M.-Edw. 

Body vermiform, segments numerous, divided into 
two regions: (1) thorax more or less enlarged, depressed, 
and (2) abdomen much longer and somewhat cylindrical. 
Prostomium conical, cylindrical or globular, without any 
appendages. Proboscis unarmed. Feet biramous, with 
acicula. Gills dorsal, generally simple, ciliate. A dorsal 
cirrus. The ventral rami of the thorax are flattened pads 
with, or without, a fringe of papillae and vertical rows 
of stout bristles. In the abdomen, the ramus is bilobed, 
erect, with, or without, a ventral cirrus. Sometimes an 
intermediate cirrus between the two rami. Often tran- 
sverse rows of papillae on the ventral side of a number of 
anterior segments. Setae simple, of many kinds. Lateral 
sense-organs, and dorsal sense-organs. One pair of erect, 
lanceolate, gills on each segment. 

Key to the genera of Ariciidae. 

1. Prostomium sharp pointed . . 2 

Prostomium rounded . . Nainereis Blainville, p. 310. 

2. Thoracic ventral rami with ver- 

tical rows o£ foot papillae . . Aricia Savigny, p. 300. 
Thoracic ventral rami without 

vertical rows of foot papillae Scoloplos Blainville, p. 306. 

Genus ARICIA Savigny. 

Prostomium conical. A pair of erect lanceolate gills 
on each segment, except on a few anterior ones. Thoracic 
feet with an erect dorsal cirrus and a bundle of serrated 
capillary setae. Ventral ramus pad-like, with vertical 
rows of stout bristles and foot papillae. Often transverse 
ventral rows of papillae on a few segments. In the abdo- 
men, an erect dorsal cirrus, capillary setae and forked 
setae, sometimes an intermediate cirrus. Ventral ramus 



ARICIA. 



301 



bilobed, with capillary setae and a ventral cirrus. Dorsal 
sense-organs anchor-shaped. 

Key to the species of Aricia. 

1. Large hastate (spear-like) spines 

on a few thoracic segments . . nuda Moore, p. 303. 
No such spines . . . . 2 

2. Intermediate cirrus present . . cuvieri Aud. & M.- 

Edw., p. 301. 
Intermediate cirrus absent . . exarmata Fauvel, p. 304. 

2M. Aficia cavicri Aud. & M.-Edw. (Fig. 155, 155) . 

Ayicia cuvieri;, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 12, fig. 3 e—l. (Synonymy); 

1932, p. 161. 
Aricia cuvieri var. perpapillata^ Eisig, 1914, p. 334, pi. XI, fig. 10; 

pi. XV, fig. 18-20; pi. XVni, figs. 1-14. 

Prostomium sharp conical, without eyes. 22—24 
thoracic segments, with a fringe of 10—15 sharp conical 




Fig. 165.— Aricia cuvieri Aud and M.-Edw.: e, forked bristle X400; /, 
hook X160 ; g, 10th foot X20 ; h, 75th foot x25 ; i, dorsal acicu- 
lum Xl60; k, ventral abdominal aciculum Xl60; I, anterior 
region, side view X4. 



302 



ARICIIDAE 



foot papillae, 3—5 vertical rows of large yellow, bent, blunt 
hooks (uncini) . Transverse rows of ventral papillae on 
segments 17—20—27—32. Abdominal dorsal cirri chopper- 
shaped. Dorsal forked setae; a long intermediate cirrus. 
Ventral ramus bilobed, with fine serrulate setae and a 
small conical ventral cirrus. Spear-shaped spines and 
special glands absent. Gills from the 5th setigerous seg- 
ment, broadly lanceolate. 

var. persica Fauvel. (Fig. 166, a—d). 

Gills begin on the 7th setigerous segment, instead of 
the 5th. Intermediate cirrus much longer than the ven- 
tral ramus. 25 thoracic segments with vertical rows of 
genuine hooks with bent, blunt tip and guard, and 2—3 




Fig 156.— Aricia cuvieri Aud. & M.-Edw., var, persica Fauvel: a, 
abdominal foot X40; h, c, d, uncini, front and side view X150. 

intermediate segments. About 10 foot-papillae on the 
mid-thoracic segments. Ventral papillae present from 
23rd to 31st thoracic segments, in crowded rows of 10—11 
on each side, nearly meeting in the middle. In the ab- 
dominal r^ion, the gills are long. The intermediate 
cirrus {intercimis) is about IJ times as long as the ven- 



ARICIA 



303 



tral ramus, whilst in typical A. cuvieri it is shorter, or at 
most, of the same length. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Of typical form, Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea, North Sea. 

29a. Aricia nttda Moore. (Fig. 157, a-d) . 

Aricia nuda. Moore, 1911, p. 311: Eisig. 1914, p. 345. Fauvel, 
1932, p. 162, fig. 23. 

Body large. Pi-ostomium small, conical. Thoracic 
setigerous segments 15. Gills begin on the 5th setigerous 
segment; the posterior ones are very long and slender. 




Fig. Ihl.-Aricia nuda Moore- a, 26th foot X30 ; b, 2Sth foot X30 ; 
c, subuluncinus X300; d, hastate spine X120. 

Ventral thoracic feet ivith a fringe of foot papillae and 
vertical rows of subuluncini [genuine hooks (uncmi) 
absent], and capillary setae. From the 12th to the 15th 
setigerous segment 4—5 very lai-ge spear-headed sjaines in 



304 



ARICIIDAE 



each foot. Ventral papillae (subpodiale) absent. In the 
abdominal feet, capillary setae and forked setae. Inter- 
mediate cirrus absent. 

Occurrence: Off Akyab, Burma, 34 fms. 

Distribution: California; Burma. 

293. Aricia exarmata Fauvel. (Fig. 158, a-d; Fig. 159, 
a—e) . 

Aricia exarmata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 163, figs. 26—27. 

Body of very large size, depressed, enlarged in the 
thoracic region, semi-cylindrical in the abdominal region. 




Fig. 158.— ylncia exarmata Fauvel: a, h, thoracic foot, anterior and 
posterior view xll ; c, d, abdominal feet Xll. 

Prostomium rather small, blunt, conical, without eyes. 
Thoracic setigerous segments 15-16 (the 16th often 
smaller, intermediate) . Gills begin in the 5th setigerous 
segment. The anterior ones are triangular, lanceolate; 



ARICIA 



305 



the abdominal ones long and narrow. Dorsal ramus -with 
an asymmetrical cliopper-shaped dorsal cirrus with point- 
ed tip; a bundle oi camerated capillary setae. Ventral 
ramus a flattened vertical pad, with a narrow elongated 
lamella bearing a fringe o£ about 12—15 long conical 
papillae, several vertical rows of bent subuluncint and long 
serrated capillary setae. Genuine hooks (uncini) and 
spear-shaped spines absent. Ventral papillae (subpodiale) 




Fig. 159.— Aricia exarmata Fauvel: a, b and c, parts of camerated setae 
X500 ; d, forked seta X520 ; e, subulundnus Xl&O. 



absent. In the abdominal region, a long dorsal cirrus 
faintly culti-iform, a bundle of long slender, forked, serrat- 
ed setae. Intermediate cirrus {inter-cirrus) absent. 
Ventral ramus erect, bilobed, with an aciculum and a 
few slender capillary setae. Ventral cirrus reduced to a 
small subulate knob. Proboscis with membranaceous 
lobes encircling the mouth. A dorsal three-lobed sense- 
organ. 

Differs from A. nuda chiefly in the a'bsence of large 
spear-headed spines. 

F. 41 



306 ARICIIDAE 

Length: Thorax 20 mm. long, 9-10 mm. broad and 
4—5 mm. thick. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal, 133 £ms. (brown mud) ; 
a large number of specimens, all incomplete behind. 

Genus SCOLOPLOS Blainville. 

Prostomium conical, a pair of erect lanceolate gills 
on all segments except a few anteiior ones. Thoracic feet 
with an erect dorsal cirrus and a bundle of serrated capil- 
lary setae. Ventral ramus pad-like, with vertical rows of 
capillary setae mixed with hooks, or without them. One 
to three foot papillae, or none. Ventral papillae usually 
absent. In the abdomen, an erect dorsal cirrus, capillary 
setae and forked setae. Intermediate cirrus (inter-cirrus) 
absent. Ventral ramus bilobed, with capillary setae. 
Ventral cirrus often absent. 

Key to the species of Scoloplos. 

1. Gills multifid .. .. latus (Chamberlin), p. 309. 
Gills simple .. .. 2 

2. Pocket-like membranes below the 

feet . . . . marsupialis Southern, p. 306 

No such pocket-like membranes 3 

3. GUIs begin from 7th segment . . chevaheri (Fauvel), p. 308. 

Gills begm from 20th— 22nd seg- 
ment .. .. kerguelensis Mcintosh, p. 307 

294. Scoloplos marsapialis Southern. (Fig. 160, d—g) . 

Scoloplos marsupialis. Southern, 1921, p. 632, pi. XXVII, fig. 19. 
Gravely, 1927. p. 22, pi. IX, fig. 11: Fauvel, 1932, p. 165. 

Body flattened in front. Prostomium conical, com- 
posed of two rings. 17-19 thoracic segments. Short ven- 
tral hooks and capillary setae on the 8—9 anterior feet. 
Gills begin about 13th-16th foot. From about 18th foot 
a pocket-shaped, large, thin membrane behind and be- 
neath the ventral cirrus. In the abdominal region, an 
erect dorsal cirrus, a bundle o£ capillary serrated setae; 
ventral ramus bilobed, with fine capillary setae. A small 
rounded lateral organ between the two rami. 

Length: 50 mm. 210 segments. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake, Manikpatna Island; Gulf 
of Mannar, Krusadai Island, in sand and mud; Tuticorin 
Beach. 



SCOLOPLOS 



307 



295. Scoloplos kergaelensis Mcintosh. (Fig. 160, a-c) . 

Scoloplos kerguelensis, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 355, pi. XLIII figs 
6-8; pi. XXIIA, fig. 19: Willey, 1902. p. 275: Eisig,'l91i 
p. 378: Augener, 1914, p. 26: Fauvel, 1932, p. 165. 

Prostomium large, conical but rather blunt. Anter- 
ior region spindle-shaped, not quite flattened, of 12—19 
segments, with only long serrated bristles, devoid of thora- 




Fig. 160.— Scoloplos kerguelensis Mcintosh: a, anterior part, dorsal 

view, enlarged; 6, 20th foot X31; c, 8th foot X31 (after Mcintosh). 

Sc. marsupialis Southern : d, short hook from 6th foot X870 ; e, 

4th right foot x78 ; /, anterior end, ventral view X44 ; g, 30th 

right foot, with pouch X54, (after Southern). 

cic hooks, foot and ventral papillae. The two rami close 
to each other, without any well marked setigerous lobe, 
except in the 3—6 last thoracic segments, which have a 
very small conical dorsal cirrus and the ventral pad of 
which bears a very small, inconspicuous median point, 
which can hardly be considered as a foot-papilla. Gills 
begin on the 20th, 21st, or 22nd setigerous segment, usual- 



308 



ARICIIDAE 



ly on the 21st; they are triangular, broad and short. The 
pygidium bears two long, filiform, anal cirri. 

Length: 25—120 mm. by 1—2 mm. 

Colour. Red, in life. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam. 

Distribution: Antarctic Ocean, Kerguelcn, Falkland 
Islands, Australia; India. 

Remarks: Eisig (1914, p. 378) considers it to be 
synonymous with Sc. armiger Miiller, but this is open to 
doubt. 

296. Scoloplos chevalieri (Fauvel) . (Fig. 161, a-f) . 

Alicia chevaheri, Fauvel, 1901, p. 83, figs. 22-28; 1907, p. 18' 

Gravier, 1906, p. 167, pi. H, figs. 193, 196. 
Scoloplos chevalieri, Eisig, 1914, p. 418: Fauvel, 1930, p. 35. 

Body long, slender. Prostomium sharp pointed. A 
pair of nuchal organs. 20—27 thoracic segments, each with 
a dorsal cirrus and slender serrated capillary setae. 4—5 
vertical rows of short, brown, blunt, sigmoid hooks mixed 




Fig. 161 —Scoloplos chevaliem (Fauvel): a, anterior part X20; h, 

c, feetx40; d, hook from the anterior segments X350; e, f, 

parts of capillary bristles, front and dorsal views X350. 

with 2-3 capillary setae. Podiale and ventral papillae 
absent. Lanceolate gills begin on the 7th segment. In 
the posterior part, gills longer than the broad foliaceous 
currus; dorsal capillary setae and 2-3 forked setae; a short 
ventral process with a stout blunt aciculum and capillary 
setae. There is no intermediate cirrus. Lateral organs. 
Two pairs of anal cirri. 



SCOLOPLOS 



309 



Length: 50—60 mm. by 1—2 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai and Shingle 
Islands, Krusadai Lagoon, in muddy sand. 

Dishibution: Indian Ocean, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean 
(Casamance River) . 

297. Scoloplos lattjs (Chamberlin) . (Fig. 162, a-e) . 

Branchethus latum, Chamberlin, 1919, p. 338, pi. LXIV, figs. 7— 
11, pi. LXV, figs. 1-2. 

Scoloplos latus, Fauvel, 1932, p. 167, fig. 28, a—e. 

Body of large size, much depressed in the anterior 
part, semi-cylindrical in the middle and posteriorly, 
ventral side convex. Prostomium small, conical, blu}it. 
Two small, rounded, nuchal organs. Peristomium achae- 




Fig. ISS,.— Scoloplos latvs (Chamberlin) : a, anterior part, dorsal view 

X5 ; b, cross section of the 15th setigerous segment X6 ; c, 33id 

foot with 6 gill filaments X7; d, 58th foot X20; e, veatral hook 

from the 13th foot X117. 



tous. Thorax of 17—18 segments. Dorsal ramus with a 
conical dorsal cirrus, a short setigerous lobe with a bundle 
of serrate capillary setae. Ventral ramus a transverse com- 
pressed pad with camerated capillary setae, stotit bent 
hooks and a single conical foot-papilla, inserted back- 



310 ARICIIDAE 

wards in the middle of the foot. Ventral papillae (sub- 
podiale) absent. In the abdominal region an erect dor- 
sal cirrus, an aciculum and a bundle of slender capillai^ 
setae. Intermediate cirrus (intercirrus) absent. Ventral 
ramus erect, divided into two unequal lobes, one short and 
blunt, the other cirriform and tapering, an aciculum, a 
few capillary setae. Ventral cirrus absent. Gills begin 
on tlie 5th setigerous segment. The first few gills are 
simple, the next few are bifid, and from the 16th foot 
they have 5—9 long, simple, filaments arising from a short 
transverse base separated from the foot. In the abdomi- 
nal region, these long gill-filaments bend backwards, over- 
lap and completely cover the dorsum. Dorsal sense 
organs, from the 16th— 17th segment; they consist of two 
small elongated pads in the middle of each segment. 

Breadth: Of thorax 10 mm. 

Colour: greyish, colourless in spirit. 

Occurrence: Off Akyab, Burma, 250 fins. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, off Panama, Bay of 
Bengal. 

Genus NAINEREIS Blainville. 

Theodisca Miiller; Naidonereis Malmgren; Anthosto- 
ma Schmarda. 

Prostomium rounded. Two eyes. A pair of erect 
lanceolate gills on each segment, except on a few anterior 
ones. Thoracic feet with an erect dorsal cirrus and a 
bundle of serrated capillary setae and forked setae. Ven- 
tral ramus pad-like, with a foot papilla and several rows 
of hooks and subuluncini. No ventral roxos of papillae. 
In the abdomen, an erect dorsal cirrus, capillary setae and 
forked setae. No intermediate cirrus. No ventral cirrus. 
Ventral ramus bilobed, with capillary setae. Dorsal sense 
organs. 

298. Nainereis laevigata (Grube) . (Fig. 163, a-l) . 

Nainereis laevigata, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 22, fig. 7, a— I. 
Ancia laevigata, Saint-Joseph, 1898, p. 301. 
Theodisca anserina, ClaparMe, 1864, p. 504. 
Theodisca hexaphyllum, Mcintosh, 1905, p. 63. 
Scoloplos hexaphyllum, Augener, 1926, p. 462. 

Body flattened anteriorly, rounded posteriorly. Pro- 
boscis with large palmate lobes. 15—31 thoracic feet, gills 



NAINEREIS 



311 



begin from 4th— 11th setigerous segnient, long, slender. 
Dorsal cirrus knife-like. Dorsal capillary setae cienate, 
forked setae with unequal, short, ciliated limbs, subulate 
acicula. Ventral ramus semi-ciixular, pad-like, with an 
upper papilla, short yellow setae with a long, nariow, den- 
ticulate point (subuluncini) and true hooks. In the 
posterior region, a dorsal cultriform cirrus, a bundle of 




Fig. 163— Nainereis laevigata (Grube) : a, anterior part, proboscis ex- 
truded X5; b, pygidium X5; c, d, e, anterior, middle and hind 
feet X22 ; /, hodk X330 ; g, ft, ij subuluncini, more or less worn 
X330; k. ventral aciculum x247; l forked seta X330. 

capillary setae, 1—2 forked setae. Ventral ramus with two 
languets, long capillary setae and 3—5 stout acicula. No 
ventral cirrus. Anus dorsal. Four anal cirri. Statocysts 
on segments 1—23. 

Length: 120—250 mm. by 4—5 mm. 

Colour: in life, pink, red or brownish. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, in sand at low water or under 
stones. 

Distribution: Japan, Indochina; Persian Gulf; Atlan- 
tic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 



Family SPIONIDAE Sars. 

Body vermiform, not clearly divided into distinct 
regions. Prostomium without tentacles, sometimes with 
lateral peaks. Eyes present. Two very long tentacle-like 



312 SPIONIDAE 

palps. Proboscis unarmed. Parapodia biramous. Dorsal 
and ventral cirri foliaceous. Dorsal gills simple (rarely 
pinnate) on a number oi segments. Simple capillary 
setae and hooded hooks. 

Ke'^ to the genera of Spionidae. 

1. Fourth or fifth setigerous seg- 

ment modified . 2 

Neither fourth nor fifth setiger- 
ous segment modified . . 3 

2. Fifth setigerous segment modi- 

fied . . ■ . Polydora Bose, p. 315. 

Fourth setigerous segment modi- 
fied . . . . Polydorella Aiigenei, p. 322. 

3. Prostomium with frontal peaks Scolelepis JBlainville, p. 313. 
Prostomium without frontal peaks 4 

4. Dorsal and ventral hooded hooks 5 

Dorsal hooded hooks absent .. Laonice Mahngren, p. 315. 

5. Gills on almost all segments, an 

anal cup . . . . Nerine Johnston, p. 312. 

Gills on only a few anterior seg- 
ments, anal cirri . . Prionospio Malmgren, p. 323. 

Genus NERINE Johnston. 

Prostomium without frontal peaks, witlr one occipital, 
tentacle-like, keel. Gills from the second setigerous seg- 
ment almost to the last segments. Dorsal lamella more or 
less joined to the gill in the anterior segments; an elong- 
ated ventral lamella. In the anterior region, only dorsal 
and ventral capillary setae; more posteriorly, hooded hooks 
in both rami. An anal cup. 

299. Netine citratalas Delle Chiaje. (Fig. 164, g-n) . 
Nerine cirratulus, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 36, fig. 11, g—n, (Synonymy) 

Prostomium sharply conical, with a posterior occipi- 
tal peak reaching to the 2nd— 3rd segment. Four small 
eyes. Long slender palps. Gills from the second setiger- 
ous segment, absent only on a few last segments. Dorsal 
lamellae long, joined to the gills on the greater part of 
their length in the anterior region, but less in the poster- 
ior region. Ventral lamellae narrow, bilobed in the 
posterior part. Hooded hooks bidentate. A large anal 
cup. 

Length: 50—80 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: in life, blueish-green. 



SCOLELEPIS 



313 



_ Occurre7ice: Vizagapatam Channel. Only the ante- 
rior part of a small specimen, which appears to belone to 
this species, was obtained. 




Fig. 164:.~Nenne cirratulus (Delle Chiaje): g, anterior part enlarg- 
ed ; h, pygidum ; i, 10th foot X24 ; k, 45th foot X24 ; I, 85th foot 
X24; m, capillary bristle X320 ; n, ventral hooded hook X320. 
Prionospio cirrifera Wiren (the top three figuies); ft, 
anterior part, enlarged; I, head, side view 
X32; m, first foot x48. 

Distribution: Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 



Genus SCOLELEPIS Blainville. 

Prostomium with two frontal peaks, ending posterior- 
ly in a crest (carina) . Two long thick palps. Gills from 
the first setigerous segment to the last ones. Dorsal lame- 
llae partly joined to the gills. Ventral lamellae not not- 
ched. . Hooded hooks only on the posterior ventral rami: 
always absent on the dorsal ramus. Anal cirri. 

300. Scolelepis indica Fauvel. (Fig. 165, g-m) . 

Scolecolepis indica (sic), Fauvel, 1928, p. 93, fig. 2. g—m; 1930a, 
p. 35, fig. 7, g-m; 1932, p. 170. 

Body long, slightly broader and flattened anteriorly, 
filiform behind. Prostomium shield-shaped, with two 
frontal peaks well marked and laterally inserted. The 
prostomium ends posteriorly in a pointed keel extending 
back to the second setigerous segment, but not raised into 
an occipital tentacle. Two irregular clusters of very small 

F. 42 



314 



SCOLELEPIS 



and numerous eye-spots. Two long and stout, spirally 
curling palps. Gills beginning on the first setigerous seg- 
ment. In the anterior region, the long cirriform gills 
cross over the back. Dorsal lamella erect, lanceolate, 
attached to the outer border of the gill only at its base. 
Ventral lamella rounded or oval, slightly mucronate, not 
notched; posteriorly it is reduced gradually to a decreas- 
ing crescent. Dorsal capillary setae neither winged nor 
dotted. Ventral setae similar but shorter and somewhat 




Fig. 165.— Laonice cirrata Sars. a, anterior part, enlarged; b, 12th 

foot X16; c, 22nd foot Xl6; d, 40th foot X16; e, hooded hook 

X320. Scolelepis indica Fauvel. g, head X6 ; h, 10th foot X32 : 

t, 73rd foot X32 ; k, pygidium ; I, ventral hook from the last 

segments X320 ; m, posterior ventral hook X320. 

dotted, with a bundle of 5—6 short, larger, curved ones 
with a tapering bent tip. Hooded ventral hooks biden- 
tate, 2 to 6 in each ramus, from about the 70th setigerous 
segment. Dorsal hooks absent. In the last segments, gills 
short, no more marked lamellae, long and slender capil- 
lary setae; in the ventral ramus, 1—2 curved setae, 5—6 
hooks and 1—2 long slender setae. Pygidium bearing 4 
short finger-shaped cirri. Anus terminal. 

Length: 60 mm., or more, by I to 1.5 mm. 

Colour: in life pink. 

Occurrence; Vizagapatam; Gulf of Mannar; Krusadai 
Island. 



LAONICE 315 

Genus LAONICE Malmgren. 

Prostomium rounded, without frontal peaks, ending 
posteriorly in a raised occipital tentacle. Two eyes. Palps 
large. Gills beginning at the second setigerous segment 
and existing only in the anterior part of the body. The 
dorsal lamella is not attached along the gill. Ventral 
lamella not notched. Genital pouches present. In the 
anterior region only dorsal and ventral capillary setae; 
more posteriorly hooded hooks on the ventral ramus only. 
Anal cirri. 

301. Laonice ciirrata Sars. (Fig. 165, a—e) . 

Laonice cirrata, Soderstrom, 1920, p. 220, fig. 128: Fauvel, 1927a, 

p. 38, fig. 12, a-e. 
Aonides cirrata, Fauvel, 1914b, p. 220, pi. XX, figs. 4—9. 
Spionides japonictts, Moore, 1907, p. 204. 

A long dorsal crest (sense organ) on the first 28—30 
segments. Gills 35—45 pairs only, long, cirriform, fold- 
ed on the back, separate from the dorsal lamella all along. 
Dorsal lamellae large, auriculate in the branchiate seg- 
ments; smaller, triangular and ovate in the succeeding 
ones. Ventral lamellae oval, rounded in the succeeding 
segments. From about the 25th foot, in mature speci- 
mens, pigeon-nest shaped genital pouches between the 
lamellae. Ventral hooded hooks bidentate from about 
the 40th— 50th foot. 

Length: 90—120 mm. by 3—5 mm. 

Colour: yellowish, darker behind. 

Occurrence: Off Puri, Orissa. 

Distribution: Japan; India; Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea; Arctic Seas. 

Genus POLYDORA Bose. 

Prostomium blunt or notched in front, ending pos- 
teriorly in a crest. Gills begin beyond the 6th— 9th foot, 
rarely on the 2nd. Fifth setigerous segment highly modi- 
fied, with peculiar stout dorsal bristles. Dorsal and ven- 
tral capillary bristles; ventral bidentate hooded hooks 
from the 7th— 8th foot. An anal cup, simple or lobed. 

Key to the species of Polydora. 

1. Gills begin on the 2nd setigerous 

segment . . . . Subgenus Boccardia 

Gills begin after the 6th setiger- 
ous segment . . . . 2 



316 



SPIONIDAE 



2. Ventral hooded hooks begin at 

the 8th segment. On the 6th, 
setae set in a horse-shoe 
Ventral hooded hooks begin on 
the 7th setigerous segment. 
No horse-shoe 

3. Abnormal setae of the 5th seti- 

gerous segment pointed, spoon- 
shaped 
Abnormal setae of the 5th seti- 
gerous segment with curved, 
blunt tip 

4. No special dorsal setae on the 

last segments 
Special dorsal setae on the last 
segments 

5. Hooks of the 5th setigerous seg- 

ment, with a neck and a late- 
ral tooth 

Hooks of the 5th setigerous seg- 
ment without a neck, lateral 
tooth diverging 

6. Bundles of very slender setae on 

the last segments 

Posterior dorsal setae awl-like . . 

7. Gills begin on the 7th setiger- 

ous segment 

Gills begin on the 8th setiger- 
ous segment 



Subgenus Carazzia 3 

Subgenus Polydora 4 

antennata Claparfede, p. 316. 

kempi Southern, p. 317. 
5 
6 

homelU Willey, p. 318. 

ciliata Johnston, p. 319. 

flava Clapar^e, p. 321. 

7 

armata Langerhans, p. 321. 
coeca Oersted, p. 319. 



Subgenus CARAZZIA Mesnil. 

302. Polydora (Carazzia) antennata Claparfede. (Fig. 
166, i—m) . 

Polydora antennata, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 56, fig. 19, i—m, (Synony- 
my); 1930a, p. 36; 1932, p. 172. 
Carazzia antennata, Mesnil, 1896, p. 227, pi. XIV, figs. 22-25. 

Prostomium with two tentacle-like lobes in front 
and a small erect occipital tentacle. Four eyes. On the 
first setigerous segment well marked dorsal and ventral 
lamellae, ventral capillary setae but no dorsal ones. Large 
gills beginning on the 7th foot. Peculiar setae o£ the 
5th setigerous segment, pointed and hollowed at the shoe- 
shaped tip, arranged in the form of a horse-shoe with 
lanceolate setae. Ventral hooded hooks from the 8th 
foot. No peculiar posterior setae. Anal cup notched 
<m dorsal and ventral borders. 

Length: 20-30 mm. 

Colour, uniformly yellowish. 



POLYDORA 317 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island. 




Fig. \6G.— Poly dora {Poly dora) armata Langerhans: a, anterior part; 

b, 7th foot X32; c, dorsal posterior bristles X240; d, stout hooks 

from the 5th segment Xl76; e, pygidium X36. P. {Caraxda) 

antennata ClaparMe : i, head X13 ; k, hooded hook X240 ; I, 

stout hook from the 6th segment Xl92, m, 5th foot X36. 

P. (Polydora) ciliata Johnston (Figs, on right-hand side); 

i, anterior part, enlarged; k, X4; I, first foot; m, anal 

cup; n, lancet-shaped seta from the 5th segment 

X320; o, stout hook of the 5th segment 

X320; p, hooded hook X320. 

Distribution: India, Arabian Sea; Atlantic Ocean, 
Mediterranean Sea. 

303 Polydora (Carazzia) kempi Southern. (Fig. 167, 

a—c). 

Polydora (Cartizzia) kempi. Southern, 1921, p. 636, pi. 28, figs. 
20. 

Prostomium rather small and broad, bilobed, without 
caruncular prolongation, but with a large erect occipital 
tentacle. Foior black eyes. On the first setigerous seg- 
ment, no dorsal setae, a stumpy round papilla, a ventral 
lobe with a row of slender capillary setae. No ventral 
lamella. On the 2nd to 6th segment dorsal and ventral 
bundles of capillary setae, the dorsal long, slender, the 
ventral flattened. A dorsal rounded lamella. The 5th 
setigerous segment is less modified than in any other 
species, with dorsal superior setae long and narrow capi- 
llaries; the inferior dorsal setae consist of two rows of 
modified setae; the anterior setae are bi-limbate capillaries. 



318 



SPIONIDAE 



short, with broad wings, rapidly tapering; the posterior 
row consists of rather stout hooks with curved tips. The 
ventral setae are lance-shaped. The gills appear on the 
7th segment, they are quite free from the dorsal lamellae; 
there are only 10—11 pairs of them. Ventral hooks ap- 
pear on the 8th setigerous segment; they are not accom- 




Fig. l51.—Polydora{caratzia) kempi Southern: a, anterior end, dorsal 
•vigw x50; b, lower dorsal setae from the Sth foot X500; c, ventral 
hook from the Sth foot x720 (after Southern). P. (Polydora) 
homelli Willey : d, anterior end, dorsal view X50 ; e, modi- 
fied setae from the Sth segment x320; /, ventral hook 
from the 38th foot x500 (after Southern). 

panied by any capillary setae and resemble those of 
P. antennata. Posterior region unknown. 

Occurrence: In a canal at Chingrighatta, Calcutta Salt 
Lakes. 



Subgenus POLYDORA Bose. 

304- Polydora (Polydoia) homelli Willey. 
d-f). 



(Fig. 167, 



Polydora homelU Willey, 1905, p. 286, pi. V, fig. 117: Southern, 
1921, p. 634, pi. 28. figs. 21, AD. 

. Prostomium slightly notched, with two round lobes; 
It IS prolonged backwards over the first 2-3 segments. 



POLYDORA 319 

No eyes. Tentacles stout, long. On the first setigerous 
segment a small dorsal and a small ventral lamella. No 
dorsal setae. A bundle of ventral capillary setae. 2nd to 
6th segments with two rows of setae. On the 5th setigerous 
segment an oblique row of long stout acicular, spoon- 
shaped hooks, with a neck and a closely applied tooth, 
accompanied by delicate spatulate setae. Gills and ven- 
tral hooks appear on the 7th setigerous segment and 
continue to the end. Last segments and pygidium un- 
known. 

Length: 31 mm. and more, by 1.5 mm. 

Colourless. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake; Gulf of Mannar. In cre- 
vices of oyster shells. 

305. Polydora (Polydoi-a) ciliata Johnston. (Fig. 166, i. 

P)- 
Polydora ciliata, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 49, fig. 16, i—p, (Synonymy); 
1932, p. 172. 

Prostomium faintly notched in front, prolonged back- 
wards over the second segment. Four eyes. On the first 
setigerous segment, dorsal and ventral lamellae, no dorsal 
setae, ventral capillary setae. 2nd to 6th segments with 
both dorsal and ventral capillaries. On the 5th setiger- 
ous, stout hooks with a lateral spine, and lanceolate setae. 
Ventral bidentate hooks from the 7th setigerous segment. 
Gills from the 7th to the 10th penultimate segments. 
Anal cup notched dorsally. 

Length: 20—30 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: yellowish, both extremities and anal cup 
darker. 

Occurrence: Chandipore, Orissa Coast. 

Distribution: Australia; Indo-China; India, Red Sea; 
Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Falkland Islands. 

306. Polydora (Polydofa) coeca Oersted. (Fig. 168, a- 
k). 

Polydora coeca, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 52, B%. 18, a—k; Gravdy, 1927, 
p. 23. 

Prostomium deeply notched, prolonged backwards 
over the first two segments. Generally eye-less. Tentacles 
long and slender. On the first setiger, a small dorsal and 
a small ventral lamella, dorsal and ventral capillary setae. 
On the 5th setigerous segment, stout spoon-shaped 
hooks, without lateral tooth, accompanied by lancet- 



320 



SPIONIDAE 



shaped setae. Ventral bidentate hooded hooks from the 
7th setigerous segment. In the posterior region, the an- 
terior dorsal winged setae are replaced by 3-4 small, 
straight awl-shaped setae: there are no bundles of slender 




Fig. 16S.—PoIydora (Polydora) coeca (Oersted): a, anterior part; b, 
posterior foot X40; c, foot from mid-body X40; d, e, hooks from 
the 5th setigerous segment X320; /, hooded hook X320; g, 
winged seta X320 ; h, lancet-shaped seta from the 5th seg- 
ment : i, k, posterior bodkin setae X320. P. (Polydora) 
fliwa Claparfede: n, anterior part X20; o, first setigerous 
segment X36 ; p, 8th-setigerous segment x48 ; q, r, 
special hooks from the Sth segment X320; s, 
hooded hook X320; t, bundle of slender 
posterior setae X320 ; u^ lancet-shaped 
seta from the 5th segment X320. 



setae. Gills begin on the Sth setigerous segment and are 
absent on the posterior half, or third, of the body. A 
deeply notched anal cup. 

Length: 20—40 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colour: yellowish. Boring in shells and coral rocks. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Krusadai and Sliingle 
Islands. Amongst sponges. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea; Arctic Seas. 



POLYDORA 321 

307. Polydora (Polydoi-a) ai-mata Langerhans. (Fig. 166, 

(a-e) . 

Polydora armata, Fauvel, 1927a, p. S6, fig. 19, a—e; WiUey and 
Watson, 1905, p. 325. 

Prostomium notched, with, two rounded horns; pro- 
longed backwards on the first two segments. Generally 
eye-less. Tentacles rather long. On the first setigerous 
segment dorsal and ventral lamellae, dorsal and ventral 
setae. On the 5th setigerous segment 2—3 stout, peculiar 
setae with blunt hooks, two lateral processes connected by 
a transverse ridge; no lance-shaped setae. Ventral, biden- 
tate, hooded hooks from the 7th setigerous segment back- 
wards. On the 8—12 last segments, on the dorsal ramus, 
a conical bundle of 8—18 stout brown acicular setae. 
Only 5—7 pairs of gills beginning on the 7th setigerous 
segment. Anal cup with a dorsal, and sometimes, a 
ventral notch. 

Length: 4—5 mm. 

Colourless: Burrows in shells and calcareous Algae. 
Occurrence: Ceylon, conmiensal with the sponge 
Aulospongus tubulatus. 

Distribution: India; Atlantic Ocean (Madeira), 
Mediterranean Sea, English Channel. 

308. Polydora (Polyiora) flava Claparede. (Fig. 168, 

n—u) . 

Polydora flava, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 52, fig. 17, m—n; Augener, 1926, 
p. 461. 

Prostomium notched into two sharp horns; prolong- 
ed backwards to the first two segments. No eyes. Tenta- 
cles long and slender. On the first setigerous segment, 
dorsal and ventral lamellae, dorsal and ventral setae. On 
the 5th setigerous segment stout spoon-shaped hooks 
without lateral tooth, accompanied by lance-shaped setae. 
Ventral bidentate hooded hooks from the 7th setigerous 
segment backwards. From the 8th setigerous segment 
backwards a dorsal bundle of very numerous, very slen- 
der, needle-like setae. Gills from the 8th setigerous seg- 
ment (sometimes 7th or 9th), absent on the posterior 
third of the body. A broad anal cup with four notches. 

Length: 20—45 mm. 
Colour: yellowish. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. In small muddy tubes on old 
shells and in rock clefts. 

F. 43 



322 



SPIONIDAE 



Distribution: Japan; Sumatra; India; Atlantic Ocean, 
Mediterranean Sea," English Channel. 



Genus POLYDORELLA Augener. 

Closely allied to Polydora. Setae nearly similar, but 
modified setae on the 4th setigerous segment, instead of 
the 5th. Pygidium not cup-like. Schizogamous. 

309. Polydof efla prolifefa Augener. (Fig. 169, a-g) . 
Folydorella prohfera, Augener, 1914, p. 16, pi. I, fig. 3: Fauvel, 

1930a, p. 36, fig. 8. 
Post-larval Chaetopterid, Gravely, 1927, p. 24, pi. IX, figs. 12- 
14. 

Prostomium rounded, bilobed, with two eyes. Long, 
stout, cylindrical palps. On the first setigerous segment 
a dorsal and a ventral bundle of slender capillary setae. 
Up to the 6th setigerous segment, only capillary setae, with 




Fig. ISQ.— Folydorella proltfera Augener : n, anterior part, dorsal view 
(tentacles fallen oS) X45 ; b, c, d, peculiar setae from the 4th seti- 
gerous segment, side and front views XS50; «, f, spoon-shaped 
setae from the 4th segment X5S0 ; g, hooded hook from the 
7th foot. Dodecaceria fistulicola Ehlers: h, anterior spoon- 
shaped hook X550 ; «, posterior hook x5S0. 

the exception of the 4th bearing the following modified 
setae: (1) a row of 3—6 large asymmetrical bristles with 
a denticulate or wrinkled crest and a blunt hook; (2) an 
inferior row of 3-6 smaller setae slightly enlarged at the 
tip, which is spoon-shaped, with a more or less blunt 
lateral process; (3) a few ventral, slender capillary setae. 



PRIONOSPIO 323 

About the 6th— 7th setigerous segment appear the ventral 
hooks with a double curvature and a hooked tip with a 
very long and slender tooth running nearly parallel to the 
vertex which is provided with a broad hood. Gills, 
according to Augener, are only to be found on the 6th 
setigerous segment in a few specimens: they are simple 
filaments. 3—4 achaetous posterior segments. A conical 
pygidium, faintly notched, without cup or funnel. Anus 
terminal. " Proliferation takes place by the formation 
of the head of a daughter worm and a new tail for the 
parent between the ninth and tenth segments." 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar. "Found in abun- 
dance, each in a minute mud-covered tube adherent 
throughout its length to the surface of a sponge." (Grave- 
ly) • 

Distribution: Australia; Gulf of Mannar. 

Genus PRIONOSPIO Malmgren. 

Prostomium short, rounded; frontal peaks and occi- 
pital tentacles absent. Eyes present. Long deciduous 
palps. Gills 3—11 pairs, often pinnate. Dorsal lamellae 
not bound to the gills. Ventrjd lamellae entire. Some- 
times genital pouches present. Dorsal and ventral capi- 
llary setae. Dorsal and ventral pluri(fcntate hooded hooks. 

Key to the species of Prionospio. 

1. Prostomium with large -wii^ 

All the gills pinnate , . pinnata Ehlers, p. 323. 

Prostomium without large wings 2 

2. Gills pinnate. Genital pouches 

absent .. .. kmsadensis Fauvel, p. 326. 

Gills simple .. .. 3 

3. Gills all subulate, 6-13 pairs .. cirrifera Wiren, p. 324. 
Gills very numerous, the first 

few pairs long and filiform, the 

rest foliaceous .. polybranchiatafzuvel, Tp.3Z4. 

310. Prionospio pinnata Ehlers. (Fig. 174 e) . 

Prionospio pinnata, Ehlers, 1901, p. 163; 1908, p. 110: Fauvel, 
1923c, p. 9; 1932, p. 173: Augener. 1927b, p. 351, fig. 2: 
Monro, 1937, p. 299. 

Paraprionospio pinnata, Caullery, 1915, p. 356, fig. 2. 

Paraprionospio tribranchiata, Berkeley, 1927, p. 11, pi. I; figs. 
2-3. 

Prionospio afritana, Augener, 191S, p. 402, pi. VI, figs. 162—1-63. 

(?) Prionospio alata, Moore, 1923, p. 185. 



324 SPIONIDAE 

Prostomium enclosed between two upturned mem- 
branaceous wings. 3-4 pairs ol pinnate gills beginning 
on the first setigerous segment. Gills of the second pair 
generally smaller. As the gills are very easily lost tk 
diflEerences in size are to be ascribed to regeneration. A 
well marked transverse crest, or ridge, arises between the 
first two setigerous segments: there are no ridges poster- 
iorly. 

Occurrence: Off Akyab, Burma,_ 250 £ms.; Madras, 
Vizagapatam; Mormugao Bay; Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Indian Ocean; Atlaatic 
Ocean. 

311. PMonospio cimfcra Wiren. (Fig. 164, k-m) . 

Pnonospio cirnfera, SbderstrSm, 1920, p. 237, figs. 134-146; 

Fauvel, 1927a, p. 62. fig- 21 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 174. 
(?) Prionospio muUibranchiata, Berkeley, 1927, p. 10, pi. I, 
fig. 1. 

Prostomium rounded in front, ending behind in a 
crest extending to the 2nd— 3rd setigerous segments. 
There are no membranaceous prostomial wings. Gills 
6—13 pairs, all simple, beginning at the second setigerous 
segment. Anterior dorsal lamellae very large, and from 
3rd to 6th feet sharp pointed. In mature specimens, geiii- 
tal pouches begin about 5th— 7th setigerous segments. 
Ventral lamellae oval or rounded. 

Length: 30 mm. 

Colour: yellowish-white. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam. 

Distribution: Vancouver (?) ; India; Atlantic Ocean; 
Arctic Seas. 

313. Prionospio polybranchiata Fauvel. (Fig. 170, a- 

g)- 

Prionospio polybranchtata, Fauvel, 1929, p. 184; 1930a, p. 39, 
fig. 10, a-g. 

Prionospio muUibranchiata, Fauvel, {non Berkeley) 1928, p. 94, 
fig. 3, a-g. 

Anterior region flattened, enlarged, tapering £cr- 
wards; posterior region cylindrical. Above 40 segments. 
Prostomium elongate, anterior border rounded, ending 
posteriorly in a blunt ridge on the edge of the third seti- 
gerous segment. No eyes apparent. Two very long twist- 
ed palps reaching backwards to the 26th— 30th segment. 
On the first setigerous segment the dorsal ramus is redtic- 



PRIONOSPIO 



325 



ed to a small conical (achaetous?) nipple and a small 
ventral lamella and setae. Gills from, the second setiger- 
ous segment, the first five pairs filiform, not pinnate, very 
long, reaching backwards to th.e 8 th— 10th setigerous seg- 
ment; the following ones foliaceous, sub-triangular, elon- 




^ ^ ^ 



Fig. nO.-Frwnospio polybranchiata Fawel; a, prostomium, enlarged; 

&, 4tli gill and foot X24 ; c, Uth foot X48 ; d, 29th foot X48 ; e, 

40th foot X48; /, hodk. X360; g, postenor hook X360. Styla- 

noides eruca (Claparfede), var. meitcd Faiivel; h, foot papilla 

Xll2; i, k, I, three kinds of ventral setae from 

the same foot X112. 



gate, bent on the back and pardy attached to the dorsal 
lamella: theix size then decreases but they still exist on the 
40th setigerous segment. Dorsal lamellae triangular, 
erect, rather lar|[e and free on the fixst 5 setigerous seg- 
ments, after whach their size decreases and they become 
more oval or subtriangular, thert obsolete. In the anterior 
region the dorsal ridges are reduced to a very slender trans- 
verse -wrinkle on each segment. JVnteriorly, both dorsal 
and ventral setae are capillary. V^entral pluri-dentate 
hooded hooks from the 22nd setigerous segment. At the 
40th they are still absent in the dorsal ramus. No genital 
pouches. Pygidium unknown. 

Length: more than 11 mm. by 2 mm. 

Discoloicred in spirit. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Maniiar- 



326 



SPtONIDAE 



313. Ptionospio krosadensis Fauvel. (Fig. 171, a-e). 
Prionospio krusadensis, Fauvel. 1929, p. 182, fig 2; 1930, p. 38, 
fig. 9. 

Body slender, filiform, slightly enlarged anteriorly. 
Prostomium, long, conical, with a blunt ridge running 
to the 2nd segment. A low lateral fold, which does not 
form a marked wing, on each side of the prostomium. 




Fig. 111.— Prionospio krusadensis Fauvel : a, b, c, 6th, I5th, 20th feet 

X120; d, bristle from the 10th setigerous segment x400 ; e, ventral 

hook from the 18th setigerous segment. 

Two clusters of 4—5 small eyes. First setigerous segment 
with both rami obsolete and only dorsal setae (?) . Bran- 
cMae three pairs, on the second, third and fourth setiger- 
ous segmeMs; they are all pinnate, the third pair often 
smaller. On the anterior segments;, the dorsal lamellae 
are large, oval, or sub-triangular, the 5—6 first ones sub- 
equal, the 4th often larger. The following lamellae are 
lower, more rounded or heart-shaped, gradually decreas- 
ing in size, but still conspicuous to the end of the body. 
Ventral lamellae smaller, a* first oval, next rounded and 



DISOMA 327 

then very small. No noteworthy transverse ridges. In 
the anterior region dorsal and ventral setae long and 
capillary. In 3—4 segments, from the 10th setigerous, on 
the ventral ramus a large golden seta, curved and dotted. 
From the 17th— 18th setigerous segment ventral hooks 
with 3 teeth above the main fang. Dorsal hooks froin the 
40th— 42nd setigerous segment. There are no genital 
pouches. A median anal cirrus and two very small others. 

Length: about 20 mm. by 0.7—0.8 mm. 

Colour, yellowish in alcohol. 

Occurrence: Gulf o£ Mannar, Krusadai Island 

Family DISOMIDAE Mesnil. 

Prostomium with two long tentacle-like palps. Peet 
biramous (at least in the anterior region). Setae of vari- 
ous kinds. Acicular setae. Dorsal and ventral cirri elon- 
gated or frilled. Body not clearly divided into regions. 

Genus DISOMA Oersted. 

No median frontal tentacle, and nuchal organ -with- 
out three tentacular lobes. Dorsal cirri fleshy, rounded, 
with a frilled or smooth border. 

314. Disoma orissae Fauvel. (Fig. 172, a-m) . 
Disoma orissae, Fauvel, 1932, p. 174, fig. 29, a — m. 

Prostomium elongated, slightly notched in front, bul- 
ging in the middle and ending behind in a aest reaching 
to the 2nd setigerous segment. On the raised part, four 
very small eyes, two dorsal and two lateral, and a small 
erect, tapering, median tentacle. On each side, at the hase 
of the prostomium, a small proiecting nuchal organ. On 
the first setigerous segment a large lanceolate, sobulate, 
dorsal cirrus and a ventral one directed forwards; a small 
bundle of capillary setae in front of the dorsal cirrus, and 
a fan-shaped ventral bundle of much longer setae extend- 
ing beyond the prostomium. On the 2nd setigerous seg- 
ment dorsal and ventral cirri, triangular, mucli smaller 
than the first ones, and ventral setae of two types: (1) an 
anterior row of very fine capillary setae and (2) a poster- 
ior transverse row of stouter shorter bristles withi blunt 
curved tips. Dorsal setae absent. On the 3rd setigerous 
segment, a large lanceolate, chopper-like, dorsal cirrus, a 
crescentic tip, a triangular ventral cirrus, smaller than the 
dorsal one, a small ligule under the ventral cirrus and, in 



328 



DISOMIDAE 



front of the parapodial lamella, a vertical row of 7 stout 
yellow acicular setae with blunt bent tips, an anterior row 
of slender capillary setae and, in front of the cirrus, a 
diverging fascicle of dorsal capillary setae. In short, the 
ventral setae of the second foot are shaped like those on 
the third, but the acicular bristles are smaller, paler and 
more hyaline. Between the third and fourth foot, a deep 
triangular notch on each side oi the body divides the 
anterior part from the following region in which the first 
6—7 segments are much larger than the others; as a result, 




Fig. nz.—Dtsoma orissae Oersted: a X7; b, anterior end, dorsal view 
X22; c, d, winged bristles from the 6th setigerous segment XHO, 
e, ventral stout bristle from the 2nd segment XllO; /, ven- 
tral capillary seta from the 2nd segment XllO ; g, h, 
stout bristles from the 3rd segment XllO; i, capi- 
llary seta from the 3rd segment XllO ; fe, fine 
dorsal setae from the 3rd segment XllO; I, 

abdominal papillae X48 ; m, posterior 
foot with bodkin and capillary setae X48. 

this region is enlarged and flattened. On the 4th setiger- 
ous segment, the first of the enlarged part though smaller 
than the next, the dorsal and ventral cirri are thick, 
rounded lamellae, and there is a bundle of dorsal and 
ventral setae. The condition is the same in the succeed- 
ing four segments, but the ventral bristles are large, stout, 
yellow, set brush-like, as in Aricia, and of two kinds: (1) 
stout, doubly curved, nearly sickle-shaped, with a broad 
wing showing a tendency to split into fine spines, (2) capi- 
llary, similar to the dorsal ones. The dorsal setae dis- 
appear about the 11th foot. From the 9th segment back- 
wards the dorsal cirri become filiform and the ventral 
ones are modified about the 12th-13th feet. Beyond the 



MAGELONA 329 

11th foot long filiform ventral papillae make their appear- 
ance, a single one at first under each foot, but increasing 
to 2, 3, or 5. From the 9th foot backwards, the ventral 
setae are of two kinds: (1) stout, straight, bodkin-shaped, 
and (2) very slender capillaries. 

Length: about 6 mm. by 1 mm. 25 segments, incom- 
plete behind. 

Discoloured, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Off Puri, Orissa, 4—4^ fms. 

Family MAGELONIDAE Cunningham and Ramage. 

Body filiform divided into two regions. Prostomium 
oval, flattened, without tentacles. Two long papillated 
palps. A big proboscis. Parapodia biramous. Dorsal 
and ventral cirri lamelliform. Gills absent. Setae simple 
capillaries, or hooded hooks. Anal cirri. 

Genus MAGELONA O, F. MiUler. 

Anterior and posterior region separated by a peculiar 
segment. Piostomium broadly oval, spatulate. Proboscis 
globular. Two long palps with sucker papillae. 

315. M^elona sp. juv. 

Monro, 1937, p. 299, fig. 19." 

Monro's specimen from the Maldives is a post-larva 
too young for its attribution to any of the known species 
of Magelona. 

Magelona tosea Moore has been recorded from the Gulf 
of Siam; M. obokensis Gravier, from the Red Sea, and M. 
pacifica Monro from the Pacific Ocean (Galapagos Islands) . 

Family CIRRATULIDAE Carus. 

Body stout, subcylindrical, tapering at both ends. 
Prostomium without palps and tentacles. Peristomium 
ringed. Stout tentacular cirri (palps) inserted on_ the 
dorsal side of an anterior segment. Long slender simple 
gills inserted above the dorsal ramus. Feet biramous,_ both 
rami low and far apart. Capillary simple setae and simple 
acicular hooks. Dorsal and ventral cirri absent. 
Key to the genera of CiRRAXULmAE. 

1. Tentacular filaments numerous. 
Stout palp-like tentacular cirri 
absent • • • ■ ^ 

One pair of stout large palps .. 3 

F. 44 



330 



CIRRATULIDAE 



2- Tentacular filaments beginning 
on the same segment as the 
gills 
A few segments with lateial gills 
in front of the tentacle-bear- 
ing segment 

3. Capillary setae and hooks 

Capillary setae only .. 

Acicular setae on both rami . . 



Ctriatulus Lamarck, p. 332. 



Audouinia Quatrefages, 

p. 330. 
Dodecaceria Oersted, 

p. 835. 
Tharyx Webster and 

Benedict, p. 334. 

Heterocirrus Grube, p. 334. 



Genus AUDOUINIA Quatrefages. 

Lateral gill filaments from the first segments to near- 
ly the last ones. Tentacular cirri numerous, as slender as 
the gills, and set in two clusters on 1—2 segments farther 
back than the first gill-bearing ones. Capillary setae and 
hooks in both rami. 

Key to the species of Audouinia. 

1. Tentacular cirri on the 3rd seti- 

gerous segment. Segments 

ringed with black . . semicmcta (Ehleis), p. 330. 

Tentacular cirri on 4th— 5th or 
5th— 6th segments .. .. 2 

2. Distance between the point of 

gill insertion and the dorsal 
ramus shorter than the dis- 
tance between both rami. 4 
—5 hooks in each ventral 
ramus 

Distance between the point of 
gill insertion and the dorsal 
ramus greater than the distan- 
ce between both rami: 1—4 
ventral hooks .. .. filigera (Dalle Chiaje), 331- 

316. Aadotiinia semicincta (Ehlers) . (Fig. 174 c) . 

Audouinia semicmcta, Fauvel, 1923f, p. 42; 1930b, p. 542; 1935, 

p. S39. 
{?) Audouinia saxatilis, Gravier, 1906, p. 164, pi. I, figs. 180—182, 
Girratulus semicinctusj Ehlers, 1905, p. 290, pi. IX, figs. U— 14. 

Gills from the first setigerous segment. Tentacular 
cirri in two clusters on the 3rd or 4th setigerous segments. 
In the middle region of the body the distance between the 
gills and the dorsal ramus is equal to the distance between 
both rami. Capillary setae in every foot. Dorsal and ven- 
tral hooks alike and slender. 



ancylochaeta (Schmarda), 
p. 332. 



AUDOUNIA 



331 



Length: 15—30 mm. 

Colour: Body streaked with transverse lines of black 
dots. Tentacular cin-i alternately ringed black and ivhite. 

Occurrence: Corbyn's Cove, Andaman Islands. 
Distribution: Honolulu, Gambler Islands, New Cale- 
donia, Gulf of Siam; Andaman Islands; Red Sea. 

317. Atidouinia filigefa (Delle Chiaje) . (Fig. 173, h-l) . 
Audouinia filigera, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 92, fig. 32, h-m; 1932, p. 178. 
Cirratulus cylmdiicus Schmarda, WiUey, 1905, p. 294, pi. VI, 
figs. 139-140. 

Gills from the first setigerous segment. Tentacular 
cirri in two dense clusters inserted on the 4th— 5_th or the 
5th— 6th setigerous segments. Capillary setae in every 




Fig. m.-CiTratulm cirratus O.J. MuUer: a, natural size ;&, ante- 
rio? part, tentacular cirri cut oil X3; c «f "°P,tX^t flot 
d foot X36- e, f, dorsal and ventral hooks of a posterior foot 
X48° 2 doSal capillary bristle X48 Audoutma phgera 
""^ilJ'cSl h, Inten^r part x2; .. section of mid^body 
^ X3 5 fe, dorsal hook Xl20; /, ven ral hook Xl20. 
/i,(on the left): Cirratulus fihformts Ret 

foot. Dorsal and ventral hc^ks present. excepUn Ae 
anterior segments. Ventral hooks .^w. 1-3, 3-4 and 
stout. Distance from point of giU-msertion to the feet 
greater than the distance between the two rami. 

Length: 100-200 mm. by 4-5 mm. 

Colour: Dai* orange or brown in life. Very dark, 
or discoloured, in spirit. 



332 CIERATULIDAE 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago, Paway Island; 
Ceylon; Rameswaram Island; Palan Bidang, Cape Como- 
rin. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 

318. AtKioainia anchylochaeta (Schmarda) . 

Audouinia ancylochaeta, Fauvel, 1930Tj, p. 541, 1932, p. 178. 
Cirratulus anchylochaetus, Schmarda, 1861, p S8; Augener 1914, 

p. 53 (Synonymy). 
Timarete ancylochaeta, Ehlers, 1904, p. 63. 
(?) Timarete fecunda, Kinberg, 1857-1910, p. 64, pi. XXV, fig. 

1. 

Gills from the first setigerous segment. Tentacular 
cirri inserted in two clusters on the 5th— 6th setigerous 
segments. Capillary setae in every foot. Doisal and ven- 
tral hooks 2—4 in each ramus, rather slender. Distance 
between point of gill insertion and the dorsal ramus shor- 
ter than the distance between both rami. Closely allied to 
A. tentaculata, if not conspecific. 

Length: 100-200 mm. by 4-5 mm. 

Colour: deep yellow, or red-brown, or greenish-brown, 
with red gills, in life. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Australia, New Zealand, New Caledo- 
nia; Persian Gulf. 

Genus CIRRATULUS Lamarck. 

Body long, cylindrical. Prostomium conical. First 
three segments achaetous. Lateral gills from the first 
setigerous segments to the hind part. Tentacular fila- 
ments nearly as slender as the gills and beginning on the 
same segment. Capillary setae and acicular hooks. 

Key to the genus Cirratulus. 

1. Only capillary setae . . 2 
Capillary setae and hoolc5 . . 3 

2. Gills and tentacles on the first 

setigerous segment .. fihformis Keferstein, p. 333. 

Gills and tentacles on the 4th— 5th 

setigerous segment .. chrysoderma ClaparMe, 



3. Gills and tentacles on the first 

setigerous segments . . cirratus 

Gills and tentacles on the 2nd 

setigerous segment .. dasylophius 



p. .3.?3. 

IS 

O. F. MUUer, p. 334. 

lophius 
Marenzeller, p. 333. 



CIRRATULUS 333 

319. Cirratalas filifomiis Keferstein. (Fig. 173, h) . 

Cirratultts fibformis, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 94, fig. 33, li—i; 1930a, p. 
43: Monro, 1937, p. 301. 

Body long, slender. Prostomium pointed, eyeless. 
On the first segment one pair of gills and 1—2 pairs of 
tentacles, hardly stouter. Capillary setae on both dorsal 
and ventral rami. No hooks. 

Length: 30—40 mm. by 0.5—1 mm. 

Colour: yellowish, or greenish-yellow. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar; Pamban; Maldive 
Archipelago. 

In rock clefts and dredgings. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf; Atlantic 
Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

320. Ctffattiltjs chfysodettna Claparede. 

Clrratulus chrysoderma, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 95; 1930, p. 43. 

Body slender. Prostomium triangular, eyeless. Gills 
and tentacles begin on the 4th setigerous segment. Gills 
on the anterior half of the body only. Only two pairs of 
tentacles. Gills inserted just above the dorsal ramus. 
Only long capillary setae on both rami. No hooks. 

Length: 20-70 mm. by 0.5-3 mm. 

Colour: greenish. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Maimar; Pamban. 

Distribution: Japan, Malayan Seas; India, Persian 
Gulf; Mediterranean Sea. 

321. Cirtatalos dasylophitss Marenzeller. 

Clrratulus dasylophius, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 146, pi. VI, fig. 6: 

Fauvel, 1911, p. 411. 
(?) Cirratulus complanatus, WUley, 1905, p. 294. 

Prostomium triangular, eyeless. On the second seti- 
gerous segment one pair of gills and one pair of tentacu- 
lar cirri; on the third and fourth segments one pair of 
gills and numerous tentacles: thence one jiair of gills only 
and no tentacles on every segment. Capillary setae and 
hooks in both rami, with the exception of the first seti- 
gerous segment, in which hooks are wanting. Ventral 
hooks stouter than the dorsal. First dorsal hooks about 
43rd, ventral hooks from 29 th setigerous segment. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf; Ceylon (?) . 

Distribution: Japan; Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf. 



B34 CIRIUTULIDAE 

322. Cixtsdiilus cirtatos O. F. Muller. (Fig. 173, a-g) . 
Cinatulus cirmtus, FaUvel, 1927a, p. 94, fig. 33, a—g; 1919, p. 

427; 1939. p. 346. 

Body cylindrical, Prostomium blunt-conical, on each 
side an oblique row of 4-8 large black eyes. Gills and 
tentacles on the first setigerous segment. The gills persist 
to the hind part of the body. 2-8 pairs of slightly stouter 
tentacles. Dorsal and ventral capillai7 setae on all the 
feet. Dorsal and ventral acicular setae, with the excep- 
tion of a number of anterior segments. 

Length: 30-120 mm. by 1.5-3 mm. 

Colour: yellow-orange, red or brown. 

Occiurence: Persian Gulf. In muddy sand. 

Distiibution: Japan; Indochina; Persian Gulf; Atlan- 
tic Ocean, Arctic Ocean and Antarctic Ocean, Kerguelen, 
Falkland Islands, Cape Horn. 

Genus THARYX Webster and Benedict. 

Body cylindrical, slender, elongate. Peristomium and 
the two succeeding segments achaetous. Prostomium 
conical. Lateral gills on a number of anterior segments. 
One pair of stout dorsal palps and one pair of gills on 
the first setigerous segment. Dorsal and ventral rami 
litde remote. Capillary setae only. 

323. Thatyx m«ltifilis Moore. 

Tharyx multifilis, Moore, 1909, p. 267, pi. IX, fig. 43: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 179. 

Prostomium long, sharply conical, eyeless (?) . Gills 
absent on about the last 20 segments. Dorsal setae long- 
er than the ventral ones. 

Occurrence: Madras. 

Distribution: San Diego, California; Madras. 

Genus HETEROCIRRUS Grube. 

Prostomium conical. Two stout dorsal palps and one 
pair of gills before the first setigerous segment. A iiumber 
of lateral gills. Capillary setae and hooks. 

324. Het«rociirf«s typhlops Willey. (Fig. 174, d) . 
Heterocirrus typhlops, Willey, 1905, p. 295, pi. V, fig. 138. 

" A very small worm, total length 10.5 mm., diameter 
less than half a millimetre. Capillary non-limbate setae 
in both fascicles; doisal and ventral acicular setae com- 



DODECACERIA 



335 



mence on the first setigerous segment; they resemble those 
of Cirratulus; the ventral acicular setae are two in num- 
ber, more curved and thicker than the dorsal." "The 
disposition of such cirriform appendages as remain are 
inserted laterally over the feet." (Willey) . 




Fig. l'}4.—Dodeeaceria fistulicola Ehlers : a, capillary bristle and aftte- 

nor hook X570; b, posterior hooks X570 (after Ehlers). Audouinia 

semicineta (Ehlers): c, anterior part (after Gravier). Hetero- 

cirrus typhlops Willey: dj anterior part, (after WiUely). 

Prwnospto pmnata Ehlers: e, anterior part, side view 

(after CauUery) 

Occurrence: Southwest Cheval Paar, Gulf of Mannar. 
Willey's description and figures hardly agree with Hetero- 
cirrus. 



Genus DODECACERIA Oersted. 

Body stout. Prostomium blunt, generally eyeless. 
Peristomium achaetous, triannulate, with two stout palps. 
Tentacular filaments absent. 4—15 pairs of gills. All 
setae simple. Dorsal and ventral capillary setae. Spoon- 
shaped hooks on both rami, with the exception of the 
anterior region. 

326. Dcdecacefiafistolicok Ehlers. (Fig. 169, h, i; Fig. 
174, a, b) . 
Dodecacena fistulicola, Ehlers, 1901, p. 186, pi. XXV, Egs. 5-9: 

Fauvel, 1930, p. 543; 1935, p. 340. 
Dodecacena joubini, Gravier, 1906, p. 156, pi I, figs. 183—184. 
(?) Dodecacena opulens, Gravier, 1909, p. 648, pi. 17, figs. 39— 
45: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 44. 



336 CHAETOPTERIDAE 

Body flattened posteriorly. Prostomium bluntly coni- 
cal. Two stout grooved palps, 5 pairs of large gills and 
2—3 other pairs, much more slender. Capillary setae. 
Large spoon-shaped hooks with a swelling at the back of 
the cavity which, seen in profile, looks like a blunt lateral 
tooth. Anterior and dorsal hooks more slender. 

Length: 15—25 mm. 

Colour: black coloured, or very dark brown. 

Occurrence: Pamban, Gulf of Mannar. 

Distribution: Coast of Chile, Australia, New Cale- 
donia, Annam; India, Red Sea?. 

Remarks: Dodecaceria fistulicola Ehlers, D joubini 
Gravier and D. opulens Gravier are three very closely rela- 
ted species, and may be only varieties. Ehlers' denomina- 
tion has priority. 

Family CHAETOPTERIDAE Aud. and M.-Edw, 

Body soft, divided into two or three regions. Pros- 
tomium little conspicuous. Mouth terminal, no extrusible 
proboscis. Two or four tentacles (palps and tentacular 
cirri). Anterior region of a few uniramous segments; 
niiddle region, when present, with biramous highly spe- 
cialised segments; posterior region of numerous biramous 
segments, all of them similar. Dorsal setae capillary or 
lanceolate. In the fourth setigerous segment peculiar 
stout spines. Ventral setae pectinate uncini. Tube homy, 
more or less ringed, translucent, or opaque parchment- 
like. 



Key to tne genera of Chaetopteridae. 

1. One pair of teniades . . 2 
Two paii« of tentacles. Tube 

cylindrical, homy, ringed , . Phyllochaetopterus 

Grube, p. 338. 

2. Two or three median segments, 

A dorsal continuous ciliated 

groove. Notopodia all conical Mesochaetopterus 

Potts, p. 342. 

Five median segments. No con- 
tinuous ciliated groove. Me- 
dian notopodia fused to form 
fans or suckers ,. Chaetopterus 

Cuvier, p. 337. 



CHAETOPTERUS 



337 



Genus CHAETOPTERUS Cuvier. 

Body of large size, thick, soft, divided into three dis- 
tinct regions. Two small filiform palps (tentacles) . 
Anterior region with uniramous feet and oar-shaped setae. 
Stout modified bristles on the 4th setigerous segment. 
Middle region of 5 biramous segments, the first with two 
aliform appendages, the next with dorsal rami cup-shaped 
and the others paddle-shaped. Ventral rami coalescent, 
bearing pectinate uncini. Posterior region with dorsal 
rami unilobed; ventral rami bilobed, uncinigerous. Tube 
consisting of layers of parchment-like membranes. 

326. Chaetoptertis variopedattts Renier. (Fig. 175, a-n) . 
n) . 

Chaetopterus variopedattts, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 77, fig. 26, a—n 
(Synonymy); 1932. p 176: Pruvot, 1930, p. 76. 

Chaetopterus cautus, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 143, pi. VI, fig. 5. 

Chaetopterus appendiculatus Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 291, pi. V, 
fig. 126. 




Fig. 175.— Chaetopterus variopedatus (^&oiex): a, b, dorsal and ven- 
tral view, reduced 1/3; c, foot of the 3rd thoracic segment; d, 
last thoracic foot; e, posterior foot (after Joyeux-Laffine); /, 
capillary seta of the dorsal ramus of the first segment of 
the mid-body region (wings) X47 ; g, h, uncini X310 ; f, 
stout bristle from the 4th segment x23; k, thoracic 
capillary bristle X60 ; Z, m, thoracic lancet-shaped 
setae X47 ; n, acicular bristles from the posterior 
■ ' feet x23. 

F. 45 



338 CHAETOPTERIDAE 

Chaetopterus longimanus, Crossland, 1904, p. 272, pi. XVIII, 

fig. 1-2. 
Chaetopterus longipes, Crossland, 1904, p. 277, pi. XIX, fig. 

1-2. 

The specific characters are mainly those oi the genus. 
It is very doubtful whether there is really more than 
one species, although many have been described, but the 
characters used to discriminate them are of very little 
value. Specimens exhibit a great deal of variation which 
is probably a result of frequent autotomy, followed by 
more or less complete regeneration; individual specimens 
also present an extensive range of variation, for instance, 
the characters given by Crossland as distinctive of Ch. 
longimanus are often met with in Ch. variopedatus from 
the Atlantic Ocean and English Channel. Ch. longipes 
is only a young form of the same. The number and size 
of the anterior segments vary to a very large extent, as 
also the length of the feet. 

Length: 150-250 mm. by 15—25 mm. 

Colour: in life, greenish-yellow or whitish-yellow. 
Median region partly black. Phosphorescent. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago; Ceylon; Maldive 
Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 
Cosmopolitan. 

Genus PHYLLCX:HAET0PTERUS Grube. 

Body slender, divided into three regions. Two long 
tentacles (palps) and two small posterior tentacles. An- 
terior region with uniramous feet bearing oar-shaped setae. 
One or more large peculiar spines on the 4th setigerous 
segment. Middle region with a number of biramous 
feet, dorsal rami foliaceous, lateral branchial lobes, and 
ventral rami bilobed. Posterior region with biramous 
feet, dorsal rami cylindrical; ventral rami uncinigerous. 
Tube horny, translucent, cylindrical, more or less ring- 
ed. Schiziparous reproduction frequent. 

Key to the species of Phyllochaetopterus. 

1. Middle region of two segments . . 2 
Middle region of numerous seg- 
ments . . . . 3 

2. Glandular cirri on the first seg- 

ment of the middle region . . aiicuUgerus 

Crossland, p. 341, 



PHYLLOCHAETOPTERUS 



339 



No glandular cirri on the first 

segment o£ the middle region herdmani Willey, p. 342. 

3. A single spine on the 4th seg- 

ment . . . . socMis Claparfede, p. 339. 

Several spines on the 4th segment 4 

4. Large size . . . gardineri Crossland, p. 341. 
Small size . . . . elioti Crossland, p. 340. 

337. Phyllochaetoptents socialis Claparede. (Fig. 176, 
a—l) . 

Phyllochaetopterus socialis, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 84, fig. 30, a—l; 
1932, p. 177. 

Phyllochaetopterus pictus, Crossland, 1903, p. 174, pi. XVI, figs. 
5-9. 

(?) Phyllochaetopterus ramosus, Willey, 1905, p. 293, pi. V, 
figs. 133-136. 

Two eyes. Anterior region 10—18 and more segments. 
Middle region 5—28 segments. Posterior region, numer- 
ous segments. On the fourth setigerous segment a single 
large modified spine, obliquely truncate at the tip. Rami 




6ytr. — ^ 



Fig. 116.— Phyllochaetopterus socialis ClaparMe: a, dorsal view X4; 

b, head and first segments x8 ; c, section of mid-body x20 ; d, 

hind foot with lancet-shaped bristle X106; e, f, «;. lancet-shaped 

and knife-shaped bristles of the thoracic feet X106; h-i, stout 

bristle from the 4th setigerous segment X62, 106; ft, uncmus 

X390 ; ;, tubes X2. 



340 



CHAETOPTERIDAE 



of the posterior region with one, rarely two, lanceolate 
setae. Horny tubes ringed, simple or branched. 

Length: 20-40 mm. by 1—2 mm. 

Colour: yellowish, with brown-reddish spots on the 
anterior region and tentacles. 

Occurrence: Chandipore, near Balasore, Orissa; Cey- 
lon; Bombay; Arabian Sea, Maldive Archipelago, Gulf of 
Oman. 

Distribution: Australia; Indian Ocean; Atlantic 
Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Falkland Islands. 

328. Phyllochaetopteras elioti Crossland. (Fig. 177, 
e-h). 

Phyllochaetopterus elioti, Crossland, 1903, p. 172, pi. XVI, fig. 
1, 3, 8, pi. XVIII, fig. 10-13; Fauvel, 1930a, p. 41. 




^ 




Fig. 117 .—Phyllochaetopterus gardineri Crossland : a, anterior part, 
dorsal view X3 ; 6, section of a segment of the 2nd region X3 ; 
Cj short bristle from the 4th setigerous segment x47 ; d, davate 
dorsal foot from the posterior region X47. Ph. ehoti Cross- 
land : e, stout bristle from the 4th setigerous segment X66 ; 
/, foot of the posterior region X66 ; g, head X6 ; h, side 
view of the 3rd segment of the middle region X6 (after 
Crossland). Ph. herdmani Willey : », anterior 
end; k, a branchial segment; 1, stout bristle from 
the 4th foot; m, modified seta from the 3rd 
foot of an aberrant individual (after 
WiUey). 



PHYLLOGHA.ETOPTERUS 341 

Two eyes. Anterior region of about 14 segments; 
middle region 20—25 segments; posterior region numerous 
segments. On the fourth foot, 2-3 stout cylindrical setae 
which are not noticeably curved. A single lanceolate seta 
in posterior dorsal rami. Tubes straighter, larger, more 
opaque than those of P. socialis Claparede, indistinctly 
annulated, more or less covered with sand grains. 

Length: of tube 120-220 mm. 

Colour: milk-white anteriorly, black posteriorly. 
Reddish spots restricted to the long palps. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island. Mix- 
ed with tubes of Mesochaetoptervs and Axiothella. 
Distribution: India, Zanzibar. 

339. Phyllochaetopteras gardmeri Crossland. (Fig. 177, 
a—d) . 

Phyllochaetopterus gardineri, Crossland, 1904, p 280, pi. XIX, 
figs 3—7. 

Two eyes. Anterior region of 15 segments; middle 
region of 24; posterior, numerous segments. On the 
fourth setigerous segment 3 strong, straight, flattened, light 
brown setae. Dorsal rami of the posterior region with 
one striated seta. Tubes straight, occurring singly (?) , 2.5 
mm. broad. 

Occurrence: Dredged ofiE Minikoi Atoll, Maldive 
Archipelago. 

Remarks: " This species is very closely related to Ph. 
elioti. It is readily separable, however, by its much larger 
size." (Crossland) . 

330. Phyllochaetoptctas acicttligeras Crossland. (Fig. 
178, b-d) . 

Phyllochaetopterus aciculigerus, Crossland, 1904, p. 278, pi. 
XVIII, figs. 3-7. 

No eyes. Anterior region of 9 segments; middle regioti 
of only two; posterior region, numerous segments. On 
the fourth setigerous segment 8 thickened setae, of a brown 
colour, proximally strongly striated. The first segment of 
the median region bears glandular ridges and two glandu- 
lar cirri arching over the back; the second segment lacks 
these glandular appendages. The dorsal rami of the pos- 
terior region are very small, conical, and contain about 9 
long bent setae. Tube unknown. 

Breadth: 7 mm. 



342 CHAETOPTERIDAE 

Occurrence: Mamaduvari, South Mahlos Atoll, Mai- 
dive Archipelago. One specimen only. 

Remarks: Closely allied to Ph. major Clapar^de. 

331. PMIochactoptents h&t6mam Willey. (Fig. 177. 
t—m) . 
Phyllochaetoptenis herdmani, Willey, 1905, p. 292, pi. V, figs. 
127-132. 

Anterior region of 9—10 segments; middle region of 
only two segments; posterior region, 40—50. On the 
fourth setigerous segment 8—9 modified, flattened setae. 
The first segment of the middle region bears neither glan- 
dular ridges nor glandular cirri. The dorsal rami of 
the posterior region carry a bundle of 4 spatulate setae. 
Narrow cylindrical tubes incrusted with relatively coarse 
sand grains and hard fragments of all kinds, including 
Foraminifera. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Galle shore; under stones. 

Remarks: Closely related to Ph. aciculigerus, the 
absence of a pair of glandular cirri on the first segment of 
the middle region being the chief difference. 

Genus MESOCHAETOPTERUS Potts. 

A pair of long peristomial tentacles. Body divided 
into three regions, the anterior with 9—13 setigerous seg- 
ments. In the fourth setigerous segment are several en- 
larged dorsal setae. In the median region, 2—3 elongated 
segments with continuous lateral borders and transverse 
ridges. Notopodia rather enlarged, conical and fleshy, 
with a groove running down the internal border; the neuro- 
podia are simple in the first, double in the succeeding 
segment, or segments. In the posterior region, a large 
number of segments similar to those of Chaetopterus, but 
with much shorter notopodia. A dorsal ciliated groove 
runs from the mouth, along the median line, to the pos- 
terior end. In one or more of the median segments the 
lips are enlarged to form a fleshy organ. 

332'. Mesochaetoptertts minatos Potts. (Fig. 178, a) . 

Uesochaetopterus mmuta, Potts, 1914, p. 963, pi. II— III, figs. 7— 

8: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 41; Monro, 1928, p. 92; 1931, p. 25. 
Sptochaetopterm spec, Gravely, 1927, p. 24. 

" Very small, slender, living in tubes of a translucent, 
horny material, coated with coarse sand. Prostomium 



MESOCHAETOPTERUS 



343 



large and conical. Peristomial collar well developed 
Just external to the tentacles is a pair o£ eyes. The ante- 
rior region contains 10-13 segments, the median region 
IS composed of two segments. The first pair of notopodia 
are small and clavate, the second pair are of the type 




Fig. nS.—Mesochaetopterus minutus Potts : a, dorsal view Xl3 (after 
Potts). Phyllochaetopterus acicultgerus Crossland; b, mid-body to- 
gether with adjoining segments X6; c, stout bristle from the 
4th foot X47; d, setae from the anterior region X47 
(after Crossland). 

described for the genus. The ciliated groove expands 
into a Clip in the middle of the second segment. The 
posterior region is composed of segments which are double 
anteriorly, simple posteriorly; each notopodium has a 
single seta." (Potts) 

Length: 20 mm. by 1 mm. 



344 CHLOKAEMIDAE 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, edge 
of South Lagoon. 

Distribution: Torres Strait, Great BaiTier Reef; 
India; Atlantic Ocean, Cape Verde Islands; Panama. 

Family CHLORAEMIDAE Malmgren. 

Flahelligeriens Saint- Joseph. 

All segments nearly alike, short, papillose. Prosto- 
mium and buccal segment in the form of a retractile tube, 
with eyes, two stout palps and slender, retractile branchial 
filaments. The setae of the first segments are generally 
very long, directed forwards and forming a more or less 
marked cephalic cage. Parapodia biramous, rami far 
apart, generally without distinct setigerous processes. 
Dorsal setae simple, capillary, annulated or articulated. 
Ventral setae si^oid, or hooked, or compound with 
sickle-shaped end-piece. 

Key to the genera of Chloraemidae. 

1. Ventral hooks compound. Body 

enclosed in a thick mucous 
sheath containing pedunculate 
papillae . . . . FlabelUgera Sars, p. 344. 

Ventral hooks simple. Mucous 

sheath absent .. 2 

2. A pair of elongated nephridial 

papillae on the ventral side . . Brada Stimpson, p. 351. 

Conspicuous nephridial papillae 

absent . . . . 3 

3. Gills all similar .. Stylarioides Delle 

Chiaje, p. 345. 

GiUs of two kinds . . Diplocims 

Malmgren, p. 362. 

Genus FLABELLlGERA Sars. 

Body soft, short, transparent, enclosed in a thick 
mucous coating, containing long pediculate papillae. 
Dorsal setae capillary. Compound ventral hooks. 

333. Flatelligcra diplochaitos Otto. (Fig. 185, g-o) . 

Flabelligera diplochattos, Fauvel, 1927a, p 114, fig. 40, g—o: 
Monro, 1937, p. 304. 

Buccal siphon short, with two groups of 40—50 slen- 
der green gills and two stout palps. Cephalic cage form- 



STYLARIOIDES 345 

ed by the four fascicles of the long setae of the first seti- 
gerous segment pointing forwards. Dorsal setae very 
long and annulated. Ventral hooks compound or semi- 
compound, with faintly curved terminal piece. In each 
foot 4—6 hooks accompanied by a bundle of short, 
straight capillary, included, setae. 

Length: 50—100 mm. by 10 mm. 

Colour: Semi-transparent; blood green. 

Occurrence: Arabian Sea. 

Distribution: Arabian Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 



Genus STYLARIOIDES Delle Chiaje. 

Body elongated, more or less cylindrical or club- 
shaped, coated with papillae. Two stout palps. Gills 
filiform, often very numerous, all similar, inserted on a 
more or less long peduncle, retractile. A cephalic cage. 
Dorsal setae long, capillary, annulated. Ventral setae 
simple or rarely pseudo-compound; those beyond the first 
segments ending in a somewhat stout hook, sometimes 
bidentate. Acicular setae slender. Blood green. 

Key to the Species of Stylarioides. 

1. Ventral hooks absent .. hamocarens Monro, p. 345. 
Ventral hooks present .. 2 

2. Ventral setae unidentate . . 3 

Ventral setae bidentate . . eruca Claparfede, p. 347. 

3. A kind of dorsal oval shield coat- 

ed with sand . . parmatus Grube, p. 346. 

No such dorsal shield . . 4 

4. Body slightly and gradually ta- 

pering posteriorly. Gills in- 
serted on two flattened lobes bifidus Fauvel, p. 349. 

Body very slender and twisted 
in the posterior part. Gills 
inserted on a horse-shoe shap- 
ed membranaceous lobe .. bengalensis Fauvel, p 347. 

334. Stylarioides hamocarens Monro. (Fig. 179, a) . 
Stylarioides hamocarens, Monro, 1937, p. 302, fig. 21. 

Body dotted with small papillae incrusted with mud. 
A well developed cephalic cage formed by the first three 
setigerous segments which are provided with pedal lobes: 

F. 46 



346 



CHLORAEMIDAE 



these lobes are absent over the rest o£ the body. In the 
next segment dorsal and ventral setae of this same type, 
but considerably smaller, striated and ending in fine flagel- 
liform tips. There is no trace of ventral hooks. Gills 





O' 



Fig. l19.—Stylanoides hamocarens Monro ; a, anterior region, from 

above (after Monro). Sty. parmatus Grube : h, dorsal view, with 

shield. 

numerous, filiform, borne on two separate, divergent, 
stout, membranous lobes, with their sides folded inwards. 
When unfolded, these lobes are more or less spoon-shaped 
in outline. 

Length: 23 mm. by 3 mm. 

Colour: in spirit, dark green in front, merging into 
yellow behind. 

Occurrence: North Arabian Sea, 759—1024 m. 

335. Stylarioides parmatos Grube. (Fig. 179, b) . 

Stylarioides parmatus, Giube, 1878, p. 199, pi. XI, fig. 1: Willey, 
1905, p. 289, pi. Vni, fig. 5: Augener, 1926a. p. 180, 6s. 5: 
Fauvd, 1930a, p. 42; 1932, p. 179. 
Stylarioides iris, Michaelsen, 1892, p. 108, fig. 6, 



STYLARIOIDES 347 

Body much swollen anteriorly, abruptly tapering into 
a filiform tail, and bearing on the front part of the dor- 
sum a kind of oval shield firmly coated with sand. Setae 
of the cephalic cage long, slender, iridescent, belonging to 
the 3 anterior segments. Skin papillae in circular rows. 

Length: about 30 mm. 

Occurrence: Madras; Ceylon. 

Distribution: New Zealand; Philippine Islands; 
Madras, Ceylon, Madagascar. 

336. Stylarioidcs ctaca. Claparede, var. indica Fauvel. 

(Fig. 170, h-l) . 

Stylarioides eruca, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 119, fig. 42, h—l.. (Synony- 
my). 

Stylarioides eruca, var. indica, Fauvel, 1928, p. 93, fig. 3, h—i; 
1930a, p. 42, fig. 10, h-I, 1932, p. 180. 

Body subtetragonal, thickly coated with sand, seg- 
ments clearly marked. Skin-papillae small, short, not 
arranged in regular longitudinal rows. 3—4 longer papil- 
lae behind each bundle of setae. Branchiae numerous, 
filiform, inserted on a short peduncle, deciduous. Cephalic 
cage formed by the setae of the first three setigerous seg- 
ments, long, slender, not irridescent, and pointing for- 
wards. In the third segment, the ventral setae are already 
bidentate, and shorter than the dorsal ones. In the 
following segments, the ventral setae vary in length but are 
all ringed, bent at the tip, with a long slender sub-rostral 
spine. 

Length: 60 mm. by 3—4 mm. About 70 segments. 

Occurrence: Nankauri Harbour (amongst corals) ; 
Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean (typical form; Atlantic 
Ocean, Mediterranean Sea) . 

Remarks: This variety differs from the type in hav- 
ing (1) shorter adhesive papillae, less numerous and less 
regularly arranged and (2) longer and more slender 
upper ventral setae. 

337. Stylarioides bengalensis Fauvel. (Fig. 180, a-f) . 
Stylarioides bengalensis, Fauvel, 1932, p. 180, fig. 30, a—f. 

Anterior part of the body cylindrical or club-shaped; 
posterior part abruptly tapering into a filiform coiled 
tail. Segments numerous and hardly distinct. Body 
covered with small globular papillae which do not firmly 



348 



CHLORAEMIDAE 



retain the sand. Buccal tube very long and protrusible, 
cylindrical, frilled at the edge. Branchiae slender, filiform, 
very numerous, set in several rows on a membranous 
horse-shoe shaped branchial lobe with edges rolled as in 
Serpulids. Two canaliculate palps with sinuous edges. 
Mouth opening trilobed, the two ventral lobes larger than 




«2> 

Fig. 180.— Stylarioides bengalensis Fauvel : a, b, base and tip of a 
dorsal seta x380 ; c, part o£ a bristle of the cephalic cage X380 ; 
d, ventral ramus x45 ; e, ventral hook Xl20 ; j, skin-papillae 
X150. 



the dorsal. Cephalic cage formed by the setae of the 
first three setigerous segments arranged in three close-set 
concentric circles. The setigerous lobes of the third foot 
are more protruding and less far apart. These bristles, 3 
to 5 in each bundle, are very long and stout, ringed and 
beautifully iridescent. On the next three segments, very 
small and slender dorsal capillary setae and a few fine 
ventral capillaries. On the following segments sigmoid 
ventral hooks- 



Length: about 60 mm. by 6-^7 mm. 



STYLARIOIDES 



349 



Colour: in spirit, whitish-grey under the thin coating 
of fine reddish ooze adhering to the skin-papillae. 

Occurrence: Sandheads, River Hughli; Madras Coast. 

338. Stylafioides tifldas Fauvel. (Figs. 181, a, b; 182, 
a—e) . 

Stylarioides bifidus, Fauvel, 1932, p. 182, fig. 31, pi. VII, figs. 15- 
16. 

Body gradually tapering backwards, segments clearly 
marked. Skin-papillae rather short and well apart, cy- 
lindrical in the anterior region, nearly globular in the 
hinder part. The body is not coated with sand but with 




Fig. 181-Stylarioides bifidus Fauvel: a, anterior end, dorsal view, 

X6; b, branchial apparatus protruded (semischematic). (From 

Fauvel 1932.) 

fine ochraceous ooze. Buccal siphon ovate, with a deli- 
cate frilled membrane at the base ; mouth small, with two 
short, canaliculate, puckered palps behind. Gills very 
small, slender, very numerous, inserted on two flattened, 
elongated, diverging lobes, free from the base and with- 
out any connecting membranes. Cephalic cage formed 
mainly by the first three setigerous segments and partly 
by the two succeeding ones. The bristles of the cephalic 



350 



CHLORAEMIDAE 



cage are long slender, articulate, hardly iridescent and few 
in the first three segments, in which the feet are stout, 
protruding and directed forwards. Both rami are close 
together, the ventral one slightly behind the other. The 
dorsal setae of the following 10—12 segments are long, 
capillary, ringed, directed forwards, gradually decreasing 
in length; the ventral setae are shorter and fewer and 




Fig. 182.~Stylarioidee bifidus Fauvel : a, ventral hook X65 ; b, part 

of a dorsal seta X150 ; c, naked papillae X65 ; d, large ooze-coated 

papilla X65 ; e, smaller coated papillae X65. 



some still exist with the ventral hooks which appear 
farther back and are only well marked in the posterior 
region. They are yellow, sigmoid, ringed, with a blunt 
tip and are about 5—6 in each ventral ramus. 

Length: 70—80 mm. by 4.5—5 mm. 

Coimir. in spirit, greyishrwhite, with small, sparse, 
orange-coloured tubercles. 



fms. 



Occurrence', Travancore Coast; Aratsan Sea, 300—555 



BRADA 



351 



Genus BRADA Stimpson. 



Skin papillae. The setae of the anterior segments 
do not forna a marked cephalic cage. Two stout palps. 
Cirriform branchiae in two clusters, retractile into the 
mouth. Dorsal ringed capillary setae; stouter simple ven- 
tral bristles. One pair of nephridial papillae protruding 
on one of the anterior segments. 

Key to the species of Brada. 

1. Body long and slender. Skin 
papillae small and not sand- 
retaining .. .. talehsapensts Fauvel, p. 351. 
Body shorter. Large skin papil- 
lae retaining sand grains .. mammillata Grube, p, 352. 

339. Brada talehsapensis Fauvel. (Fig. 183, a—d) . 

Brada talehsapensis, Fauvel, 1932, p 164, fig. 32, pi. VII, fig. 17. 

Body long, cylindrical, nearly of the same breadth 
throughout, abruptly truncated at both ends, with a small 
rounded knob in front. About 45—60 segments. Few 




Fie ISS— Brada talehsapensis Fauvel: a, ventral hook X150; 6, part 

o£ a dorsal seta XI50; c, papillae X150; d, anterior end, 

dorsal view, Xl2. 



352 CHLORAEMIDAE 

small skin-papillae, cylindrical, enlarged at the tip. On 
the ventral side of the 5th setigerous segment one pair of 
small, short, rounded nephridial papillae. Bristles of the 
first setigerous segment directed forwards, but few, slender, 
articulate, not iridescent. From the 2nd setigerous seg- 
ment backwards, dorsal bristles shorter, bent, ringed, about 
4—6 in each ramus. Ventral rami close to the dorsal ones. 
Ventral setae, 5—6 yellow curved hooks, with a slightly 
bent, smooth, translucent tip. 

Length: about 27—38 mm. by 2 mm. 
Colour: in spirit, greyish-white, with a coating of 
fine rusty, reddish ooze. 

Occurrence: Tal^h-Sap, Gulf of Siam. 

340. Bfada mammillata Grube. 

Brada mammillata, Grube, 1877, p. 541: Mcintosh, 1885, p. 370, 
pi. XLIII, fig. 11, pi. XXIIIA. fig. 7-8: Ehlers, 1897, p. 109: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 185. 

Body gradually and faintly tapering backwards. Dor- 
sal skin-papillae large, rounded, disposed in rows far 
apart, sand-retaining. Ventral papillae very small. On 
the ventral side of the 5th setigerous segment a pair of 
small conical nephridial papillae. Bristles of the first 
setigerous segment slender and directed forwards; they 
do not form a cephalic cage and are not iridescent. On 
the succeeding segments dorsal setae shorter. Ventral 
curved hooks from the 2nd setigerous segment, inserted on 
a round lobe encircled with long cylindrical papillae. 
Two short, stout, frilled palps. Gills numerous, slender, 
borne on two semi-circular pads. 

Length: 40—50 mm. by 5 mm. 

Occurrence: Arabian Sea, 555 fms. 

Distribution: Patagonia; Kerguelen Island; Arabian 
Sea. 

Remarks: Brada villosa (Rathke), a species smaller 
but very like Br. mammillata, has been reported from the 
Arabian Coasts (Fig. 184, e—l) . 

Genus DIPLOCIRRUS Haase. 

Body elongated or dub-shaped, covered with sand- 
retaining papillae. Two palps. Branchiae of two kinds 
(1) filiform, (2) enlarged. Setae of the first setigerous 
segments longer than the others, directed forwards and 
forming a cephalic cage. Dorsal and ventral setae capil- 
lary, ringed. 



DIPLOCIRRUS 



353 



341. DipIocif«is gla«c«s (Malmgren) . (Fig. 1 84, a— d) . 

Diplocirrus glaucus, Haase, 1914, p. 195, fig. 3—5. Fauvel, 1927a, 
p. 120, fig. 43, a-d; 1932, p. 186. 

Trophonia glauca, Malmgren, 1867, p. 192, pi. XIV, fig. 78. 

Body swollen anteriorly, moniliform posteriorly. 
Skin-papillae small, elongated, sparsely disposed. Buc- 
cal siphon long, protrusible, with four broad flat branchiae 
inserted on the anterior border and four slender cirri- 
form branchiae. Four eyes. Two long flattened palps. 
Setae of the 1st setigerous segment few, very slender. 




y^ o 



Fig. 184.— Diplocirrus glaucics (Malmgren) : a, (after Malmgren) ; b, 

anterior part, gills extruded, dorsal view (after Haase) ; c, bristle 

X120; d, base of a bristle X320. Brada villosa (Rathke): e, side 

view X5; /, papillae X48; g, three segments and nepMdial 

papilla XlO; h, foot encrusted -with sand X48 ; i, part of 

a dorsal bristle X320 ; ft, ventral bristle Xl20 ; I, tip 

of a ventral bristle in good condition, unbroken. 

pointing forwards. On the 2nd setigerous segment they 
are shorter and decrease rapidly on the following ones, the 
rami of which are well apart. Ventral setae shorter than 
the dorsal, more curved, with longer articles. There are 
no hooks. 

Length: 20—25 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: Mergui, 5 fms. 

F. 47 



354 SCALIBREGMIDAE 

Distribution: Mergui Archipelago; North Atlantic 
Ocean. 

Remarks: Though the retracted branchiae could not 
be observed in the Mergui specimen, it may, somewhat 
doubtfully, be attributed to Dtploarrus glaucus by the 
appearance of the setae. 

Incertae sedis 

342.. Ilyphagus hirsotas Monro. 

Ilyphagus hirsutus, Monro, 1937, p. 304, fig. 22. 

The description of this " sac-like creature, shaped like 
an Echiurus, with a dense uniform, fur-like covering of 
long cirrifonn papillae " is really too scanty to fix its 
place. By its setae, it appears to belong to the Chlorae- 
midae. One might wonder whether it be not a bad speci- 
men of Buskiella abyssorum Mcintosh ? 

Length: 39 mm. by 14 mm. 

Occurrence: Arabian Sea, 3385 m. 

Family SCALIBREGMIDAE Malmgren. 

Body club-shaped, or short fusiform. Prostomium 
small, bilobed, or with frontal peaks. Sometimes eyes in 
clusters. Two nuchal grooves. Peristomium achaetous. 
Proboscis soft, unarmed. Skin generally tessellated or 
corrugated. Segments subdivided into annuli. Dorsal 
and ventral rami each bearing setae of two kinds, viz. 
simple capiUaiy setae and furcate setae, sometimes also aci- 
cular setae. Gills, when present, limited to a few ante- 
rior segments. 

Key to the genera of ScALiBREGMmAE. 

1. Acicular setae on the first seg- 
ments . . . . Parasclerocheilus 

Fauvel, p. 355. 

Acicular setae absent . . Scalibregma Rathke, p. 364. 

Genus SCALIBREGMA Rathke. 

Body arenicoliform. Prostomium T-shaped, with two 
elongated frontal peaks. Gills present on the anterior 
segments. Parapodia prominent, flattened. Dorsal and 
ventral drri. Acicular setae absent. 



PARASCLEROCHEILUS 355 

343. Scalibfegma inflatom Rathke. (Fig. 185, a-f) . 

Scalibregma tnfiatum, .\shworth, 1901, p. 237 nk \'TT v\'. 
Fauvel, 1927a, p. 123, fig. 44. a-f; 1932, p. I'ssT Moor" 1923. 

Four pairs of gills on the setigerous segments 2-5 
Four anal cirri. Finger-shaped dorsal and ventral cirri 




Fig. \ih.— Scalibregma infiatum Rathke: a, dorsal view x5; b, head; 

c, 36th foot xl2; d, first branchiferous foot XlO; e, capillary 

bristle X480; f, forked seta X480. Flabelligera diplochaitos 

(Otto): g-h, compound bristles X120; i, k, club-shaped papillae 

Xl20 ; /, elongate papillae Xl20 ; m, ventral bristle Xl20 ; 

n, 0, tip and base of a dorsal annulate bristle X120. 

from the 16th— 18th segments backwards. Lateral ciliate 
organ between the rami. Acicular setae absent. 

Length: 10—60 mm. by 2—10 mm. 

Colour: in life vermilion-red, spotted with yellow. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Oman; 609 fms. 



Genus PARASCLEROCHEILUS Fauvel. 

Body fusiform, elongated. Prostomium T-shaped, 
with two long frontal peaks and eye-spots. Nuchal organs 
protractile. Peristomium achaetous. Proboscis unarmed. 
Anterior segments divided into superficial rings. A few 
anterior segments bearing branchiae. Dorsal and ventral 
rami reduced to stout rounded processes. Dorsal cirri 
absent A cirrus-like process above the ventral ramus in 



SS6 



SCALIBREGMIDAE 



the posterior region. Lateral organs. Acicular setae in 
the dorsal ramus of the first setigerous segments. Forked 
setae in the following segments. Anal cirri finger-like. 

344. Pafasdefocheilos htasich.ia.tiss Fauvel. (Fig. 186, 
a—k). 

Parasclerocheilus branchiatus, Fauvel, 1928, p. 159, fig. 1, a—k, 
1930a, p. 44, fig. 11; 1932, p. 188 

Body rather long, nearly uniform in breadth, slowly 
tapering backwards, rectangular in section, with a more 
or less marked ventral groove. Prostomium globular, with 
two diverging, thick, tentacle-like processes. Four red 
pigmented plates, linear, arched, converging (eye-spots) . 




Fig. liQ.— Parasclerocheilus branchiatus Fauvel : a, anterior region, 

proboscis extruded, dorsal view X6 ; &, pygidium X8 ; c, dorsal foot 

X24 ; d, 10th foot X24 ; e, 40th foot X24 ; /, hook from the 2nd 

segment X240 ; g, tip of a lower hook X320 ; h, tip of an upper 

hook X320 ; j, curved seta from the 2nd setigerous segment 

X240 ; k, forked seta X320. 

Two protractile cushion-shaped nuchal organs. Peristo- 
mium achaetous. Proboscis huge, campanulate. Seg- 
ments divided into four rings, nearly smooth on the ven- 
tral side, rough and corrugated on the dorsal. In the 
first four setigerous segments, the dorsal ramus carries, in 
front of a bundle of long capillary setae, large curved 
adcular setae with a hook at the tip. Of the other dorsal 
and ventral setae some are capillary, slender and smooth. 



tARiVSCLEROCHElLUS 357 

while the others are shorter and slightly bent. In the 
succeeding segments, the dorsal and •ventral rami are simi- 
lar, and in the form of thick rounded processes, without 
cirri, and each bearing a bundle of capillary setae and 
shorter, forked, setae with limbs unequal and ciliated on 
the inner edge. From the 29th setigerous segment to the 
last one a short slender finger-like process is inserted above 
the ventral ramus. In the last segments this process reach- 
es one-fourth or one-third of the breadth of the body. 
A lateral organ lies between the two rami. There are six 
pairs of branchiae from the 2nd to the 7th setigerous 
segment, arborescent, densely ramified as in Scalibregma. 
The first pair, the smallest, has 6—7 filaments, the four last 
ones are sub-equal and much larger. They are inserted 
behind the dorsal setae. Pygidium short, with broad ter- 
minal vent and 6 anal cirri : I dorsal, I ventral and 2 
on each side. 

Length: 35 mm. by 3 mm. 

Colour: Discoloured in alcohol, with the exception 
of the reddish-carmine eye-spots. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago, Paway Island; Gulf 
of Mannar, Krusadai Island. 

Distribution: India, Gulf of Oman. 

Incertae sedis 

345. Oncoscolex micfocliaetas Schmarda, 1861, p. 56. 
Trincomalee. 



Family OPHELIIDAE Grube. 

Body rather short, dorsum ardied, ventral side flat, 
or with a longitudinal groove. Prostomium conical, des- 
titute of appendages. Cephalic eye-spots hidden under 
the skin. Often lateral eye-spots on the segments. Seg- 
ments more or less clearly subdivided into annuli. Pro- 
boscis unarmed. Nuchal organs protrusible. Gills cirri- 
form (very rarely branched) or absent. Feet biramous, 
often reduced to dorsal and ventral bundles of capillary 
setae. Dorsal cirri absent. Sometimes a few ventral cirri. 
Lateral sense-organ between the parapodial rami. Pygi- 
dium bearing papillae, and often an anal funnel. 

Key to the genera of Opheliidae. 
1. Lateral gills absent . . . . Polyophthalmus 

Quatrefages, p. 359. 
Lateral gills present .. 2 



358 OfHELlIDAE 

2. Ventral groove absent . . Travuia Johnston, p. 361. 
Ventral groove conspicuous . . 3 

3. Ventral groove limited to the 

posterior half of the body . Ophelia Savigny. 

Ventral groove along the whole 

length of the body . 4 

4. Lateral eye-spots present .. Armandia Filippi, p. 358. 
Lateral eye-spots absent . . Ammotrypane Rathke, p 359 

Genus ARMANDIA Filippi. 

Body elongated, not divided into distinct regions, a 
deep median and two lateral ventral grooves. Prostomium 
conical. Eyes on the brain under the skin. Segments 
divided into annuli. Cirriform gills all along the body 
-from the 2nd setigerous segment. Parapodia with only 
two bundles of capillary setae. A small ventral cirrus. 
Anal funnel fringed with papillae, and a median cirrus. 
Lateral eye-spots on many segments. 

Key to the species of Armandia. 

1. 29—30 setigerous segments .. lanceolata Willey, p. 358. 

33—37 setigerous segments .. leptocirris Grube, p. 358. 

346. Aimandia ianceolata Willey. 

Armandia lanceolata, Willey, 1905, p. 288, pi. V, fig. 120, Auge- 
ner, 1914, p. 33; 1926, p. 462: Fauvel, 1930b, p. 547; 1932, p. 
189. 

29 (occasionally 30) setigerous segments. Gills from 
the 2nd setigerous segment, absent on the last 3 segments. 
Generally 11-12 pairs of eye-spots beginning about the 
7th setigerous segment. Anal funnel compressed, short, 
fringed with 12—20 small papillae. A median anal cir- 
rus. 

Length: 20-35 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: whitish. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago; Ceylon; Pamban. 

Distribution: Australia, New Caledonia, Indo-China; 
India, Persian Gulf. 

347. Armafldia leptodbM-ts Grube. 

Armdndia leptocirris, Willey, 1905, p. 289: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 

50; 1932, p. 190. 
Ophelina leptocirris, Grube, 1878, p. 194. 



AMMOTRYPANE 359 

33 to 38 setigerous segments. Gills from the 2nd 
setigerous segment to the last one. 10—12 pairs of lateral 
eyes from about the 7th setigerous segment. Anal funnel 
long, compressed, slantingly cleft, fringed with long papil- 
lae. A long median anal cirrus. 

Length: 15—30 mm. 

Colour: Decoloured in spirit. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Gulf of Mannar; 
Krusadai Lagoon, burrowing in sand. 

Distribution: New Caledonia, Philippine Islands, 
Indo-China; Andaman Islands, Gulf of Mannar, Persian 
Gulf, Red Sea. 

Genus AMMOTRYPAKE Rathke. 

Body vermiform, not divided into distinct regions. 
A deep ventral groove all along the ventral side and two 
lateral ridges. Prostomium conical. Cephalic eyes hid- 
den under the skin. No lateral eyes. Segments divided 
into annuli. Cirriform gills from the 2nd setigerous seg- 
ment nearly to the end. Parapodia with short setigerous 
lobes and two bundles of simple setae. A small ventral 
cirrus. Anal funnel with papillae and anal cirrus. 

34<8. Ammotrypane atilogaster Rathke. (Fig. 187, a-e) . 

Ammotrypane aulogaster, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 133, fig. 47, a—e; 
1932, p. 190: Hoagland, 1920, p. 625. 

Prostomium conical, ending in a filiform clavate tip. 
Gills absent only on the last 3---4 segments. Ventral cirri 
small, conical. Anal funnel spoon-shaped, with a large 
ventral opening fringed with small papillae. Two large 
ventral papillae and a median anal cirrus with a long 
cirrostyle borne on a cylindrical cirrophore. 

Length: about 50 mm. by 3 mm. 60—68 segments. 

Colour: pearl-grey. Gills red. 

Occurrence: Orissa Coast; Madras, Ennur Backwater; 
Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; India, Persian 
Gulf; Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Seas. 

Genus POLYOPHTHALHUS Quatrefages. 

A longitudinal ventral groove. Prostomium short. 
Cephalic and lateral eye-spots. Nuchal organs protrusible. 
Gills and ventral cirri absent. Biramous parapodia with 
capillary simple setae. Anal funnel fringed with papillae. 



360 



OPHELIIDAE 



349. Polyoptthalmos picttjs Dujardin. (Fig. 187, l-o) . 
Polyophthalmus pictus, Faiivel, 1927a, p. 137, fig. 48, Z-n, 1930b, 

p. 546; 1932, p. 191. 
Polyophthalmus ceylonensis, Kukenthal, 1887, p. 371, pi XXI, 

fiffQ 19_„1 ft 

Polyophthalmus collaris, Michaelscn, 1892. p 17, fig. 5. 
Polyophthalmus setosus, Michaelscn, 1892, p. 16, fig. 14. 
Polyophthalmus australis Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 289. 
27—28 setigerous segments. There are no prominent 
setigerous lobes. Only a single bundle o£ capillary setae 




^n'\ 



Fig. 181.— Ammotrypane aulogaster Rathke : a, side view X2 ; b, 
anterior part X8 ; Cj anal tube, ventral view, median cirrus lost X5 ; 
d, posterior part with anal tube, side view X6; e, foot from mid- 
body X8. Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin): l^ side view 
X5; m, head, nuchal organs everted XIO; n, posterior part 
with anal tube XIO; o, several kinds of dorsal patems. 

in each foot, except in the last ones. Nephridial pores 
on segments 8—11. 

Length: 10-25 mm. by 1-2 mm. 

Colour: extremely variable, brown spots or streaks, 
more or less conspicuous and arranged in several different 
dorsal patterns; this has caused it to be described under 



TRAVISIA 



361 



many names which are really synonymous. The P. longise- 
tosus Michaelsen, found pelagic at Ceylon, is only the 
epitocous swimming form, with long bristles, which swarms 
on the surface when mature. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Ceylon, Pamban, Kila- 
karai; Maldive Archipelago, Fehendu. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans, 
Mediterranean Sea. Cosmopolitan. 



Genus TRAVISIA Johnston. 

Body divided into two distinct regions, an anterior 
enlarged and a posterior narrow, square in section. There 
is no marked ventral groove. Prostomium small, conical. 
Two nuchal organs. Proboscis unarmed, soft, globular, 
more or less lobed. Segments divided into annuli. Bran- 
chiae from the 2nd setigerous segment, cirriform, or very 
rarely branched. Dorsal and ventral rami reduced to a 
bundle of capillary setae. In the posterior region, huge 
lateral fleshy processes. Ventral cirri absent. A lateral 
sense organ between the rami. Pygidium, a rounded lobe. 

350. Tfavisia athotiicta. Fauvel. (Fig. 188, a-f) . 
Trauisia arborifera, Fauvel, 1932. p. 191, fig. 33, a—f. 




Fig. 188.— Travisia arborifera Fauvel : a, posterior foot X65 ; b, pos- 
terior gUl X65 ; c, gill from mid-body X85 ; d, part o£ a giU X85 ; e, 
polygonal glandular areas of the tegument X7S ; /, part of a seta X350. 

F. 48 



362 CAPITELLIDAE 

Body short, plump, spindle-shaped. 36 setigerous 
segments subdivided into annuli. Posterior segments im- 
bricated, square in section. Skin divided into polygonal 
glandular areas. Prostomium rounded, ending in a small 
conical tip. Two small nuchal organs. Gills branched, 
beginning on the 2nd setigerous segment and missing 
only on the last 6—7 segments. Dorsal and ventral rami 
far apart and each reduced to a bundle of simple, smooth, 
or very finely barbed capillary setae inserted in a pit. A 
small triangular fleshy lamella in front of the gills; a simi- 
lar, slightly larger, lamella in the ventral ramus. In the 
posterior part of the body these lamellae are larger. A 
lateral pit-like sense organ between the rami, conspicuous 
even on the first setigerous segment. Nephridial pores 
from the 3rd to the 14th setigerous segment. Pygidium 
ending in a knob with 6—8 short cirri. Vent terminal. 

Length: 10—38 mm. by 3—10 nmi. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea, 53 fms.: ofiE Puri, Orissa, 
4— 4J fms. 

Family CAPITELLIDAE Grube. 

Body divided into a thorax and an abdomen. Pros- 
tomium conical, without appendages. Proboscis unarmed, 
papillose. Peristomium achaetous. Branchiae simple, 
compound, or absent altogether. Parapodia biramas. 
Dorsal and ventral cirri absent. Capillary setae and 
hooks borne on uncinigerous tori. Lateral sense-organs. 

Key to the genera of Capitellidae. 

1. Thorax -with only capillaiy setae 2 

Thorax with capillary setae and 

hooks . . , . 9 

2. Thorax with 13 setigerous seg- 

ments. Compound retractSe 

abdominal gUls .. Dasy bronchus 

Grube, p. 365. 

Thorax with less than 13 seti- 
gerous segments .. 3 

3. Twelve thoracic setigerous seg- 

ments . . . . 4 

Less than twelve thoracic seg- 
ments .. .. 5 

4. Anal funnel cup-shaped with 

radiating acicular bristles .. Scyphoproctus 

Gravier, p. 372. 



NOTOMASTUS 



363 



A broad, round, anal plate with- 
out acicular bristles, two long 
anal cirri 



5. Eleven thoracic setigerous seg- 

ments 

Less than eleven thoracic seg- 
ments 

6. More or less developed gills 

Abdominal gills and raised un 
cinigerous tori absent 

7. Posterior segments strobiliform 

Posterior segments not strobili- 
fonn 

8. Seven thoracic setigerous seg- 

ments. A dorsal copulatory 
organ 

Nine thoracic setigerous seg- 
ments. Posterior segments 
with stout dorsal spines 

9. First 6 setigerous segments with 

capillary setae; the next 5 with 
long hooks 

First 5 setigerous segments with 
capillary setae; the next 6 \nth 
long hooks. Gills . , 

First 4 setigerous segments with 
capillary setae; the next 7 with 
hooks . , 



Heteromastides 

Augener, p. 367. 



Capitellethus 

Chamberlin, p. 370. 

Mastobranchus 
Eisig, p. 369. 

Notomastiis Sars, p. 363. 



Branehiocapitella 
Fauvd, p. 371. 

PuUtella Fauvel, p. 374. 



Barantolla Southern, p. 370. 



Heteromastus Eisig, p. 366. 



Paraheteromastus Monro, 
p. 368. 



Genus NOTOMASTUS Sars. 

Thorax of eleven setigerous segments, with only dor- 
sal and ventral capillary setae. Abdomen with hooded 
hooks borne on raised tori. Gills reduced to short pro- 
cesses of the parapodial ridge, or, sometimes, compound, 
Thorax tessellated. 



Key to the species of Notomastits. 



1. Parapodial gills on both rami, 
the dorsal ones small, globular, 
on the lower edge of the 
dorsal ridge • • latericeits, Sars, p. 364. 

Dorsal gills compound 



giganieus Moore, p. 365 



364 



CAPrrELLIDAE 



361. Notomastos Iaterice«s Sars. (Fig. 189, a-h) . 

Notomastus latenceus, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 143, fig. 49, a-h; 1932, 

p. 194: Ehlers, 1897, 117. 
(?) Notomastus zeylanicus, Willey, 1905, p. 287, pi. V, figs. 118- 

119. 

Thorax tessellated, segments bi-annular. Peristomi- 
um bi-annular, achaetous. First dorsal tori close to each 
other, coalescent; farther back they are well apart. Gills 
rudimentary and are represented by lateral processes of the 




Fig. 1S9.— Notomastus latericeus Sars : a, anterior part x3 ; 6, pros- 
tomium ; c, anterior abdominal segment, with a pair of large geni- 
tal pores behind the dorsal tori ; d, section of the anterior part of 
the abdominal region ; e, section of the posterior region ; /, capil- 
lary bristle X120; g, h, hooks, dorsal and side view, X360. 
Clyniene ^antanderensis Rioja : a', head, side view xS ; b', 
head from above X3 ; c", anal funnel X5 ; d', ventral hook 
X120; e', acicular hook from the first setigerous seg- 
ment x96; f, capillary bristle X96; g*, winged 
bristle x96 ; h' , pinnate bristle (after Rioja). 

dorsal ridges and of the upper end of the ventral tori. 
Genital pores from the 2nd abdominal segment. Very 
brittle in the posterior part. 

Length: 150-300 mm. by 3-5 mm. 

Colour: in life, bright red anteriorly. 

Occurrence; Andaman Islands; Bay of Bengal; 
Ceylon; Gulf of Oman. 



BASYBRANCHUS 365 

Distribution: Magellan, Chile; Bay o£ Bengal, Gulf 
of Oman; Adantic Ocean; Mediterranean Sea, Falkland 
Islands. 

352. Notomastas giganteas Moore. 

Notomastus gigantew, Moore, 1906, p. 227, pi. XI, figs. 24—25: 

Fauvel, 1932, p. 194. 
Dasybranchus giganteus, Moore, 1909, p. 279, pi. IX, fig. 57. 

Body of large size. Prostomium rounded, with a 
small conical tip. Without eyes. Thoracic segments bi- 
annulate and partly tessellated. Eleven segments with 
capillary dorsal and ventral setae. First abdominal dorsal 
tori very small, connected across the dorsum by a low 
transverse fold: posteriorly they become obsolete. First 
abdominal ventral tori ending in a sharp upper process 
which decreases in size farther back. Gills retractile and 
usually obscured anteriorly; on the middle and abdominal 
segments they become conspicuous bushy tufts, composed 
of numerous (about 20—30) filaments arising from the 
posterior end of the dorsal tori, or posteriorly, when the 
tori become obsolete, replacing them. A pair of large 
genital pores on the first 9 abdominal segments. 

Length'. 140 mm. and more, by 7 mm. 

Occurrence: OS. Puri, Orissa, 4— 4J fms.; N. E. of 
Ceylon, 200-350 fins. 

Distribution: North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Georgia, 
San Diego, California; India, Ceylon. 

Genus DAS YBRANCHUS Grube. 

Thorax with thirteen setigerous segments bearing 
only capillary setae. Abdomen with only hooks inserted 
on dorsal and ventral tori. Retractile gills inserted at the 
upper end of the abdominal tori. 

353. Dasybfanchtts cadcctts Grube. (Fig. 190, a-h) . 
Dasybranchus caducus, Eisig, 1887, p. 823, pi. XVII-XXIII: 

Fauvel, 1927a, p. 148, fig. a-h: Monro, 1937, p. 305. 
Dasybranchus cirratus, Grube, 1867, p. 28, pi. Ill, fig. 4. 

Prostomium small, conical. Peristomium long, achae- 
tous. Compound gills, with numerous simple filaments, 
from about the 20th abdominal segment. Body tough. 
Genital pores from the last thoracic segment. 

Length: 250-300 mm. by 10-15 mm. 

Colour: in life thorax blood red, abdomen yellowish. 
Gills red. 



366 



CAPltELLIDAE 



Occurrence: Burma, off Akyab; Andaman Islands; 
Gulf of Mannar; Maldive Archipelago. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 




Fig. Wi—Dasyhranchus caducus Grube : a, anterior part, natural size : 

b, postomium, side view ; c, posterior end ; d, segments of the middle 

region of the abdomen, from above downwards, dor&al tori, lateral 

loaobbed-organ, branchial vesicles, compound gills, ventral tori ; 

nephridiopores between the gills ; e, last thoracic segments and 

first abdominal ones, side view ; f, thoracic bristle ; g, h, 

hooks, front and side view. t>. gajolae Eisig : i, pros- 

tomium ; k, compound gill ; /, parapodial gland ; m, n, 

hooks (after Eisig). 

Genus HETEROMASTUS Eisig. 

Thorax with eleven setlgerous segments, the first five 
with only capillary setae, the next six with long stalked 
hooks. Abdomen witli only shorter hooks inserted on 
tori. Posterior segments campanulate, or strobiliform. 
The parapodial gills are but an extension of the ventral 
tori. A median anal cirrus. 



354. Heteromastas simflis Southern. (Fig. 191, a—d) . 

Heteromastm similts. Southern, 1921, p. 640, pi. XXIX, fig. 3: 

Fauvd, 1930a, p. 46; 1932. p. 195. 
Heteromasttis sp., Gravdy, 1927, p. 26. 



HETEROMASTIDES 



367 



Prostomium conical, pear-shaped. Peristomium long, 
achaetous. Body long, slender, swollen at the anterior 
end, tapering gradually to the tail. The first abdominal 
segments are not conspicuously elongated. Lateral lobes 
absent in the posterior moniliform segments. 




Fig. 191.— Heteromastiis similis Southern : a, aaterior end, side view 

Xl2 ; b, posterior end, side view X36; c, 180th segment, dorsal view 

X36 ; d, ventral hook from the 86th segment xfiO. Barantolla 

sculpta Southern : e, dorsal view of segments 115-118X25 ; f, 

lateral view of gills and dorsal lobes in the posterior segments 

X636; g, tip of a dorsal hook from the 7th foot X563. 

Mastobranchus indicus Southern, h, tip of a long hook 

from the ventral division o£ the 11th foot x713; i, tip 

of the dorsal hoofc from the 14th foot x713 (after 

Southern). 



Length: 215 mm. and more by 1.5—1.8 mm. 

Remark: Hardly distinct from, and, probably syno- 
nymous with, H. filiformis Claparfede. 

Occurrence: Tal6h-Sap, Gulf of Siam; Chilka Lake; 
Vizagapatam; Kutikal, Gulf of Mannar. 

Genus HETEROMASTIDES Augener. ' 

Thorax with 12—13 setigerous segments with capillary 
setae on both rami: abdomen with hooks. There are no 
gills. An anal plate with two cirri. 



368 CAPITELLIDAE 

355. Hcteromastides UMus Augener. (Fig. 192, a-b) . 

Heteromastides bifidus, Augener, 1914, p. 64, fig 8, pi. I, fig. 11- 
Fauvel, 1930a, p. 47, fig 12. 

Prostomium bluntly finger-shaped. Two lateral clus- 
ters of small eye-spots. Abdominal segments more or less 
moniliform. The 4-5 penultimate segments are provided 
with a small triangular process pointing backwards, the 




Fig. l92.—Heteioma3tus bifidiis Augener : a, anterior region, side view 
X40 ; 6, posterior region and pygidium X40. 

last carries, on each side, a small globular swelling. A 
broad, round, anal plate, slightly slanting, bearing two 
long finger-shaped diverging cirri. 

Length: 10 mm. by 0.8 mm.: upwards of 70 segments. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island. 

Distribution: Australia; India. 

Genus PARAHETEROHASTUS Monro. 

" Thoracic region of twelve segments of which eleven 
are setigerous. Of these eleven, the first four carry border- 
ed capillary bristles only, and the remaining seven only 
hooks with narrow stems and long guards. The abdomen 
carries only hooks, difiEerent from those of the thorax. 
There is no tessellation of the thorax. In the abdominal 
region, there is little development of the parapodial tori 
and no branchiae are present. The pygidium has a single 
rather short cirrus." (Monro) 



MASTOBRANCHUS 369 

356. Paraheteromasttts tenuis Monro. (Fig. 194, c—f) . 
Paraheteromastus tenuis, Monro, 1937, p. 536, fig. 2b. 

The body swells out in the anterior thoracic region. 
Division between thorax and abdomen not conspicuous. 
Prostomium short, conical, without eyes. The first 4 seti- 
gerous segments carry only short, widely bordered capillary 
bristles. The remaining 7 thoracic segments carry only 
rather large hooks with narrow stems and long guards. 
The abdominal hooks are smaller than the thoracic and 
have a subterminal enlargement and shorter and more 
rounded guards. 

The body in the long abdominal region is extei-nally 
almost as featureless and homogeneous as that of an Oligo- 
chaete. The parapodial ridges are very little developed. 
In the hindmost part they are represented by a slight swel- 
ling of the segments in the dorso-lateral and ventro-lateral 
regions. There are no branchiae and the hinder abdominal 
segments are not campanulate. A short pygidial cirrus. 

Length: 50 mm. by 0.5 mm. 140 segments. 

Colowless, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Maungmagan, Burma. 

Genus MASTOBRANCHUS Eisig. 

Thorax of eleven setigerous segments with only dorsal 
and ventral capillary setae. Abdomen with capillary setae 
and hooks on the dorsal ramus and hooks only on the ven- 
tral ramus. Thoracic feet claviform. Anterior abdominal 
segments long, cylindrical, the posterior ones strobiliform 
or campanulate. Parapodial gills simple, next compound 
and retractile. 

357. Mastobranchos indicas Southern. (Fig. 191, h, i) . 
Mastobranchus indicus, Southern, 1921, p. 646, pi. XXX, fig. 25. 

Prostomium small, rounded. No eyes. Skin of the 
anterior region tessellated. Lateral organs not very distinct. 
4 pairs of genital pores behind the segments 8—11. Tori 
in segments 2—4 very short, longer on the subsequent seg- 
ments. The right ventral bundles of the 11th foot con- 
tain two very elongate hooks. The dorsal bundles on 
13th and 14th segments contain only capillary setae, the 
ventral bundles only hooks, that are much larger and 
shorter than those of the right 11th foot. In the dorsal 
bundle of the 15th segment there are only hooks. 

F. 49 



370 CAPITELLIDAE 

Length: 46 mm. by 3 mm. Only an imperfect speci- 
men with 90 segments. Gills and posterior part unknown. 

Occurrence: BarantoUa, near Calcutta; from brackish 
pools, salt lakes. 

Genus BARANTOLLA Southern. 

" Capitellidae having 12 thoracic segments, of which 
the first is achaetous. Segments 2—7 have only capillary 
setae, segments 8—12 only elongate crochets. The ab- 
dominal segments have short crochets only. The anterior 
thoracic segments have reticulate markings on the skin, 
and the sculpture of the thoracic segments is rather ela- 
borate. Branchiae in the form of short finger-shaped lobes 
behind the dorsal setae of the middle and posterior seg- 
ments. These segments are provided each with a mem- 
branous collar, produced into four shallow parapodial 
lobes." (Southern) 

358. BarantoUa scalpta Southern. (Fig. 191, e-g) . 

BarantoUa sculpta. Southern, 1921, p. 643, pi. XIX, fig. 24: Fauvel, 
1932, p. 196. 

Body widest near 4th— 5th segment, very gradually 
tapering backwards. Prostomium two-ridged, without 
eyes. Proboscis covered with minute papillae. First four 
segments tessellated. Capillary setae with narrow wings. 
In segments 8—12 only long hooks resembling those of 
Heteromastus, ending in a strong tooth with 5—6 slender 
spines on the crest and a long hood. Abdominal crochets 
much smaller. Gills begin about 55th— 60th— 70th seg- 
ments; they lie under the dorsal parapodial lobes, each 
consisting of 3—4 short rounded lobes hidden by the 
parapodial lobes: the larger possess up to 9—11 finger- 
shaped lobes. A median anal cirrus. 

Length: 55—60 mm. by 2-3 mm. Segments numer- 
ous. 

Occurrence: Tal6h-Sap; Gulf of Siam; BarantoUa, 
near Calcutta. 

Genus CAPITELLETHUS Chamberlin. 
Capitellides Ehlers, non Mesnil. 

Thorax exclusively with capillary setae, abdomen 
with crochets exclusively. Branchiae none. Eleven seti- 
gerous thoracic segments; no other macroscopic distinction 
between thorax and abdomen. 



BRANCHIOCAPITELLA 371 

359. Capitellettas dispar (Ehlers) . 

Capitellethus dispar, Chamberlin, 1919, p. 466: Fauvel, 1930b, 
p. 548; 1932, p. 197. 

CapitelUdes dispar, Ehlers, 1907, p. 24, fig. 15. 

Notomastus zeylanicus, Augener, 1926a, p. 172; 1927a, p. 218 
(non WiUey?). 

The characters of the one species are those of the 
genus. The body slender, fiHform, without any appa- 
rent difference between the thorax and the abdomen, is 
very like that of an Oligochaete. 

Length: 15 mm. by 0.8 mm. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam. 

Remarks: Augener identifies this species with Noto- 
mastus zeylanicus Willey (1905) , but I very much doubt 
their synonymy. 

Genus BRANCHIOCAPITELLA Fauvel. 

Thorax with seven setigerous segments, bearing dorsal 
and ventral capillary setae. On the 8th and 9th segments 
ventral hooks and a dorsal copulatory organ with modi- 
fied large spines. In the abdomen dorsal and ventral 
hooks and dorsal cirriform gills. 

360. Bf anchiocaphclla singolar is Fauvel. (Fig. 193, a— 

/)• 
Branchiocapitella singulariSj Fauvel, 1932, p. 197, pi. VIZ, figs. 
9-14. 

Body slender, filiform, slightly enlarged in the thorax; 
about 200 segments or more. Skin faintly tessellated in 
the anterior segments. Prostomium blunt conical, without 
eyes. Peristomium achaetous, short ventrally and over- 
hanging the prostomium on the dorsal side where it is 
twice as long. The first 8—9 segments biannulate, larger 
and more swollen than those following. Maximum 
breadth about the 6th segment. The first 7 setigerous 
segments bearing each two dorsal and two ventral bundles 
of capillary setae. On the 8th and 9th segments ventral 
hooded hooks and a dorsal copulatory apparatus armed 
with 8 large, bent, acicular spines (two in each ramus) 
converging towards the boundary of the two segments 
between which opens the male genital pore. In each dor- 
sal ramus there are two bristles, a long one and a shorter 
supplementary seta. An ovate gland lies between the 
posterior bristles. From the 10th setigerous segment 



372 



CAPITELLIDAt; 



backwards dorsal and ventral hooded hooks. In the ab- 
dominal region the body is semi-circular in section. 
Dorsal and ventral uncinigerous tori are short, little rais- 
ed, transverse pads. About the 80th setigerous segment 




Fig. 19i.—SranchwcapUella singularis Fauvel : a, anterior end, dor- 
sal view X8 ; 6, posterior region, dorsal view x8 ; c, cross section 
of abdomen XlO; d, segments 6 to 11 and dorsal capulatory 
organ X25; e, right posterior pair of copulatory spines Xl47; 
f, abdominal hook X630 (from Fauvel 1932). 

the gills make their appearance; they are small, finger- 
shaped, with one or two filaments inserted on the inner 
end of the dorsal tori. Pygidium a short faintly bilobed 
knob. 

Length: up to 95 mm. by 1 mm. 

Decoloured^ in spirit. 

Occurrence: BarantoUa or Vizagapatam. 



Genus SCYPHOPROCTUS Gravier. 

Thorax of 14 segments, of which 12 carry only capil- 
lary setae. Abdomen with only hooded hooks. No gills. 
An anal cup-shaped funnel with radiating acicular bris- 
tles. Two long anal cirri. 



SCYPHOPROCTtJS 



37S 



3G1. Scyphopfoctas djifcoaticnsis Gravier. (Fig. 194, a, 
b). \ & > ' 

Scyphoproctus djiboutiensis, Gravier, 1906, p. 181, pi. Ill, figs 
200-204: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 48. i r 5 

Prostomium short, conical, eyeless. The first two 
segments achaetous. Capillary setae long and slender. 
Dorsal and ventral abdominal toii without processes. The 




Fig. 194.—Scyphoproctus djiboutiensis Gravier : a, anterior part, dorsal 
view ; b, anal funnel, side view (after Gravier). Paraheteromastus 
tenuis Monro : c, segments from mid-abdominal region ; rf, ter- 
minal segments, side view; e, anterior thoracic bristle; /, abdo- 
minal hook ; g, thoracic hook (after Monro;. 

anal funnel is a cup-like plate, the walls of which are 
stiffened with bundles of acicular setae. It is provided 
with two long finger-shaped cirri. 

Length: 25 lam. by 0.6 mm. 

Colour: yellowish-brown. 

Occurrence; Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, 

Distribution; India, Red Sea. 



374 



CAPITELLlDA£ 



Genus PULLIELLA Fauvel. 



Body divided into three distinct regions: (1) thora- 
cic, the 9 segments of which bear only capillary setae in 
both rami; (2) abdominal, with hooks in both rami and 
dorsal tori well apart; (3) posterior with dorsal acicular 
setae and ventral hooks. The last segments are partly 
fused together. Pygidium with two stout, conical, ventral 
cirri. Branchiae absent. 

362. Palliella armata Fauvel. (Fig. 195, a-h) . 

Pulliella armata, Fauvel, 1930a, p. 48, fig. 13; 1930b, p. 549: 1936, 
p. 342. 

Body swollen at both ends. Three regions clearly 
distinct. Prostomium blunt, two eyes. Peristomium 
achaetous, biannulate. The nine following segments are 
short, close together, biannulate, smooth, without any 




Fig. l%.—PullteUa armata Fauvel : a, anterior region, side view X6 ; 

b, posterior region, side view X6; c, pygidium and last segments, 

from above X6 ; cJ, a row of posterior dorsal acicular spines X48 ; 

e, ventral posterior hook X280 ; /, g, dorsal anterior hooks X280; 

hj tip of a posterior acicular dorsal seta x280. 

pattern and each carrying two dorsal and two ventral 
bundles of capillary setae, inserted into hollow (retractile?) 
eminences. In the next three segments, the dorsal and 
ventral hooks are arranged in transverse rows, faintly 
raised but not forming true tori. The following abdomi- 
nal segments bear two short prominent dorsal tori well 



MAU)ANIDAE 375 

apart. The first ventral tori are longer than, and closer 
to, the dorsal tori; next they become nearly as short as 
the dorsal tori. The posterior region numbers 8—11 seg- 
ments, larger than the preceding ones, short, conspicuous, 
separated from each other by a nau-row and deep constric- 
tion. They carry, on the dorsal side, stout, bodkin-like 
acicular setae, arrayed in two rather wide apart rows; 
and on the ventral side hooks like those of the abdomen. 
Pygidium on the ventral edge of the last setigerous seg- 
ment, with two stout, conical, diverging cirri under the 
anus. On the 4th— 5th abdominal segments, a dorsal 
raised swelling between the tori and somewhat behind 
them. There are no branchiae. 

Length: 15—25 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Remarks: This species is a connecting link between 
Scyphoproctus and the other Capitellids. 

Occurrence: Pulli Island, Gulf or Mannar. 

Distribution: New Caledonia, Indo-China; India. 

Family ARENICOLIDAE Johnston. 

To my knowledge no species o£ Arenicola has been, 
as yet, recorded from the area of India. Arenicola species 
are of rare occurrence in the tropical part of the Indian 
Ocean. 

Family MALDANIDAE Malmgren. 

Body nearly cylindrical; segments long and few. Pro- 
stomium smaU, destitute of appendages. A median keel 
on each side of which is a nuchal groove; often with a more 
or less rimmed cephalic plate. Buccal segment (peristo- 
mium) achaetous. Parapodia biramous, a dorsal setiger- 
ous lobe with capillary bristles, a ventral uncinigerous 
torus. Dorsal and ventral cirri absent. Ante-anal seg- 
ments often achaetous. An anal funnel with cirri, or 
an anal plate. Cutaneous glands well developed. Tube 
membranaceous, coated with sand or mud, or hard, arena- 
ceous. 

Key to the genera of Maldankae. 

1. Head with a cephalic plate sur- 
rounded by a thickened mar- 
gin or not .. 2 
Head without a bordered plate. 

A foliaceous anal plate .. Petaloprocius 

Quattefages, p. 384. 



376 MALDANIDAE 

2. Anal segment having a deep fun- 

nel with cirri on the margin; 
the anus lies in the centre . . 3 

Anal segments forming a smooth 

plate without cirri . . 5 

3. Ventral uncmi replaced by ati- 

cular setae m a number of an- 
terior segments . . Clymene Savigny, p. 376 

Ventral acicular setae absent m 

the first segments . 4 

4 Uncini, or ventral hoolcs, in all 

the setigerous segments . . Axiothella Verrill, p. 380. 

Neither acicular setae noi uncini 

in the first segment , .. MaldanellaMcIntoilt.^.SSj. 

5. Cephalic keel long and arched . . Maldane Grube, p. 382 

Cephalic keel short and flat . . Asychis Kinberg, p. 385. 

Remarks: In the Maldanidae the head, anterior seg- 
ments, and the pygidium, provide the most important 
features which differentiate species and genera. Petalo- 
proctus and Nicomache differ mainly in the structure of 
their pygidium, whilst the head and anterior segments are 
almost alike. Incomplete specimens can, therefore, be 
hut exceptionally identified with certainty. Unfortunate- 
ly) Maldanidae are very brittle worms and are often in- 
complete in the collections. 

Genus CLYMENE Savigny. 

A slanting, rimmed, cephalic plate. Acicular ventral 
bristles in the first three setigerous seg-ments. Several 
ante-anal achaetous segments. Pygidium funnel shaped, 
bordered with cirri. Anus at the tip of a cone enclosed 
in the funnel. Glandular coloured belts on the anterior 
segments. 

Key to the subgenera of Clymene. 

Anal cone sunk in the bottom of 

the fuimel .. .. Euclymcne Veirill, p 376. 

Anal cone protruding. Ventral 

cirrus much longer than the 

others . . . . Praxillella Venill, p. 380. 

Subgenus EUCLYMENE Verrill. 

Key to the species of Euclymene. 

1. About 40 segments .. satitanderemu Rioja, p. 379. 

About 19-21 segments .. 2 



CLYMENE 377 

2. Cephalic plate with posteiior 

rim crenate . . . . 3 

Cephalic plate with posterior rim 

smooth . . . . insecta (Ehlers), p. 377. 

3. A single hook in anterior ven- 

tral rami . . . . annandalei 

Southern, p. 377. 
2—3 hooks in anterior ventral 

rami . . . . 4 

4. Anal cirri equal . . . . watsoni Gravier, p. 379. 
Anal cirri subequal . . . . grossa Baird, p. 378. 

363. Clyniene (Eaclymene) annandalei Southern. (Fig. 
196, a, b) . 

Euclymene annandalei. Southern, 1921, p. 648, pi. XXVm, fig. 
22, pi. XXIX, fig. 22, h-k: Fauvel, 1932, p. 199. 

Body with twenty-one segments; 19 setigerous and 
two achaetous ante-anals. Large concave cephalic plate: 
rim with two lateral notched sides and a posterior crenate 
portion. Nuchal grooves rather long, almost parallel. 
Numerous ocelli. In the three anterior segments in each 
ventral ramus a single acicular hook with a simple, bold- 
ly curved tip. Caudal funnel fringed with short, bluntly 
rounded cirri, the median ventral cirrus stouter than the 
others. 

Length: 40—80 mm. 

Colourless, in spirit. A conspicuous double band of 
glands on the mid- ventral surface lying over the ventral 
nerve-cord and running back from the 7th setigerous seg- 
ment to the caudal ring. Tube of sand grains. 

Occurrence: Camorta, Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea; 
Chilka Lake. 

364. Clymene (Eoclymene) insecta (Ehlers) . (Fig. 196, 

i—m) . 

Clymene (Euclymene) insecta, Fauvel, 1952, p. 199. 
Clymenella insecta, Ehlers, 1904, p. S4. pi. VI. figs. 16—19, pi. 

VIII, figs. 1-5. 
Praxillella insecta, Augener, 1926a, p. 192. 

Body with 19 setigerous segments and 3 ante-anals. 
Dorsal cephalic plate oval, a long keel: rim with two late- 
ral sides notched, posterior part smooth. Nuchal grooves 
long, parallel. Ventral acicular hooks of the three ante- 
rior segments with a slightly smooth tip. Caudal funnel 
fringed with short cirri, the ventral median cirrus slight- 
ly longer than the others. 

F. 50 



378 



MALDANIDAE 



Occurrence: Vizagapatam, Madras. 
Distribution: New Zealand; India. 

365. Clymene (Eticlymcnc) gtossa Baird. (Fig. 196, f- 
h). 
Clymene grossa Baird, Ehlers, 1901, p. 190, pi. XXV, figs. 1-4: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 200. 

Body with 19 setigerous segments and one achaetous 
ante-anal. Cephalic plate oval, with a long keel and elon- 
gate parallel nuchal grooves: Posterior part of the rim 




Fig. \%.—Euclymene annandalei Southern: a, anterior end, doisal 

view Xl4; b, posterior end, ventral view XlO (after Southern). 

E. watsoni Gravier : c, posterior part, side view ; d, head, dorsal 

view ; e, acicular bristle from the 2nd foot (after Gravier). E. 

grossa Baird: /, head, dorsal view; g, anal funnel x2; h, hook 

X210. E. insecta (Ehlers) : i, head X5 ; k, posterior 

part X3 ; I, hook X270 ; m, top of acicular bristle 

from the first segments X270 (after Ehlers). 

o£ the plate denticulated. The five anterior segments are 
short, with an anterior raised margin, especially the 
fourth. 2—3 large, yellow, straight acicular hooks in the 



CLYMENE 379 

ventral rami of the three anterior segments. Anal funnel 
with short subequal cirri. 

Length: 100—125 mm. by 6 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Magellan Strait; Andaman Islands. 

36G. Clymene (Ecclymene) watsoni Gravier. (Fig. 196, 
c—e) . 

Clymene watsoni, Gravier, 1906, p. 198, pi. Ill, figs. 214—216: 
Fauvel, 1932, p. 200. 

Body of 19 setigerous segments; 2—3 ante-anals. 
Cephalic plate oval, a short keel. Nuchal grooves short, 
nearly parallel. Posterior rim crenate. Anterior seg- 
ments short, with a raised anterior margin. 2—3 acicular 
bent hooks on the 3 anterior ventral rami. Caudal fun- 
nel with numerous short, triangular, equal cirri. 

Length: about 200 mm. 

Colour: the 4th, 5th and 6th setigerous segments deep 
red. 

Occurrence: Sinai Peninsula. 

Distribution: Red Sea, Djibouti, Suez. 

367. Clymene (Eoclymene) santandercnsis Rioja. (Fig. 
189, a'-h'). 

Clymene santanderensis, Rioja, 1917, p. 1. fig. 1: Fauvel, 1927a, 

p. 177, fig. 61, a-h; 1932. p. 200. 
(?) Clymene monilis, Fauvel, 1901, p. 89, figs. 31—32. 
(?) Macroclymene monilis, Augener, 1918, p. 485, fig. 78. 

Segments very numerous, about 40. Body very brittle. 
Cephalic plate oval, rim with two lateral and one pos- 
terior notch. Keel and nuchal grooves straight and long. 
Ventral acicular spines on the first three setigerous seg- 
ments bent hooks with enlarged manubrium; one in each 
ramus. One achaetous ante-anal segment. Pygidial 
funnel fringed with numerous alternating cirri. The 
first four anterior segments very short. The 7—8 last 
segments very short, but with setae. 

Length: 100-175 mm. 

Uncoloured, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam. 

Distribution: India; West Coast of Africa (?), San- 
tander. 



380 MALDANIDAE 

Remarks: Very long fragments, with very numerous 
segments, from Vizagapatam but not one whole specimen. 
The identification, although very probable, is neverthe- 
less a little doubtful. 

Subgenus PRAXILLELLA Verrill. 

368. Clytncnc (Praxillella) gracHis Sars. (Fig. 201, a- 
d). 

Clymene {Praxillella) gracilis, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 178, fig. 62; 
m-p; 1932, p. 201: Moore, 1923, p. 238. 

Prostomium long and tapering. Ocelli present. Cep- 
halic plate oval, rim notched on the sides and back. Keel 
and nuchal organs straight and long. 1—3 ventral acicu- 
lar spines in the first three setigerous segments. 4 achae- 
tous ante-anals. Anal funnel with a longer median cirrus. 
Anal cone protruding. 

Length: 35—75 mm. by 1—2 mm. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: California; Persian Gulf; Atlantic 
Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus AXIOTHELLA Verrill. 

Axiothea Malmgren. 

A cephalic rimmed plate. Pygidium funnel shaped, 
fringed with cirri. Without collar. Denticulated uncini 
from the first setigerous segment. 

Key to the species of Axiothella. 

Slender bipiimate setae present austialis Augener, p. 381. 
Slender bipinnate setae absent .. obockensis (Gravier), p. 380. 

369. Axiothella obockensis (Gravier). (Fig. 197, a— e) . 

Axiothea obockensis, Gravier, 1906, p. 206, pi. IV, figs. 221-222. 
Axiothella obockensis, Fauvel, 1930a, p. 51, fig. 14. a-e; 1932, 
p. 202. 

Long oval, slanting, cephalic plate, with a smooth rim; 
a long keel and two parallel nudial grooves. Ocelli pre- 
sent. Two ante-anal achaetous segments. Anal funnel 
with a long ventral cirrus. A ventral row of numerous 
small hooks on the first setigerous segment. Long slender 
bipinnate setae absent. 

Length: 10-45 mm. 



AXIOTHELLA 



381 



Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, Kila- 
karai. 

Distribution: India, Red Sea. 

370. Axiothella a«stfalis Augener. (Fig. 197, f, g) . 

Axiothella australis, Augener, 1914, p. 6S, pi. I, figs. 7—8; Fauvel, 

1930a, p. 52, fig. 14, f-g. 
Axiothea, spec. Gravely, 1927, p. 26. 

Body of 18 setigerous segments, two achaetous ante- 
anals. Cephalic plate oval, slanting, relatively short, rim 
crenulate or notched; a long keel, two straight nuchal 




Fig. W.-Axiothella obochensis (Gravier) : a, h anterior region, dorsal 

and side views X9; c, posterior region, ventral side X9; d, e, hooks 

from the first setigerous segments X550. A. australis Augener : /, 

hodk from the first segment x550 ; g, hook from the 10th 

segment X550. 

organs. Anal funnel with alternating cini, no longer 
ventral cirrus. Hooks of the first segment less numerous, 
with strongly curved manubrium. Long slender bipin- 
nate setae present. 



382 



MALDANIDAE 



Length: 19—40 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, in a 
colony of Polydora caeca, and a number of specimens with 
Mesochaetopterus. 

Distribution: South Australia; India. 



Genus HALDANE Grube. 

Cephalic keel convex, arched; rim divided into three 
parts by two deep lateral notches. Nuchal grooves short. 
Anal plate oval, slanting, with the rim notched on each 
side. Anus dorsal; ante-anal segments achaetous. Ante- 
rior segments without collar. Ventral setae absent on the 
first segment. Dorsal setae of three kinds. Uncini from 
the second setigerous segment. Glandular belts. Tube 
coated with mud. 

371. Maldane sarsi Malmgren. (Fig. 198, a~i) . 

Maldane sarsi, Arwidsson, 1906, p. 151, pi. VII, figs. 192—199: 
Fauvel, 1927a, p. 197, fig. 69, a-i; 1932, p. 202: Monro, 1937, 
p. 307: Augener, 1927a, p. 227: MesnU and Fauvel, 1939, p. 14, 
figs. 9, 10. 

(?) Maldane cristata Treadwell, Monro, 1937, p. 306, fig. 23. 




Fig. 198.— Maldane satsi Malmgren: a, anterior part, side view X3; b, 

head, from above X4; c, d, posterior part, side and ventral view 

X3; e, f, hook, side and front view X330; g, winged kneed seta 

X330; h, straight winged seta XS30; i, part of a spinous 

bristle X390. 



MALDANELLA 383 

Body of 19 setigerous segments, two achaetous ante- 
anals. Cephalic keel strongly arched. Rim smooth but 
notched on each side. Nuchal grooves short, diverging, 
straight or faintly curved. Anal plate oval, slanting, with 
the rim notched on each side, smooth or faintly crenate 
on the ventral side. Anus dorsal, puckered under the anal 
plate border. No acicular hooks on the anterior seg- 
ments. Uncini with a strong hooked end. Numerous 
denticles on the vertex, and sub-rostral filaments. A thick 
tube of mud. 

Length: 50-120 mm. by 2-3 mm. 

Colour: Anterior part more or less spotted with 
brown marks. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea; Bay of Bengal; Lacca- 
dive Sea; Arabian Sea; Gulf of Oman. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, California, Japan, Aus- 
tralia, Malayan Seas; Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, North 
Sea; Antarctic Ocean. 

Remarks: The variety tropica Monro differs only 
from the type in the absence of a glandular crescent on 
the dorsal surface of the 5th setigerous segment, but that 
is also sometimes absent in specimens of M. sarsi from 
the north seas. Maldane cristate Treadwell has a high 
keel, a deep cephalic pouch and a denticulate ventral bor- 
der of the anal plate, but these characters are also fre- 
quently met with in typical M. sarsi, the anal plate being 
very variable. Moreover, the cephalic pouch is always 
present, more or less deep but often inconspicuous, its 
anterior dorsal edge being appressed on the head, especi- 
ally on specimens dead in uieir tubes. 

Genus MALDANELLA Mcintosh. 

A rimmed cephalic plate. Nuchal grooves straight, 
parallel. Anal funnel fringed with cirri, with anus at 
the bottom. Ventral setae and hooks absent on the first 
setigerous segment. Uncini from the 2nd setigerous seg- 
ment. Anterior segments short, collarless. Glandular 
belts on the first 7 segments. 

372- Maldanella harai (Izuka) . (Fig. 199, i-n) . 

Maldanella hard, Fauvel, 1914b, p. 260, pi. XXIII, fig. I; 1927a, 
p. 186, fig. 64, i-n (Synonymy); 1932, p. 203. 

Clymene harai, Izuka, 1902, p. Ill, pi. HI, figs. 9-12. 

Axiothea campanulata, Moore, 1903, p. 485, pi. XXVU, fig. 99; 
1906, p. 239. 



384 



MALDANIDAE 



Prostomium eyeless. Cephalic plate slanting, with a 
smooth rim faintly, or not, notched. Keel and nuchal 
grooves extending to about half the length of the plate. 
19 setigerous segments and 2 achaetous ante-anals. Ante- 
rior border of the first 7 setigerous segments glandular. 
Dorsal setae of two kinds: (1) winged, and (2) slender. 




Fig. lQ9.—Petaloproctus terricola Quatrefages a, anteiior part X2..'); 
b, head from above; c, posterior part, dorsal view x2.5; d, pos- 
terior part, side view X26; e, ventral hook X120; /, anterior 
acicular hook X24 ; g, winged bristle X120 ; h, part of a pen- 
nate bnstle x400. Maldanella harat (Izuka) • i, head, side 
view ; ft, anterior part X2 ; I, posterior region X2 (after 
Izuka) ; m, ventral hook xi20 ; n, head, from above X4. 

smooth capillaries. Uncini from the 2nd setigerous seg- 
ment. Anal funnel elongated, fringed with small, nearly 
equal cirri. Tube of mud. 

Length: 70-180 mm. by 3—6 mm. 

Colour: Decoloured in spirit. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal, 637—800 fms.; Laccadive 
Sea, 1,154 fms. 

Distribution: Japan; Bay of Bengal, Laccadive Sea; 
Atlantic Ocean. 



Genus PETALOPROCTUS Quatrefages. 

Head arched, without cephalic plate. Nuchal grooves 
short. A large anal foliaceous plate, without cirri, sur- 
rounding the anus. Ventral acicular bristle on the first 



ASYCHIS 385 

three segments. Anterior segments short, middle ones 
more elongated, posterior ones shorter, with a dorsal 
fleshy lobe. Achaetous ante-anals rudimentary. Glan- 
dular belts on the anterior segments. Hard, thick tube 
of concrete sand. 

373. Petalopfoctos tctticdia. Quatrefages. (Fig. 199, a— 
h) . 

Petaloproctvs terricola, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 194, fig. 68, a-i, (Syn- 
onymy); 1932, p. 203. 
Maldane cnstagalH, QaparMe, 1868, p. 457, pi. XXVI, fig. 4. 

Head rounded, without any trace of rim. Keel arch- 
ed. Nuchal grooves short and diverging. 22 setigerous 
segments; achaetous ante-anals wanting. A large ventral 
spine on the first three setigerous segments. Dorsal setae 
of three kinds: (1) winged, (2) slender capillaries, (3) 
long, slender, filiform, barbed threads. A large raised 
fleshy pad ending backwards in a blunt lobe on the dor- 
sal side of the last 6—7 segments. Last segment very 
short. Tube thick, hard, sandy. 

Length: 150-200 mm. by 3-4 mm. 

Colour: Anterior part red, spotted white, 2nd— 3rd 
segment pink, the next four red-brown with clear belts. 
Posterior region dark. 

Occurrence: Koweit Harbour. 

Distribution: Malay Seas; Indian Ocean, Persian 
Gulf; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus ASYCmS Kinberg. 

Cephalic plate, rim divided into three parts by two 
deep lateral notches. Keel flat and short. Nuchal 
grooves curved. Anus dorsal, above the large oval folia- 
ceous, more or less lobed, plate. Fii^t ventral setigerous 
segment without ventral setae or hooks. Uncini from the 
2nd setigerous segment. Anterior segments short. Achae- 
ous ante-anals short, rudimentary. Dorsal setae of three 
kinds. 

Key to the species of Asychis. 

1. Anal plate with long Mform 

processes, simple or forked . . 2 

Anal plate without filiform pro- 
cesses . . • • 3 

2. Anal plate with 3 long filiform 

processes, simple or forked. 
Lateral sides of the cephalic 
plate smooth . . . . trifilosa Augener, p. .?88 

F. 51 



386 



MALDANIDAE 



Anal plate with several shaip 
slender processes. Cephalic 
plate denticulate 
3 Anal plate foliaceous, dorsal part 
broad, -with triangular, m- 
rolled, lateral lobes; ventral 
part bilobed, smooth 
Anal plate with dorsal and ven- 
tral lobes smooth or denti- 
culate 
4. Cephalic plate lim smooth 
Cephalic rim denticulate 



gotoi (Uuka), p. 387. 



gangeticus Fauvel, p. 



theodon Augener, p. 386. 
disparidentata 

(Moore), p. 387. 



374. Asychis theodori Augener. (Fig. 200, c-f) . 

AsycMs theodori, Augener, 1926a. p. 183, fig. 6: Fauvel. 1932, 
p. 204. 

Cephalic plate rim divided into three smooth lobes 
by the deep lateral notches. First segment achaetous. 




Fig. 20O.-Asychis gotoi (Izuka : a, anterior part, side ^i^w ><16, 6, 

Lai funnel, side view XlO. A. theodon Augener: c, head /r°m 

above X14 ; d, anal plate Xl4 ; e. coUal, ventral view Xl4 , /, 

ventral kwk- from 2nd foot X450 (after Augener). 



ASYCHIS 387 

with anterior border drawn out into a collar notched on 
each side and in the middle of the ventral lobe. 19 seti- 
gerous segments and two achaetous ante-anals. Dorsal 
lobe of the rounded anal plate smooth, ventral lobe blunt- 
ly denticulated. 

Length: 54 mm. by 1.5 mm. 

Colour: greenish ochraceous. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf, 25 fms. 

Distribution: New Zealand; Persian Gulf. 

375. Asychis gotd (Izuka) . (Fig. 200, a-b) . 

Asychzs gotoi, Fauvel, 1932, p. 205; 19S4, p. 57. figs. 2-3; 1939, 

p. 16, fig. 11: Mesnil and Fauvel, 1940, p. 22. 
Maldane gotoi, Izuka, 1902, p. 109, pi. Ill, figs. 1-8. 
Maldane coronata, Moore, 1903, p. 483. 

Rim of the cephalic plate divided into three lobes by 
deep lateral notches: dorsal lobe serrated, lateral lobes 
fringed with cirri of unequal lengths. First segment pro- 
duced into a collar notched on each side. 19 setigerous 
segments. No achaetous ante-anals. The dorso-posterior 
margin of the anal plate is expanded into a petaloid 
plume having six to twelve corners, each of which is pro- 
longed into a long slender cirrus. Tube membranous 
coated with mud. 

Length: 80—120 mm. by 6 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea, 405 fms.; Laccadive Sea, 
1,022 fms. 

Distribution: Japan, Java; Andaman Sea, Laccadive 
Sea; Adriatic Sea. 

376. Asydiis disparidcntata (Moore) . 
Asychis disparidentata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 205. 

Maldane disparidentata, Moore, 1904, p. 494, pi. XXXVIII, figs. 
32-35; 1909, p. 282. 

Cephalic plate broadly oblong, elliptical; frontal 
ridge low, broad, inconspicuous, equal to one-third of the 
cephalic plate. Nuchal grooves short. Posterior lobe of 
the cephalic rim divided into about 15 low, broad, trun- 
cate teeth, irregular and not constant; lateral lobes consi- 
derably more elevated and bearing 5 or 6 larger, more 
prominent, rounded teeth. Anterior margin of the first 
setigerous segment produced into a collar. 19 setigerous 
segments, an achaetous ante-anal. Anal plate with a dor- 
sal lanceolate lobe arched over the anus and a ventral 
lobe smooth or slightly irregular, but entirely without 
lobes or processes. 



388 



MAIDANIDAE 



Length: 40 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: Cape Comorin, 902 fms. 

Distribution: California; India. 

Remarks: May be a mere variety o£ A. biceps. 

377. Asyctis trifilosa Augener. (Fig. 201, g-h) . 

Asychis trifilosa, Augener, 1926. p. 187, fig. 7: Fauvel, 1932, p. 
205: Mesnil and Fauvel, 1939, p. 17, fig. 12. 

Lateral lobes of the cephalic rim smooth, dorsal lobe 
faintly and finely crenate or smooth. First setigerous seg- 
ment not produced into a collar, but one is present on the 




Fig. 20l.—Cymene {Praxillella) gracilis Sars: a, head X3; 6, ventral 

hoofc X240 ; c, posterior region X2 ; d, acicular hook from the first 

foot X80. Mynochele picta Southern : e, head, side view X56 ; 

/, hooks X1385 (after Southern). Asychis trifilosa Augener ; 

g, head, dorsal view X8 (after Augener) ; h, anal 

funnel, enlarged. 

5th. 19 seti^ous segments; one (?) , or none, ante-anal. 
Anal plate with a dorsal petaloid lobe bearing three very 
long filiform cirri, simple or forked at the tip; ventral 
lobe narrow and smooth, forming a hollow cup. Anus 
dorsal and wrinkled. 



ASYCHIS 



389 



Length: 160 m. by 4 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Oman, in greenish brown mud. 

Distribution: New Zealand; Malay Aixhipelago; 
Gulf of Oman. 

378. Asycbis gangeticas Fauvel. (Fig. 202, a-i) . 
Asychis gangeticus, Fauvel, 1932, p. 206, pi. VIII, figs. 1—9. 

Body nearly cylindrical, truncate at both ends. 19 
setigerous segments; achaetous ante-anals absent. Cepha- 
lic plate rounded, slanting, with a membranous rim divid- 
ed into three parts by deep lateral notches; posterior and 




4 \ ' ^. 

Fig. ZOZ.— Asychis gangeticus Fauvel: a, anterior part, side view x2 5; 

b, pygidium, ventral view X2.5; c. anterior end, side view X4; d, 

pygidium, side view X4; e, pygidium, dorsal view X4; /, head 

X4: e, barbed seta X250; h, winged seta X50; i, hook 

X105 (Fauvel 1932). 



390 OWENIIDAE 

lateral parts smooth, faintly wavy. Prostomium flatten- 
ed, broadly rounded in front. Keel broad, long and de- 
pressed. Nuchal grooves transversely curved. A longi- 
tudinal furrow on each side of the achaetous buccal seg- 
ment. Anterior rim of the first setigerous segment pro- 
duced into a collar sheathing the buccal segment, deeply 
notched on either side. Buccal segment and the first three 
setigerous segments somewhat uniformly glandular, 4th 
and 6th with broad ventral glandular pads, next with 
only large, raised, glandular tori. There is no glandular 
dorsal crescent-shaped pad on the 5th setigerous segnaent. 
Dorsal setae of three kinds: (1) long winged setae, slight- 
ly bent; (2) slender setae, barbed at the tip and shorter, 
and (3) very slender smooth capillary setae. On the 
following segments a transverse row of uncini, whose 
large fang is crested with a rather large tooth and numer- 
ous tiny denticles. The subrostral barbs are few 
and slender, the manubrium is clearly enlarged. 
The last two setigerous segments are very short, 
with raised glandular tori; the last one reaches the 
base of the caudal funnel. Pygidium with: (1) a broad 
triangular, foliaceous dorsal lobe with a rounded border, 
lateral borders rolled inwards, and a dorsal keel ending 
in a rounded valve above the anus, and (2) a foliaceous 
ventral lobe divided by a deep indentation into two lateral 
lobes sheathing the base of the rolled in dorsal lobe. The 
length of the pygidial apparatus equals that of the last 
three setigerous segments. 

Length: 140 mm. by 5—6 mm. 
Colour: in spirit yellowish brown with glandular 
bands and whitish tori. 

Occurrence: Gangetic Delta. A single specimen. 
Incertae sedis 

NICOHACHE TRUNCATA WiUey 

Nicomache truncata Willey, 1905, p. 290, pi. V, fig. 122-123. 
As Willey's specimen from Ceylon is only an anterior 
fragment of 6 segments, in the absence of the posterior 
end and anal plate it is not possible to decide with any 
certainty whether it belongs to the genus Nicomache Mal- 
mgren or the genus Petaloproctus Quatrefages. 

Family OWENIDAE Rioja. 
Ammocharidae Malmgren. 

Body cylindrical, anterior se^ents longer than broad, 
posterior ones shorter. Prostomium fused with the buc- 



OWENIA 391 

cal segment (peristomium) , devoid of appendages or 
ending in a lobed membrane. Dorsal setae capillary, ven- 
tral uncini very numerous, very small, set in transverse 
rows, and with a bent hooked tip. Anal cirri absent. 
Tube coated with sand or shell fragments. 

Key to the genera of Oweniidae. 

Prostomium rounded, devoid of 

appendages . . Myriochele 

Malmgren, p. 391. 
Prostomium bearing a branchial 

laciniate membrane . . Owenia 

Delle Chiaje, p. 391. 

Genus OWENIA Delle Chiaje. 

Prostomium bearing a branchial laciniate membrane. 
Buccal segment achaetous. The first three setigerous seg- 
ments long and without uncini. Dorsal setae slender, 
spinous. Uncini bidentate. Pygidium bilobed. Glandu- 
lar belts and spinning glands. 

379. Owenia fasifofmts Delle Chiaje. (Fig. 203, a-f) . 

Owenia fusiformis, Grayier, 190&, p. 294, Augener, 1914, p. 77; 
Fauvel, 1927a, p. 203, fig. 71 a-f (Synonymy); 1932, p. 208. 

Ammochares assimilis, Malmgren, 1867, p. 210, pi. XII, fig. 65. 
Ammochares orientalis Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 290, pi. V, figs. 
124-125. 

Uncini with an elongated manubrium and a curved 
hook with two parallel teeth. The two ante-anal segments 
without dorsal setae. Tube membranaceous, open and 
tapering at both ends, coated with overlapping sand 
grains and flat bits of shells, imbricated. 

Length; 50-100 mm. by 2-3 mm. 

Colour, in life, greenish or yellowish with paler 
transverse glandular belts. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago; S. of Ceylon, 1,500 
fms.; Tuticorin Pearl Bank. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 
Cosmopolitan. 

Genus MYRIOCHELE Malmgren. 

Body slender, cylindrical, divided into two regions. 
Prostomium devoid of appendages. Mouth oblique, sub- 
ventral. Peristomium achaetous. First three segments 



392 



OWENIIDAE 



without uncini. Dorsal setae capillary, slender, spinulose. 
Uncini bidentate, Pygidium obtuse-conical. (Fig. 203, 
g-m). 




Fig. 20$.— Owenia fusiformis Delia Chiaje : a, natural size ; 6, tube, 

natural size ; c, d, head from above, mouth closed or opened, with 

the labial organ, much enlarged (after Watson) ; e, dorsal bristle 

X300 ; /, uncini, front and side view X550. Mynochele keen 

Malmgren: g, enlarged; h, anterior part, ventral view; i, 

posterior region ; ft, dorsal bristle X470 ; I, m, uncini X550 

(a species hardly distinct from M. picta). 

380. Myriochele picta Southern. (Fig. 201, e, f) . 

Mynochele picta, Southern, 1921, p. 638, pi. XXXI, fig. 30. 

Prostomium and peristomium fused in a rounded eye- 
less mass. Behind the mouth, a clavate diverticulum. 
The three thoracic segments carry only capillary setae. 
The first abdominal segment is as long as the three thora- 
cic segments, the second is still longer and is the largest 
of the body. The succeeding eight diminish only slight- 
ly in length, but the three posterior are much shorter. 
Dorsal capillary setae and ventral hooks in all the abdo- 
minal segments. The hooks are bidentate and arranged 
in irregular transverse rows. Five pairs of thread glands 
in the first five segments. Tubes cylindrical, covered 
with small quartz grains. 

Length: 3-4 mm. 



SABELLARIA 393 

Colour: on the back of the head, a conspicuous patch 
of reticulate purplish-brown pigment. A transverse dor- 
sal band at the posterior end of the buccal segment. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake, on a muddy bottom. 

Family SABELLARIIDAE Johnston. 
HERMELLWAE Auct. 

Body divided into three regions. Prostomium not 
conspicuous, between two large opercular stalks bearing 
modified setae (paleae) set in concentric circles. Two 
palps. Anterior region of two short segments with rudi- 
mentary feet, and 3—4 parathoracic biramous segments 
with oar-shaped setae; abdominal region with unciniger- 
ous dorsal rami, and ventral rami with capillary setae. 
Simple gills. A caudal tail-like unsegmented, achaetous 
and apodous region. Hard, thick, sandy tube. 

Key to the genera of Sabellariidae. 

Two concentric rows of opercu- Pallasia Quartre- 
lar paleae . . . . fages, p. 398. 

Three concentric rows of oper- 
cular paleae . . . . Sahellaria Lamarck, p. 393. 

Genus SABELLARIA Lamarck. 

Opercular stalks short, each bearing three concentric 
rows of golden paleae. Two small elongated palps. 
Numerous filiform tentacles on the ventral side of the 
opercular stalks. Three biramous parathoracic segments 
with oar-shaped setae. Dorsal falciform gills. In the ab- 
domen broad dorsal pinnules with pectinate uncini and 
ventral capillary setae. Tail smooth, achaetous. Thick 
tube of firmly cemented sand grains. 

Key to the genera of Sahellaria. 

1. Outer opercular paleae with a 

slender, elongated, barbed pro- 
cess. Paleae of the middle row 
cup-shaped, smooth . . sp'mulosa 

Leuckart, p. 394. 

Outer opercular paleae without 
median slender, barbed pro- 
cess . . • . 2 

2. Tip of the outer paleae ending 

in a long, slender, smooth spine cementarium, 



Moore, p. 395. 



F. 52 



394 



SABELLARIIDAE 



Tip of the outer paleae gradual- 
ly decreasing into a barbed 
point. Edge of the middle 
paleae denticulated . • pectinate 

Fauvel, p. 396. 

381. Sabellaria spinclosa Leuckart. (Fig. 204, a-i) . 

Sabellaria spinulosa, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 208, fig. 73, a-p. (Syno- 
nymy); 1932, p. 209. 

Sabellaria alcockt, Gravier, 1909, p. 298, pi. VIII, fig. 11-23; 
Fauvel, 1911, p. 415. 

Sabellaria spinulosa, var. alcocki, Fauvel, 1914, p. 144; 1932, p. 
209. 

Outer paleae broad, paddle-shaped, with 5—9 straight 
teeth and a median, slender, barbed process. Middle 
paleae geniculate, cup-shaped, smooth, short or elongated 




Fig. 204:.— Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart : a, outer palea X27 ; b 
intermediate hooded palea X27 ; c, inner palea X27 ; d, detail of an 
abdominal capillary bristle X310 ; e, part of a bipectinate bristle 
from the first setigerous segment X310 ; /, dorsal interpedun- 
cular hook X105 ; g, ventral parathoracic bristle X93 ; h, 
dorsal oar-shaped parathoracic bristle x93 ; i, uncinus 
X9S. var. alcocki Gravier: k, raised intermediate 
palea X27 ; I, intermediate hooded palea, front 
view X27 ; m, inner palea x27. var, gravieri 
Tauvel: n, outer, spinous palea from the 
dorsal side of the operculum X23 ; o, 
outer smooth palea X27. var mtoshi ; 
p, outer palea with median 
wed tooth X27. 



SABELLARtA 



395 



and erect. Inner paleae spoon-shaped. 2-3 pairs of 
dorsal acicular bristles. A triangular finger-like cirrus 
between the opercular stalks. 

Several varieties of this species have been described: 
one of these is found in Indian waters. 

var. alcocfci Gravier. (Fig. 204, k-m) . 

Middle paleae alternately long and short, erect, or 
all elongated. 

Occurrence: Mergui Archipelago, Paway Island; Mat- 
lah River, Gangetic Delta. 

Distribution: Indo-China; Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, 
Atlantic Ocean. 

383. Sabellaria cementarfttm Moore. (Fig. 205, a—^ . 

Sabellana cementarium, Moore, 190S, p. 248, pi. XII, figs. 45— 
61: Fauvel, 1982, p. 209, fig. 34. 

Outer paleae ending in a long slender, sharp, smooth 
spine arising between shorter, smooth spines. Middle 
paleae short, smooth, spoon-like. Inner paleae hollow, 
elongated, smooth or denticulate along the edge Tube 




Fig. ZQh.—Sahellaria cementarium Moore: a, outer palea X65 ; b, 
inner palea X65 ; c, intermediate palea X65 ; d, dorsal interpe- 
duncular hooks X150; e, /, tips of outer paleae Xl50; g, up 
of an inner palea X150. 



396 



SABELLARIIDAE 



very thick, hard, made of large translucent quartz grains 
firmly cemented together; with an inner diameter of about 
3 mm. 

Occurrence: Tuticorin beach. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean (Alaska) ; India. 

383. Sabellaria pectinata Fauvel. (Fig. 206, a~g) . 

Sabellaiia pectinata, Fauvel, 1928b, p. 163, fig. 3, a—g; 1930a, p. 
53, fig. 15; 1932, p. 210. 

Outer paleae having broad paddle-shaped tips with a 
central triangular spike bearing numerous lateral spines. 
The middle paleae are cup-shaped, with a short smooth 




Fig. 206.—SabeUaria pectinata Fauvel : a, outer palea X62; b, c, inner 
paleae x78 ; d, intermediate palea x78 ; e, uncinus X310 ; f, oar- 
shaped bristle Xl55; g, capillary bipectinate bristle Xl55. Poma- 
tostegus polytrema Philippi, var indica Fauvel : h, i, two kinds 
of operculum, side and front view X27. 

tip. Inner paleae elongated, spoon-shaped with spinose 
edges. A median cirrus between the opercular lobes. 
Tube of somewhat minute, transparent, sand grains held 
together by a white cement. 

Length: 10—12 mm., tail not included, by 1—1.5 mm. 

Colour: Pigment spots on the anterior part, buccal 
tentacles dotted with red-brown. 



SABEIXARIA 



397 



Remarks: Differs from S. spinulosa Leuckart in the 
form o£ its operculum. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai, Shingle Is- 
land. 

var. intermedia Fauvel. (Fig. 207, a-h) . 

Sabellaria pectinata var. intermedia, Fauvel, 1932, p. 210, fiff 
35. 

Opercular pillars fused along about two-thirds of 
their length. There are a few dorsal acicular bristles and 
a median cirrus between the opercular lobes. The first 




Fig 201— Sabellaria pectinata Fauvel : var. intermedia Fauvel : a, b, 

c, outer, inner and intermediate paleae, drawn to the same scale X65; 

d, intermediate elongated palea Xl20 ; e, outer palea XlSO ; /, tip 

of an outer palea, side view X150; g, short intermediate palea 

X120; h, inner palea X120. 

four or five abdominal segments bear large gills which 
seem to be absent on the next abdominal segments of the 
smaller specimens. The outer paleae are denticulate and 
gradually decrease in size but resolve at the tip into a 
few smooth spines. The inner paleae are like those of 
the typical form, but the middle paleae are either short 
and broad or elongated, toothed and erect, or alternating 



398 SABfiLLARtlDAfi 

as in S. spinulosa, var. alcocki. The outer paleae are of 
a type intermediate between those of S. cementarium Moore 
and the typical S. pectinate Fauvel. 

Occurrence: Matlah River, Gangetic Delta. 

Genus PALLASIA Quatrefages. 

Opercular stalks elongated, each bearing two concen- 
tric rows of paleae. Dorsal hooks. Grooved, frilled, elon- 
gated palps. Numerous filifonn tentacles on the ventral 
side of the opercular stalks. Three or four biramous 
parathoracic segments with oar-shaped setae. Dorsal fili- 
form gills. Broad dorsal abdominal pinnules with pecti- 
nate uncini; ventral capillary setae. Tail smooth, achae- 
tous. Thick tube of &:mly cemented sand grains. 

Key to the subgenera of Pallasia. 

Three parathoracic segments. 
Outer paleae bent and denti- 
culate, inner paleae smooth 

and slender .. .. Pallasia Quatrefages 

s. str. p. 398. 

Four parathoracic segments. Outer 

paleae smooth .. iygdamw Kinberg, p. 398. 

Subgenus PALLASIA s. str. Quatrefages. 

384. Pallasia (Pallasia) pennata Peters. (Fig. 208, c-f) . 

Pallasia pennata, Willey, 1905, p. 296, pi. VII, figs. 1—2: Augener, 
1914, p. 79: Fauvel, 1917, p. 262 (Synonymy); 1931, p. 25, 
pi. III. figs. 7-10; 1932, p. 212. 

Sabellaria bicornis Schmarda, Michaelsen, 1892, p. 19. 

Idanthyrsus pennatus, Johansson, 1927, p. 88. 

Outer paleae curved, strongly serrated. Inner paleae 
acuminate, smooth and more slender. One to three pairs 
of stout dorsal hooks. Three parathoracic segments bear- 
ing narrow oar-shaped setae with laciniate tip. 

Length: 70 mm. by 6 mm. 

Occurrence: Nankauri, Nicobar Islands; Andaman 
Islands; Ceylon; Manora Shoal, Karachi. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans, 
tropical area. 

Subgenus LYGDAMIS Kinberg. 

Key to the species of Lygdamis. 
Outer paleae tapering .. indicus Kinberg, p. 399. 

Outer paleae lanceolate .. porrectus Eblers, p. 400. 



PAIXASIA 



399 




Fig. 208.— Pallasia (Lygdamis^ porrectus (Ehlers): a, anterior part, 

dorsal view X4; b, paleae X39 (after Ehlers). P. (Pallasid) 

pennata Peters : c, dorsal hook X21 ; d, inner palea x21 ; e, 

outer palea X21 ; f, oar-shaped bristle X32. 



385. Pallasia (Lygdamis) indicts Kinberg. (Fig. 209, 
a—k) . 

Lygdamis indicus, Kinberg, 1867, p. 350: Johansson, 1926, p. 8, 
fig. 2: Fauvd, 1932, p. 212. 

Sabellaria laeuispinis, Grube, 1877, p. 542. 

Tetreres laevispinis, Caullery, 1913, p. 200. 

Pallasia laevispinis, AUgener, 1927, p. 242. 

(?) Pallasia murata, Allen, 1904. p. 299, pL X: Fauvel, 1927a, 
p. 214, fig. 76, a-k. 

(?) Lygdamis mwatus, Johansson, 1927, p. 83. 

Outer paleae straight, smooth, tapering; inner paleae 
shorter and stouter. One pair of stout dorsal hooks. A 
median tentacle between the opercular stalks. Lai^e, 
elongated, grooved and frilled palps. Four parathoracic 
segments bearing narrow oar-shaped setae. 

Length: 30—45 mm. by 5 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Upolu Is., Samoa, Banka Strait; Anda- 
man Islands; Cape of Good Hope; Atlantic Ocean, Ascen- 
sion Island, English Channel (?) . 



400 



LYGDAMIS 



Remarks: Pallasia murata Allen, from Plymouth, is 
very likely synonymous. 




Fig. 209— Pallasia (Lygdatms) murata Allen: (a, d, after Allen); a, 
dorsal view, i educed ; 6, anterior part, ventral view XS5 ; c, dorsal 
view X35 ; d, part of a tube, natural size ; e, interpeduncular hook ; 
/, posterior uncinus ; g, part of a ventral capillary bristle ; h, para- 
thoracic oar-shaped bristle ; t, tip of an outer palea ; k, tip of an 
inner palea (after Mcintosh). (A species very likely conspecific 
with P. indica Kinberg). 



S86. Pallasia (Lygdamis) porrecttts Ehlers. (Fig. 208, 
a-b). 

Pallasta porrecta, Ehlers, 1908, p. 136. pi. XVIH, figs. 11—15, 

pi. XIX, fig. 1-3. 
Lygdamis porrectus, Johansson, 1927, p. 86. 
(?) Pallasia chrysocephala, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 322. 

Outer paleae smooth, flat, lanceolate, pointed; inner 
paleae needle-shaped. One pair o£ brown dorsal hooks. 
Four thoracic segments bearing narrow, oar-shaped, setae 
with laciniate tips. Tube straight, thick-walled, coated 
with Foraminifera. 

Length: More than 25 mm. by 4.5 mm. 

Colour: yellowish white, with brown streaks on the 
ventral part. 

Occurrence: From West Sumatra, 1280 m. Volcanic 
ooze. 



STERNASPIS 401 

Family STERNASPIDIDAE Malmgren. 

Body very short and plump. Prostomium small, with- 
out appendages. First three segments armed, each with 
an incomplete belt of bristles. A pair of sexual papillae 
on the 7th setigerous segment, next eight segments achae- 
tous. A ventral posterior shield with radiating bristles. 
A bundle of anal gills. 



Genus STERNASPIS Otto. 

Body swollen at both ends, segments short and few. 
Mouth subterminal. Anterior bristles short and stout. 
Horny shield composed of two trapezoid plates with radiat- 
ing bundles of capillary setae. Filiform gills set on two 
posterior plates. Anus terminal. 

387. Stemaspis sctrtata (Ranzani). (Fig. 210, a-g) . 

Sternaspis scutata, Moore, 1903, p. 487. Augener, 1926, p. 283: 
Fauvel, 1927a, p. 216, fig. 76, a-g (Synonymy); 1932, p. 213; 
1933, p. 52. 




FiK 2\Q -Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani): a, ventral view x4; b, bran- 
chial plates X4; c, a worn anterior brisae XS2 ; d, e, anterior 
bristles with transparent tip X52: /, tip of a posterior barbed 
bristle Xl30; g, posterior smooth capillary bnstle XI3U. 

F. 53 



402 AMPHICTENIDAE 

Stemaspis fossor, Stimpson, 1853, p, 29, pi. U, fig- 19. 
Stemaspis costata, Marenzeller, 1879, p. 142, pi. VI, fig. 4: South- 
em, 1921, p. 649, pi. XX, fig. 5A, 5B. 

Body sausage-like, narrowed in the middle, expanding 
at both ends. The anterior segments often retracted into 
the following ones. Densely coated with small filiform 
papillae. Prostomium reduced to a mere small knob. 
Shield plate divided into two unequal parts by a slanting 
line and marked with ridges and striae. 

Length: 10—30 mm. by 8—10 mm. 

Colour: greyish. Shields purple, violet or red or 
dark. Gills red. 

Occmrence: Burma, Mergui; Andaman Islands; Chil- 
ka Lake, plentiful in mud ; Ganjam Coast, Madras. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Japan, Petchili, New 
Zealand, Australia; Indian Ocean; Atlantic Ocean, Medi- 
terranean Sea; Arctic Seas. 

Remarks: Having had the opportunity to compare 
specimens of Stemaspis from the gulf of Petchili with 
those of India, Indo-China and Europe, I have failed to 
find any constant differences between St. costata Marenzeller 
and St. scutata Ranzani. The so-called accessory plates of 
Marenzeller are only the anterior border of the shield 
plates seen under the more or less transparent skin. 

FamUy AMPHICTENIDAE Malmgren. 

Segments few, body short, conical, divided into three 
regions: (I) thoracic, (2) abdominal with biramous seg- 
ments, and (3) caudal (scapha) , very small and leaf-like, 
with hooks at the base. An operculum of an anterior row 
of large golden setae (paleae) . Two pairs of anterior 
foliated branchiae. A free, slightly conical tube of sand 
grains. 

Key to the genera of Amphictenidae 

Antennal ■veil fringed. A dis- 
tinct stricture between abdo- 
men and scapha . . Pectinaria 

Lamarck, p. 402. 

Antennal veil smooth. Stricture 
between abdomen and scapha 
less distinct . . . . Petta Malmgren. 

Genus PECTINARIA Lamarck. 

Antennal veil fringed. Dorsal cephalic rim smooth 
or serrate. Uncini from the 4th setigerous segment. 



PECTINARIA 403 

Dorsal setae of two kinds: (1) with slender smooth tips, 
and (2) with serrated tips. Uncini pectinate, with nu- 
merous, and often unequal, teeth. Tube free, thin wall- 
ed, straight or curved. 

Ke^ to the subgenera of Pectinaria. 

1. Dorsal cephalic rim serrate .. Amphictene 

Savigny, p. 403. 
Dorsal cephalic rim smooth 2 

2. 15 setigerous segments, 12 un- 

cinigerous . . . . Lagis Malmgren, 

p. 405. 

17 setigerous segments, 13 un- 

cinigerons . . . . Pectinaria s. str. 

Lamarck, p. 403. 

Subgenus PECTINARIA Lamarck. 

388. Pectinaria (Pectinaria) antipoda Schmarda. (Fig. 
211, e-g). 

Pectinaria antipoda, Schmarda, 1861, p. 46, pi. XXIV, fig. 199: 
Nilson, 1928, p. 69, fig. 2: Pruvot, 1930, p. 78, pi. Ill, figs. 
93-96: Fauvel, 1932, p. 214. 

Cistenides antipoda, Augener, 1927, p. 231, fig. 13. 

17 setigerous segments and 13 uncinigerous. Achae- 
tous ante-scaphal segments absent but the 17th segment 
has only capillary setae. Dorsal rim of cephalic plate 
smooth. Antennal veil fringed and funnel shaped above 
the buccal tentacles. Dorsal setae narrow winged, with 
a straight smooth tip, or a geniculate spinulous tip. Un- 
cini with 6—7 large decreasing teeth and 2—3 very small 
ones above the basal gouge-like process. Scapha ovate, 
with indented edges. Ligule very faintly bilobed, with a 
very small anal cirrus. 

Length: about 40 mm. by 12 mm. 

Occurrence: Koweit Harbour, Persian Gulf: 31 fans. 

Distribution: Australia; New Caledonia; Persian Gulf. 

Subgenus AMPHICTENE Savigny. 

389. Pectinaria (Amphictene) crassa Grube. (Fig. 211 
a—d). 

Pectinaria crassa, Grube, 1870, p. 321: Nilsson, 1928, p. 58, fig. 
18: Pruvot, 1930, p. 80, pi. Ill, fig. 89-92: Fauvel, 1932, p. 215. 
Amphictene crassa, Augener, 1926, p. 463, fig. 9- 



404 



AMPHICfENttlAfi 



17 setigerous and 13 uncinigerous segments Achae- 
tous ante-scaphal segments absent. Dorsal rim of the ce- 
phalic plate serrated. Antenna! veil fringed and funnel- 
shaped above the buccal tentacles. Dorsal setae winged, 
with a straight smooth tip, or a geniculate spinulous tip. 




Fig. 2ll.—Amphictene crassa Gnibe : a, anterior part, side view Xl.5 ; 

bj scapha, dorsal view X2.5 ; c, d, hook, side and front view X365. 

Pectinaria anttpoda Schmarda; e, scapha, ventral view enlarged ; 

/, scapha, dorsal view, enlarged; g, hook X350 (after Pruvot). 



Uncini with two parallel rows each of 6—7 large decreasing 
teeth and 2—3 very small ones above the basal gouge-like 
process. Scapha longer than broad, with denticulate edges 
and small cirriform processes. Semi-circular ligule. 

Length: 60 mm. by 15 mm. 

Occurrence: Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam; 
Trincomalee. 

Distribution: New Caledonia, Philippine Islands; 
Andaman Islands, Ceylon, Arabian Sea. 



ffiCTINARIA 



405 



Subgenus LAGIS Malmgren. 

390. Pcctinaria (Lagis) afcranciiiata Fauvel. (Fig. 212, 
a—e) . 

Pectinaria {Lagis) abranchiata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 215, pi. VIII, 
figs. 10-14. 

16 setigerous segments with capillary setae, 12 uncini- 
gerous (from the 4th segment to the 15th) . An achae- 
tous segment in front of the scapha. Antennal veil fring- 
ed with 15—20 claviform papillae; it is funnel-shaped above 




Fig. 212.— Pectinaria (Lagis) abranchiata Fauvel : a, anterior end, 

side view XlO; b, anterior end, ventral view XlO; c, scapha XI4; 

d, uncinus X1200; e, uncinus, front view X1200 

(from Fauvel 1932). 

the buccal tentacular cirri and is not bound to the first 
setigerous segment. Dorsal rim of the cephalic plate 
smooth. On each side, about 15 stout golden paleae with 
a very slender roUed-in tip; the inner paleae are shorter 
and more slender than the others. Two narrow dorsal 
elongated pads at the back of the third segment. Thora- 
cic ventral shields with transverse glandular pads from the 



406 AMPHARETttlAE 

2nd segment to the 5th, followed by a rounded median 
patch to the 6th (2nd uncinigerous) . Branchiae absent. 
Glandular triangular lobes of the 4lh segment absent. 
Ventral body walls thin and transparent. Dorsal capil- 
lary setae narrow winged; some are long, straight, stifE, 
with a slender, very famtly spinous tip, while others have 
bent finely serrated tips. Uncini pectinate, with several 
ventral rows of numerous teeth above the large gouge-like 
lower process. The hooks at the base of the scapha, about 
10—12, are short, stout and set in a curved row on either 
side. Scapha short and stout, with erect edges bearing 
short ovate knobs. Anal ligule triangular, with a smooth 
edge and a very small cirrus. Tube straight (?) , very 
brittle, made of a single layer of transparent quartz grains 
held together by a yellowish cement. 

Length: 11—17 toid.. by 3 mm. 

Colour: Whitish yellow, in spirit, with golden paleae. 

Occurrence: Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam. 

Incertae sedis 

391. Pcctinaria panava, WxUey, 1905, p. 295, pi. V, fig. 
137. 

The characters given are not even sufficient for a 
generic identification. Ceylon. 

392. Pectinafia capensis Gmelin, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 
334. 

"Seas of India and Cape of Good Hope." 

Family AMPHARETIDAE Malmgren. 

Body divided into two regions: (1) thorax with dor- 
sal capillary setae and ventral uncinigerous pinnules, and 
(2) abdomen bearing only uncinigerous pinnules. Pro- 
stomium conical or trilobed. Buccal tentacles long, 
smooth or pinnate, retractile into the mouth. Three or 
four pairs of subulate, seldom pinnate, gills inserted on 
the anterior segments and having in front two bundles of 
paleae, sometimes absent. 

Key to the genera of Ampharetidae. 

1. Pinnate gills .. .. Schistocomus 

Cabamberlin, p. 411. 
Subulate gills .. .. 2 

2. Segraents numerous, SO or more . . 4 
Segments few, 20 to 40 .. 3 



AMPHICTEIS 407 

3. Paleae present. Tentacles smooth Amphicteis Grube, p. 407. 
Paleae absent. Tentacles smooth Amage Malmgren, p. 410. 

4. Pi. large, curved hook, on each 

side, behind the gills .. Melinna Malmgren, p. 413. 

Large hoolcs behind the giUs 

absent . . . . Melinopus Mcintosh, p. 412. 

Genus AMPHICTEIS Grube. 

Prostomiura with a median groove and two ridges. 
Buccal tentacles smooth. Four pairs of gills. 17 bristled 
segments. Uncinigerous pinnules commencing on the 
4th setigerous segment. Uncini uniserial, subtriangular, 
with few teeth. Anal segment with two cirri. 



Key to the species of Amphicteis. 

A close set group of 4 gills on 
either side of the first £ind 
second setigerous segments . . gunneri Sars, p. 407. 

Four pairs of gills set further posteiohranchiata 
bade on the third segment . . Fauvel, p. 408. 

39'3. Amphicteis ganneri Sars. (Fig. 213 a—k) . 

Amphicteis gunneri, Malmgren, 1865, p. 365, pi. XIX, fig. 46: 

Fauvel; 1897, p. 411. pi. XXV, figs. 150-161; 1932, p. 216: 

Hessle, 1917, p. 116. 
Amphicteis japonica, Mcintosh, 1885, p. 431, pi. XXVUA, figs. 

3-5. 

17 thoracic setigerous and 15 abdominal uncinigerous 
segments. Numerous eye-spots. Golden paleae straight 
or curved at the tips, which are more or less tapering. 
Gills inserted on the first and second segments in two 
close-set groups of four each. Feet with a clavate papilla 
at the ventral edge distally. Abdominal pinnules with a 
dorsal short process; the dorsal cirri replace the absent 
dorsal ramus. Uncini with a single row of 4—7 teeth. 
Tube membranous, coated with mud. 

Length: 20—40 mm. by 3—5 mm. 

Colour, in life, pink or yellowish with white dots 
and brown spots. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands, 290 fms.: off Akyab, 
Burma; Orissa Coast; Gulf of Oman, 609 fms. 

Distribution: Japan, Indochina; Bay of Bengal, Gulf 
of Oman; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea; Antarctic 
Ocean. 



408 



AMPHARETIDAE 




Fig. 213.--Amphtcteis gunnen Sars : a, side veiw X2.3 ; b, c, anterior 
part, dorsal and ventral view, gills cut off X6 ; d, thoracic foot 
with cirrus and pinnules Xl2 ; e, last thoracic segment and first 
abdominal pinnules X2.5; f, uncinus X240; g, five and six- 
toothed uncini from the same foot X400 ; h, capillary winged 
bristle X120 ; i, K smooth and sharp paleae Xl5. 

394. Amphicteis posterobrajicliiata Fauvel. (Fig. 214, 
a—e). 

Amphicteis posterobranchiata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 217, pi. IX, 

figs. 7-11. 

17 thoracic setigerous segments with dorsal capillary 
setae; 13 abdominal segments with uncinigerous pinnules. 
Prostomium lobed, with a median groove and two diverg- 
ing glandular ridges. Edge of the nuchal organs raised 
into a curved pad. Buccal segment as long as the three 
succeeding segments. Golden-yellow paleae ending in a 
very slender straight or curved tip, about 20—25 on either 
side. Eight large subulate gills, the first six disposed in 
two crowded groups of three, on the first setigerous seg- 
ment, separated in the middle of the dorsal surface by a 



AMPHICTEIS 



409 



raised rectangular cushion. The fourth pair is set far 
back from the first three on the third setigerous segment. 
Uncinigerous pinnules commence on the 4th setigerous 
segment. Dorsal ramus cylindrical, -with a small club- 
shaped cirrus on the last thoracic segments. Capillary 
setae winged and smooth. Uncinigerous pinnules shaped 
as a flattened knob, pedunculate and bearing a single 




Fig. ZH.—Amphicteis posterobranchiata Fauvel : a, dorsal view of an- 
terior end XS ; b, dorsal view of anterior end of another specimen 
X5 ; c, abdominal pinnules X8 ; d, thoracic uncinus X3S3 ; e, 
abdominal uncinus X333 (from Fauvel). 



retrogressive row o£ pectiniform uncini with three large 
bent teeth. The manubrium has a dorsal spine on which 
a " soie-tendon " is inserted. In the abdomen, the pinnu- 
les are flattened, sub-rectangular, with a very short, dorsal, 
blunt process. The dorsal cirri, reduced to a pedunculate 
small Icnob, persist in place of the setigerous lobes. Two 
anal cirri. Tube membranaceous coated with mud. 

Length: up to 42 mm. by 5 mm. 

Colourless, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal, 606—678 fms.; off Ceylon, 
660 fms.; off Cape Comorin, 670 fms.; Arabian Sea, 544 
fms. 

F. 54 



410 



AMPHARETIDAE 



Genus AMAGE Malmgren. 

Body rather short. Bristled thoracic segments 14 to 
17 in number. Uncinigerous pinnules commencing on 
the 4th setigerous segment. Uncini subtriangular, pecti- 
niform. Prostomium with two ridges. Buccal tentacles 
smooth. Three or four pairs of gills. Anal segment with 
two cirri. Paleae absent. 

396. Amage tiocalata (Moore) . (Fig. 215, d, e) . 

Samytha hioculata, Moore, 1906, p. 253, pi. XII, fig. 52, 53; 

1908, p. 360: Hessle, 1917, p. 122. 
Amage bioculata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 218. 

17 thoracic setigerous segments. 13—14 abdominal 
uncinigerous segments. Prostomium quadrate, broader 
than long. Numerous eye-spots. Paleae absent. Four 
pairs of much crowded, slightly flattened, slender and 




Fig. 215,~ian;ce socialis (Wiiley) : a, anterior part, ventral view ten- 
tacles omitted; b, c, hooks, front and side view (after Wiiley). 
Amage bioculata (Moore) : d, e, hooks X600 (after Moore). Melt- 
nopsis dubita (Hoagland) : /, anterior part, dorsal view X5 ; 
g, seta from the 2nd segment x350 ; h, hook X350 (after 
Hoagland). 



SCHISTOCOMUS 411 

elongated gills. First foot with a very small tuft of setae. 
In the abdomen dorsal ramus reduced to a small achae- 
tous papilla, projecting from the dorsal angles of the 
body. Uncinigerous pinnules are compressed lappets, 
constricted at the base, apparently lacking cirri. Uncini 
roughly triangular, bearing 4—5 long, slender, acute, over- 
lapping teeth. 

Length: 9 mm. 

Occurrence: Off Puri, Orissa, Bay of Bengal; 13 fms. 

Distribution: North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Georgia; 
India. 

Genus SCHISTOCOMUS Chamberlin. 

" Like Phyllocomus in lacking tentacles and post- 
branchial spines, in bearing fifteen pairs of fasciae of capi- 
llary setae and four pairs of branchiae. It differs from 
that genus in having the branchiae of two types, one pair 
being of the ordinary, smooth, simple, subulate form and 
the other three with the edges divided, two pinnately, 
bearing two close series of lamellar branches, and one 
with an essentially single series of branches in the geno- 
type." (Chamberlin) . 

396. Sclustocomos hiltoni Chamberlin. (Fig. 216, a—e) . 

Schistocomus hiltoni, Chamberlin, 1919, p. 17: Fauvd, 1932, p. 
219, pi. Vni. figs. 15-19. 

Body swollen and somewhat abruptly truncate in 
front, tapering backwards to a slender tail. 1& thoracic 
setigerous segments; about 32 abdominal uncinigerous seg- 
ments. Prostomium projecting forwards as a single hood 
with rounded anterior comers, devoid of ridges and eyes. 
Buccal segment broad and short, concave dorsally, ventral- 
ly with a lower lip dosing the mouth. Buccal tentacles 
absent (?) . Paleae and post-branchial hooks absent. 
Four pairs of branchiae of two types. On the first setiger- 
ous segment, a pair of outer subulate gills and two inner 
pinnate gills attached near the middle of the dorsum. 
On the 2nd and 3rd setigerous segments a broad pinnate 
gill on each side. On the 5th setigerous segment a tran- 
sverse, slender, whitish ridge, faintly raised. Unciniger- 
ous pinnules from the 4th setigerous segment; in the tho- 
racic region they bear a small papilla at their upper 
border; in the abdomen this process becomes cirriform 
and the dorsal ramus is reduced to a flattened blunt achae- 
tous lobe and a small rounded papilla. The ovate pygi- 
dium bears a crown of short cirri. Dorsal capillary setae 



412 



AMPHARETIDAE 



winged. Uncini sub-rhomboidal with 
teeth set in a single vertical row. 



6 large curved 




Fig. ZlS.—Schistocomtis hiltoni Chamberlin: a, anterior end, ventral 

view X8; b, anterior end, dorsal view X8; c, thoracic uncinus 

X500 ; dj pygidium X12 ; e, last thoracic and first abdominal 

pinnules Xl2 (from Tauvel 1932). 

Length: 24 mm. by 4 mm. 
Colour: light yellow, with brown spots. 
Occurrence: Madras Coast; 5—10 fms. 
Distribution: Laguna Bay, California; Madras Coast. 



Genus MELINOPSIS Mcintosh. 

Differs from Melinna in the absence of hooks behind 
the gills and the presence of a dorsal membranous collar. 

387. Melinopsis dtjtita (Hoagland) . (Fig. 215, /-/i) . 

Melinna dubita, Hoagland, 1920, p. 624 pi. I, figs. 13-16. 
Melinopsis dubita, Fauvel, 1932, p. 220. 



MELINNA 41S 

Pi-ostomium ending in a folded upper lip. Buccal 
segment largely covered b^ the following one; next four 
segments forming a collar-like structure with a prominent- 
ly developed lateral region, extending obliquely from ven- 
tral to dorsal surface. First two segments marked by a 
row of fine setae. Third segment with similar setae ven- 
trally and a delicate tuft of similar, but larger, capillary 
setae dorsally. Fourth segment with a small prominent 
tuft of dorsal setae, but without any ventral setae. The 
succeeding IS thoracic segments with a conspicuous dor- 
sal, cylindrical, setigerous lobe, bearing winged capillary 
setae. Uncinigerous pinnules from the 5th setigerous 
segment. Abdomen with numerous segments bearing only 
square uncinigerous pinnules without any process. A 
small dorsal globular knob. Uncini pectinate, with four 
large teeth above the ligament process. Buccal tentacles 
of two kinds: (1) long, slender, and (2) short, thick, 
smooth, grooved. Four pairs of gills, stout, tapering, 
broad and flattened. Tube composed of a tough inner 
membrane and a very thick outer coating of fine mud, 
140 mm. long by 8—10 mm. and a bore of only 2—3 mm. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal 300 fms.; Laccadive Sea, 
430 fms. 

Distribution: Mindanao, Philippine Islands; Bay of 
Bengal, Laccadive Sea. 

Genus MELINNA Malmgren. 

Body long, slender, tapering behind; segments numer- 
ous, 50 and more. Prostomium without glandular rid^s. 
Buccal tentacles smooth. Four pairs of long, subulate, 
fasciculate gills. Paleae absent. A pair of large hooked 
spines behind the gills. A dorsal transverse membrane on 
the 6th segment. Segments 2 to 6 coalesced in the form 
of a vagina partly ensheathing the mouth and the sides 
of the branchiae and bearing a ventral row of very fine 
setae. Uncinigerous pinnules from the 7th segment. 
Dorsal capillary setae winged. Uncini subtriangular, with 
a few teeth. 

396. Melinna abcwans Fauvel. (Fig. 217, a-f) . 
Melinna aberrans, Fauvel, 1932, p. 221, pi. IX, figs. 21-26. 

14 thoracic setigerous segments with dorsal capillary 
setae (first foot very small, rudimentary) . At least 30 
abdominal uncinigerous segments. Body slender, greatly 
tapering posteriorly. Prostomium broad, short, anterior 
border faintly lobed, without glandular ridges, and bear- 



414 



AMPHAKETIDAE 



ing, on either side, a transverse row of many eye-spots. 
Buccal segment partly sheathed into the next, which forms 
a ventral collar deeply notched in the middle. Buccal 
tentacles stout, smooth and few. Eight elongated, sub- 
ulate, ringed gills crowded into two groups and bound 
together by a membrane reaching up to a third of their 
length; in each group they are fasciculate at the base. 




Fig. ^i7.—Mehnna aberrans Fauvel : a, anterior end, side view Xl2 ; 
b, anterior end, dorsal view Xl2 ; c, anterior end, ventral view, 
tentacle and gills cut short xi2 ; d, small ventral seta from an- 
terior segments X500 ; e, postbranchial hook X200 ; /, uncinus 
X700 (from Fauvel 1932). 

Segments 2 to 5 form a long groove, the lateral edges of 
which are raised up, and united behind the gills by a 
transverse membrane; the anterior margin of the membrane 
is convex and smooth. Segments 2, 3, and 5 bear a trans- 
verse row of very fine, sharp, wingless ventral setae. 
There is also a small bundle of dorsal capillary winged 
setae on the 5th segment. The 4th segment bears, on 
either side behind the gills, a large bent hook. On the 
6th segment there is a small tuft of dorsal capillary wing- 



MELINNIA 415 

ed setae, but ventral setae are absent. The next 12 seg- 
ments bear dorsal capillary winged setae and uncinigerous 
tori. Uncini with a single row of 5 teeth. In the abdo- 
men the uncinigerous pinnules are rectangular and devoid 
of cirriform processes. Tube membranous, cylindrical, 
coated with a thick layer of fine mud and sand. 

Length: about 20 mm. by 1 mm. 

Colourless, in spirit. 

Occurrence: Vizagapatam Harbour and Channel con- 
necting backwater with the sea. 

Family TEREBELLIDAE Grube. 

Body divided into thorax, with dorsal capillary setae 
and uncinigerous tori, and abdomen, generally devoid of 
dorsal setae but bearing uncinigerous pinnules. Prosto- 
mium bearing filiform grooved tentacles, not retractile 
into the mouth. Branchiae ramose, rarely filiform or 
subulate, 1 to 3 pairs (or none) inserted on segments 
2, 3 and 4. Paleae absent. Dorsal capillary setae gene- 
rally winged, with smooth or spinulose tip. Uncini avi- 
cular or pectiniform. Ventral glandular scutes or shields 
in the thorax. Membranaceous tube coated with sand. 

Key to the genera of Terebellidae. 

1. Uncini absent . . . . Lysilla Malmgren, p. 435. 
Tkoracic and abdominal uncini 

of two kinds. A single pecti- 
nate gill . . . . TerebeUides Sars, p. 436. 
Thoracic and abdominal uncini 

not of two kinds .. 2 

2. Thoracic uncini all set in single 

rows . . . . 3 

Thoracic uncini set in double 

rows . . . . 5 

3. Filiform gills . . . . 4 

Gills absent . . - Polycirrus Gmbe, p. 434. 

4. Dorsal setae begin on 3rd seg- 

ment . . • . Thelepus Leuckart, p. 430. 

Dorsal setae begin on 2nd seg- 
ment .. .. Streblosoma Sars, p. 432. 

6. Dorssil setae serrated at the tip, 
often of two kinds. Gilk 
ramose . . . . Terebella Linnaeus, p. 420. 

Dorsal setae with a smooth tip 6 



416 TEREBELLIDAE 

6. Uncini of the first segments with 

a long chitinous process .. Pista Malmgren, p. 422. 
Uncini without a long chitinous 

process . . . 7 

7. Uncini set back to back . , 8 

Uncini avicular, not back to 

back .. .. 9 

8. Uncini pectiniform . . . . Loimia Malmgren, p. 416. 
Uncini aviculai . . . . Lanice Malmgien, p. 418 

9. Three pairs of gills. Well deve- 

loped lateral lobes on the first 

segments .. ,. Polymnia Malmgren, p. 418. 

Two pairs of gills. No lateral 
lobes on the first segments . . Nicolea Malmgren, p. 420. 

Subfamily AMPHITRITINAE Malmgren. 

Branchiae bushy, rarely cirriform, or wanting. Dor- 
sal setae smooth or serrated, thoracic uncini in double 
rows. 

Genus LOIMIA Malmgren. 

Seven thoracic bristled segments. Three pairs ot ar- 
borescent gills. First segments with lateral lobes. Dorsal 
capillary setae winged, smooth at the tip. Uncini pecti- 
nate, opposed back to back; in double rows from the 7th 
to the 17th thoracic setigerous segments. Statocysts in the 
second segment. 

399. Loimia medcsa (Savigny) . (Fig. 218, a—f) . 

Loimia medusa, Malmgren. 1855, p. 380, pi. XXV, fig. 80: Willey, 
1905, p. 302, pi. VI, figs. 155-159: Fauvel, 1914a, p. 145, pi. 
VU. figs. 6-9; 1932, p. 224; 1935, p. 543: Augener, 1926, p. 465: 
Gravely, 1927, p. 26. 

Loimia annuUfilis Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 301. pi. VI figs 163 

154: Gravely. 1927, p. 25: Augener, 1927d, p. 142. 
Loimia montagui Grube, WUley, 1905, p. 303, pi. VI, figs. 160- 

Loimia crassifilis Grube, WiUey, 1905, p. 302: Michaelsen, 1892, 
p. 20. 

Loimia variegata Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 304: Augener, 1926 
p. 466, fig. 10. e ' > 

Thoracic region swollen; abdomen long and slender. 
A large rounded foliaceous arched lip over the mouth 
Lateral lobes of the first segments large and foliaceous. 3 
pairs of subequal gills with numerous, slender, branches. 
Xhe uncim are flat pectinate plates with 4-5 long curved 



LOIMIA 



417 



teeth set m a single row. Capillary dorsal setae winged, 
with a smooth tip, on 17 thoracic segments. About 9-10 
ventral shields. Tube membranous coated with sand and 
debris. 




Fig. 218.— Loimia medusa (Sav^y) : a, ventral view X3 ; 6, abdo- 
minal hook X440 ; c, d, thoracic hooks x440 ; e, abdominal 
hook X440; /, hook, front view X440. 

Remarks: Loimta annulifilis Grube is only a colour 
variety often met with, the tentacles of which are ringed, 
with purple bands. L. crassifilis Grube, L. montagui 
Grube, L. variegate Grube are only varieties. The num- 
ber of teeth of the uncini is not characteristic for it varies 
with age, size and wear. 

Length: 60-120 mm. by 6-10 mm. 

Colour: in life variable, grey or yellowish with dark 
brown transverse thoracic bands and a dark streak under 
the tori. Ventral shields red. 

Occurrence: Burma; Andaman Islands; Bay of Ben- 
gal; Ceylon; Gulf of Mannar. 

F. 65 



418 TEREBELLIDAE 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, California, Japan, Indo- 
china; Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic 
Ocean. 

Genus LANICE Malmgren. 

17 setigerous thoracic segments, 3 pairs of arborescent 
gills. Lateral lobes on the first segments. Ventral scutes 
more or less fused. Dorsal capillary setae winged, with a 
smooth tip. Uncini avicular with transverse rows of den- 
ticles on the vertex: they axe opposed back to back, in 
double rows, on a number of thoracic tori. Tube coated 
with sand. 

400. Laaice socialis (Willey) . (Fig. 215, a-c) . 

Polymnia sociahs, WUley. 1905, p. 299, pi. VI, figs. 146-148. 

Dorsal surface smooth and convex. The first segment, 
which fonns the lower lip, is long below and deeply cleft, 
the right half slightly overlapping the left. Lateral lobe 
of the 2nd segment is a semi-lunar, symmetrical, free 
dermal fold. The band of ventral scutes, rounded in 
front, attenuate behind, ends, as a white streak, in the 
region of the 13th— 14th tori. Dorsal setae narrowly lim- 
bate, with a smooth tip. Thoracic uncini uniserial in 
the first six tori, biserial and opposed back to back in the 
rest, uniserial again in the abdominal pinnules. The 
uncini are avicular with a number of denticulations arrang- 
ed in arcs across the vertex. Narrow, sand encrusted, 
tubes. 

Length: 20 mm. by 2 mm. 
Occurrence: Ceylon, Galle; 16—30 fms. 

Remarks: This species is very closely allied to L. 
conckilega (Pallas) of Europe. 

Genus POLYMNIA Malmgren. 

Generally 17 thoracic setigerous segments. Eye-spots 
numerous. Three pairs of arborescent gills arising from 
a main stem. Lateral lobes in anterior segments. Well 
marked ventral scutes. Dorsal capillary setae smooth at 
the tip; they commence on the third gill-bearing segment. 
Uncini with an elongated base, a lateral spur and denti- 
cles above the main fang; they are set in biserial rows on 
a number of thoracic segments. 



POLYMNIA 



419 



401. Polymnia nefctilosa (Montagu). (Fig. 219, a— g) . 

Potymma nebulosa, Fauvel, 1917, p. 267, figs. 28; 1927a, p. 257, 

fig. 89; 1930a, p. 55, 1932, p. 224. 
Polymnia triplicata, Willey, 1906, p. 300, pi. VI, figs. 149-154. 
Polymnia trigonostoma, Augener, 1914, p. 80. 

Body plump, soft, very brittle. 17 thoracic segments. 
A raised cephalic ridge, with very numerous, small eye- 
spots. Upper lip well developed. Buccal segment collar 
shaped. Oval lateral lobes on segments 2—3. Ventral 
scutes wrinkled. Three pairs of gills with a sub-dichoto- 




Fig. 219.— Polymnia nebulosa (Montagu): a, anterior part X4; b, 

capillary bristle Xl50 ; c, uncinus from the 2nd segment X400 ; 

d, double row X150 ; e, f, uncini from a double row, front and 

side view X400; g. abdominal uncinus x400. 

mously divided large stem. Nephridial papillae from 3rd 
to 8th segment. Uncini with an elongated convex base, 
a process for a ligament, a main fang, two large teeth and 
1-5 small denticles on tlie vertex. Tube of shell frag- 
ments and debris. 



Length: 5-150 mm. by 3-8 mm. 



420 TEREBELLIDAE 

Colour: in life orange grey, pink or brown, with 
small white dots. Uncoloured in spirit. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Pamban Island, Cey- 
lon, Andaman Islands, Maldives, Nicobars. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Indian Ocean, Persian 
Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus NICOLEA Malmgren. 

15-25 thoracic setigerous segments. Eyes present. 
Two pairs of ramose gills. The first segments do not 
show lateral lobes. Ventral scutes. Dorsal capillary setae 
smooth at the tip. Uncini from the 2nd setigerous seg- 
ment; they are avicular with transverse rows of denticles 
on the vertex and are set in uniserial, alternate or semi- 
opposite, rows on a number of thoracic segments. Tube 
membranous, coated with sand. 

402. Nicolea gracilittanchis (Grube) . (Fig. 220, d) . 

Nicolea gractlibranchiSj Marenzeller, 1884, p. 207, pi. II, fig. 2: 

Hessle, 1917, p. 173: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 56, 1932, p. 295. 
Terebella gracilibranchis, Grube, 1878, p. 230; pi. XII, fig. 6. 

Two pairs of gills. 17 thoracic setigerous segments 
with smooth capillary setae and very projecting abdominal 
pinnules, whose uncini are bidentate above the main fang. 
The eyes are hidden under the cephalic folds. The pos- 
terior lip is bilobed. The anterior segments have not 
lateral lobes. There are 14—15 ventral scutes. On the 
segment before the first setigerous lies a small papilla 
behind the second gill. Nephridial papillae are conspi- 
cuous on the 3rd and 4th setigerous segments. 

Length: 70 mm. 

Occurrence: Singapore; Madras Coast, Gulf of Man- 
nar, Tuticorin, Pamban. 

Distribution: Hawaii; Japan; Philippine Islands; 
India. 

Genus TEREBELLA Linnaeus. 

Dorsal "capillary setae on a very large number of 
segments, commencing on the 4th segment (3rd gill-bear- 
ing) ; they are winged, with a serrated tip and often of 
two kinds. 2 or 3 pairs of arborescent gills. Lateral lobes 
on the first segment absent. Ventral scutes. Uncini from 
the 2nd setigerous segment, set in biserial opposite rows 
on a large number of segments. 



TEREBELLA 



421 



403. Tcfcbella elifcntjergi Grube. (Fig. 220, a-c) . 
Terehella ehrenberp, Grube, 1850, p. 511: Gravier, 1906, p. 213, 
pi. rv, fig. 224-225: Hessle, 1917, p. 188: Fauvel, 1930a. p. 
65; 1932. p. 226; 1939, p. 653. 

Leprea ehrenbergi, Maienzeller, 1884, p. 201, pi. I, fig. 3. 

Leprea inversa, Willey, 1905, p. 297, pi. VI, figs. 141-142, pi. VII 
fig. 197. 

Eyes conspicuous. Three pairs of gills. 13 ventral 
scutes. The dorsal setae are absent in the last segments. 
Posterior bristles with broadly winged tips minutely pec- 
tinate and spirally twisted. Uncini biserial with 2—3 




Fig. 2Z0.-Terebella ehrenbergi Grube: a, giU; b, dorsal capillary 

bristles; c, hooks, side and front view (after Gravier). Nicolea 

gracilibranchis (Grube) : d, thoracic hook (after Marenzeller). 

main teeth above the fang and 2—3 rows of small denti- 
cles. Nephridial papillae long on segments 3, 6, 7 and 8, 
short and little conspicuous on segments 9, 10, 11 and 12. 
The nephridial papilla between the 1st and 2nd pair of 
gills is long and erect. 



422 PisTA 

Length: 30-40 mm. by 2.6 mm. 
Colour: in life, pink tentacles with pigment streaks 
or annular bands. 

Occurrence: Diamond Island, Burma; Port Blair, 
Andaman Islands; Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai, Pamban, 
Rameswaram, Kilakarai. 

Distribution: Japan, China Sea; Andaman Sea, Gulf 
of Mannar, Red Sea. 

Genus PISTA Malmgren. 

Thorax with 15—17 setigerous segments. Eyes some- 
times present. One, two, or three pairs of bushy gills 
with a stout main stem. Lateral lobes often very conspi- 
cuous on the first segments. Distinct ventral scutes. Dor- 
sal capillary setae with a smooth tip (very exceptionally 
serrated) . Uncini from the 2nd setigerous segment; those 
of the first segments with a long process or shaft. 

Key to the species of Pista. 

1. Dorsal setae senated . . indica Fauvel, p. 422. 
Dorsal setae smooth . . 2 

2. GiUs forming whorled tufts . . typha Grube, p. 424. 
Gills arborescent' . . g 

S. Uncini of the first segments with 

a stout inferior shaft .. 4 

Uncini of the first segments with 

a slender process . . 6 

4. Shaft of the uncini of the first 

segment very broad .. robustiseta 

CauUery, p. 424. 
-Shaft of the uncini of the first 

segment more slender .. fasciata (Grube), p. 425. 

5. Gill divisions few and very thick pachybranchiata 

Fauvel, p. 428. 
Gills densely ramified .. 6 

6. Uncini of the first two uncini- 

gerous segments differing from 

the following .. herpini Fauvel, p. 427. 

Uncini of the first two uncini- 
gerous segments not unlike the 
following .. ,. macrolobata 

Hessle, p. 426. 

404. Pista indica Fauvel. (Fig. 221, a~d) . 
Pista indica, Fauvel, 1940, p. fig. ]. 

_ Body rather short and plump, abdomen cylindrical, 
with numerous short segments crowded together. 16 



TEREBELLIDAE 



423 



thoracic setigerous segments. Prostomium with, an eyeless 
lobe bearing long, and rather thick, grooved tentacles. 
Buccal segment expanded into a dorsal arched lip. Ob- 
solete lateral lobes on segments 2 and 3. 8—9 ventral 
scutes. Three pairs of bushy gills, all about the same size. 
Pygidium without papillae. Dorsal setae capillary with 
narrow wings and a finely serrated tip. Uncini from the 
2nd setigerous segment. The first four uncinigerous tori 




Fig. 221.— Piito indica Fauvel: a, anterior part, side view, tentacles 

cut off XlO; b, thoracic bristle X400; c, thoracic hooks X160: 

d, uncini X520. 

short, with a transverse row of big, long, brown hooks with 
smooth tips. On the two following tori a single row of 
small avicular uncini; next, the succeeding thoracic and 
abdominal segments bear two alternating rows. 

Length: 15-20 mm. by 2-2.5 mm. 

Decoloured, in spirit. 

Occurrence: West Narrakal, Cochin State; Cheppa- 
ram, Cheriya Kamakakudi, Ernakulam Backwater (17 
specimens) . 

Remarks: With the exception of the serrated dorsal 
setae all the characters are those of the genus Pista. 



424 TEREBELLIDAE 

405. Pista typha Grube. (Fig, 222, a-c) . 

Pista typha, Caullery, 1915, p. 77: Hessle, 1917, p. 155: Augener, 

1927a, p. 164. fig. 17: Fauvel, 1932, p. 226, fig. 36. 
Terebella (Pista) typha, Grube, 1878, p. 232, pi. XII, fig. 4. 

17 thoracic setigerous segments. Two pairs of un- 
equal gills with a long stem and an oval whorled tuft of 
filaments. Semicircular lateral lobes on the 2nd and 3rd 




Fig. 222.-Pista typha Grube : a, hook from the 2nd uncinigexous seg- 
ment x500 ; b, hook from the 7th setigerous segment X500 ; 
c, abdominal hook X500. 



segments. Uncini of the first segments with a long and 
slender basal shaft. Rather long nephridial papillae are 
conspicuous on the 3rd and 4th setigerous segments. 

Length: 45 mm. 

Occurrence: Bay of Bengal, Sandheads, Gangetic 
Delta; Laccadive Sea. 

Distribution: Japan, Philippine Islands, Malayan 
Seas, South Australia; Bay of Bengal, Laccadive Sea. 

406. Pista tofcttsfecta Caullery. (Fig. 223, a-e) . 

Pista robustiseta, Caullery, 1915, p. 71, fig. lA: Hessle, 1917, p. 
159: Fauvel, 1932, p. 227, fig. 37. 

17 thoracic setigerous segments. Eye-spots present. 
Two pairs of arborescent gills with stout stems. Conspicu- 
ous lateral lobes on the first three segments. Uncini of 
the first segments with a stout, broad and long shaft, be- 
coming more slender in the following ones. About 14— 
19 ventral scutes. 



PISTA 



425 



Length: 20-30 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Oman, 609 fms. 

Distribution: Japan; Malayan Sea; Gulf of Oman. 




Fig. Z2S.—Pista robusiiseta CauUeiy a, b, hooks from the first uncini- 

gerous segment X210 ; c, hook from the 3rd uncinigerous segment 

X210; d, thoracic hook X210; e, abdominal hook X210. 



407. Pista fasciata (Grube) . (Fig. 224, a-d) . 

Pista fasciata, Marenzeller, 1884, p. 202, pi. I, fig. 4: Fauvel, 

1932, p. 228, fig. 38. 
Terebella (Physelia) fasciata, Grube, 1869, p. 613. 
Terebella fasciata, Ehlers, 1908, p. 148. 

17 thoracic setigerous segments. Two pairs of dense- 
ly arborescent gills with stout stems. Lateral lobes very 
large on the buccal segment, which forms a ventral collar 
notched in the middle. Lobes of the 2nd segment very 
short. 15—17 ventral scutes. Uncini of all the thoracic 
segments with a long, rather slender process. The 3rd seg- 
ment bears a small dorsal papilla on either side. The 
nephridial papillae on the 3rd and 4th segments lie above 
and slightly behind the foot. 

Length: 60—80 mm. by 3—5 mm. 
F. 56 



426 



TEREBELLIDAE 



Occurrence: Bay of Bengal, 112-168 fms. 
Distribution; Japan; Bay of Bengal, Red Sea, Zanzi- 
bar; Algoa Bay. 




^ 



J^ 



Fig. 2Z4.-Pista fasciata (Grube) : a, hook from the 2nd uncinigerous 

segment X380 ; 6, hook from the 3rd uncinigerous segment X380 ; 

c, hoolk from the Uth uncinigerous segment X380 ; d, 

abdominal hook X380. 



408. Pista macfolotsata Hessle. (Fig. 225, a-d) . 

Pista macrolobata, Hessle. 1917, p. 157, pi. 11, figs. 4, 36; Fauvd, 
1932, p. 229. fig. 39. 

17 thoracic setigerous segments. Eyes absent. Two 
pairs of arborescent gills. Large lateral lobes on the buccal 
segment sheathing the head. Lateral lobes on the 3rd and 
4th, none on the 2nd. 17—20 rectangular ventral scutes. 
All the thoracic uncini avicular, with very slender processes. 
Nephridia in 3rd, 6th and 7th segments. Abdominal pin- 
nules elongated, rectangular and protruding. 

Length: 70 mm. by 4—5 mm. 

Qccurrence: Tor, Sinai Peninsula. 



PISTA 

Distribution : Japan ; Red Sea. 



427 




Fig. 225 —Pista macrolobata Hessle : a, hook from the first uncini- 

gerous segment X380 ; h, hook from the 2nd uncinigeious segment 

X380 ; c, hook from the 15th uticinigerous segment X380 ; d, 

abdominal hook X380. 

409. Pista terpini Fauvel. (Fig. 226, a-k) . 

Pista herpini, Fauvel, 1928, p. 160, fig. 2, a-h; 1930a, p. 57, fig. 
16, a-h; 1932, p. 230. 

Body narrow, slender, elongate, slightly swollen ante- 
riorly. 17 thoracic setigerous segments. Prostomium 
large, without lateral folds. Eye-spots absent. Buccal seg- 
ment expanded into two rounded lobes encompassing the 
prostomium and united ventrally by a fold ending in a 
notched lower lip. Second segment short, with a ventral 
transverse ridge, but without marked lateral lobes. On 
the 3rd segment two large, flattened, rounded lobes point- 
ing forwards, or bent backwards. There are no lobes on 
the 4th segment (first setigerous) . The 15—17 ventral 
shields are somewhat iused with the tori. Two pairs of 
branchiae, which may be either bushy or divided on a 
single plane; they are often borne on long stalks, the first 
pair being the larger. Nephridial papillae inconspicuous. 
Pygidium vrith terminal anus surrounded by short papillae. 
Dorsal setae capillary, broadly winged at the end, with a 
short smooth tip. The uncini are in a single row on the 
first six uncinigerous segments, double-alternating in the 
ten following (from the 7th to the 16th) uncinigerous or to 
the last thoracic (17th setigerous) ; behind that in a single 



428 



TEREBELLIDAE 



row. Uncini avicular with a broad base, a small ligament, 
a transverse row o£ 3—5 teeth and 2—3 rows of small denti- 
cles above the main fang. The uncini of the first two un- 
cinigerous segments have a long narrow, faintly chitinised 




Fig. 226.—Pista herpini Fauvel : a, b, anterior region, ventral and side 
view X6; c, d, capillary setae X160; e, f, uncini from the first 
uncimgerous segment X320 ; g, h, thoracic uncini, front and side 
view X320 Lysilla pambanensis Fauvel : i, ventral side, con- 
tracted, most of the tentacular cirri fallen off x6; k, 
anterior region, ventral side, much swollen, showing 
nephridia through the integument Xl6; I, posterior 
region X6. 

process. Tendinous processes {soies de soutien) in the 
abdominal tori, which are rectangular pinnules standing 
out boldly. Tube membranaceous, cylindrical, with a 
coating of sand, fragments of shells and algae. 

Length: 10—15 nam. by 2 mm. 

Colour: Tentacular cirri white. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Pamban; Persian Gulf. 

410. Pista pachybranchiata Fauvel. (Fig. 227, a-f) . 

Pista pachybranchiata, Fauvel, 1932, p. 231, pi. IX, figs. 1-6. 

Body cylindrical, not swollen anteriorly, abdomen very 
long. 17 thoracic setigerous segments. Prostomium rather 
small, without lateral folds. A narrow streak of very small 
dark eye-spots. Buccal segment expanded into two large 



PISTA 



429 



rounded lobes encompassing the prostomium. On the 3rd 
segment, two rounded lobes. There are no lobes on the 
4th segment (first setigerous) . 15—18 ventral scutes, first 
rectangular, then hexagonal. Uncinigerous tori rather 
short. Two pairs of gills with few branches, very thick, 
subulate, simple or furcate; the second pair is slightly the 
smaller. Nephridial pores on 3rd, 4th and 5th setigerous 
segments. Uncini in a single row on the anterior uncini- 




Fig. 221— Pisia pachybranchiata Fauvel: a, left gill o£ 2nd pair XlO; 
b, right gill of 2nd pair XlO; c, anterior end, ventral view X5; 
d, uncinus from 2nd uncinigerous segment X400; e, abdominal 
unctnus x400; /, uncmus from 9th uncinigerous segment x400. 

gerous segments, double-alternating on the succeeding 
ones of the thorax. Uncini avicular, with a broad base, 
numerous transverse rows of small teeth above the main 
fang. They are hardly different from those of the first seg- 
ments, and have only a very slender, faintly chitinised, 
basal process. The abdominal tori are small rectangular 
pinnules. Dorsal setae capillary, long, slender, _ with a 
single wing, appearing finely serrated under a high mag- 
nification. Pygidium? Tube? 

Length: 100—120 mm. by 4—5 mm., feet not includ- 
ed, 6—6.5 nmi. if setae included. 

Colourless, in spirit. 



430 lEREBELLIDAE 

Occurrence: Lacadive Sea, 1,150—1,170 fius. 
Remarks: This species is an intermediate link be- 
tween Amphitrite O. F. Miiller and Pista Malmgren. 

Subfamily THELEPINAE Hessle. 
Branchiae filiform. Uncini in simple rows. 

Genus THELEPUS Leuckart. 

Dorsal setae on a large number of segments. Two or 
three pairs of filiform gills, each in a transverse series. 
Numerous eye-spots. No lateral lobes on the first seg- 
ments. Uncini commence on the 3rd setigerous segment; 
they are always in a single row. 

Key to the species of Thelepus. 

1. Two pauTS of gills . . cincinnatus 

Fabricius, p. 431. 

Three pairs of gills . . 2 

2. Abdomen tapering; pinnules 

square and projecting . . setosus. 

Abdomen smooth, swollen, ab- Quatrefages. 
luptly decreasing; pinnules 

small, lacking in the posterior plagiostoma 
part of the tail . . Schmarda, p. 430. 

Remarks: The cosmopolitan Th. setosus (Quatre- 
fages) has not as yet been recorded from India, but it 
exists in the Red Sea and in Indochina. It differs chiefly 
from plagiostoma Schmarda in the condition of the pos- 
terior part of its abdomen. It is next to impossible to 
distinguish specimens when the tail is wanting; otherwise 
both species are easily discriminated. 

411. Thelcpas pl^iostoma Schmarda. (Fig. 228, a—f) . 

Thelepus plagiostoma Schmarda, Augener, 1914, p. 95 (Syno- 
nymy): 1926a, p. 239: Fauvel, 1919, p. 455, fig. 10; 1932, p. 233. 
Thelepus rugosus, Ehlers, 1901, p. 211; 1904, p. 59; 1908, p. 146. 
Thelepsus japonicus, Marenzeller, 1884, p. 12, pi. II, fig. 4. 
Thelepus crispus, Johnson, 1801, p. 428, pi. XVU, fig. 175-179. 

Three pairs of filiform gills. Posterior part of the 
body generally swollen, but abruptly tapering to the py- 
gidium. Dorsal setae nearly to the end of the body. 
Posterior segments very short, densely crowded, nearly 
smooth, and lacking uncini. Abdominal pinnules small. 



THELEPUS 



43] 



not projecting. Uncini with a transverse row of two 
teeth above the main fang, and a basal knob. 

Length: 100-180 mm. by 8-10 mm. 

Colour, brown or reddish. 




Fig. 2Z8.—Thelepm plagiostoma Schmarda: a, 6, dorsal bristles Xl40; 
c, d, two uncini from one foot X330 ; e, f, uncini, front view. 



Occurrence: Malacca Strait. 

Distribution: Chile, California, Japan, New Zealand, 
Australia; Indian Ocean. 

412. Thelcpas cincinnattts (Fabricius) . 

Thelepus cincinnatus, Hessle, 1917, p. 212: Fauvel. 1927a, p. 271, 
iig. 95, i-m (Synonymy); 1932, p. 233, fig, 46. 

Two pairs of filiform gills. Abdomen long, gradual- 
ly tapering, often coiled. Eye-spots numerous. Ventral 
scutes indistinct. Dorsal setae sometimes nearly to the 
end of the body. Abdominal pinnules rectangular, pro- 



432 TEREBELLIDAE 

trading. The uncini have, above the main fang, a tran- 
sverse row of two rather large teeth, a median tooth and 
often two small denticles. The basal knob is more or 
less enlarged at the tip (variable) . Pygidium crenate. 

Length: 100-200 mm. by 5-10 mm. 

Colour: brown, pink or orange-yellow. Gills red. 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Japan; Andaman Islands; Atlantic 
Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus STREBLOSOMA Sars. 
Grymaea Malmgren: Eugrymaea Verrill. 

Two or three pairs of clusters of filiform branchiae. 
Smooth-tipped dorsal setae commencing from the 2nd 
segment (first branchiferous) and extending to the abdo- 
minal region. Uncinigerous tori commeiicing on the 4th 
setigerous segment. Uncini avicular, uniserial. 

Key to the species of Streblosoma. 

Abdominal pinnules sessile . . cespitosa Willey, p. 433. 

Abdominal pinnules standing 

well out .. persica Fauvel, p. 432. 

413. Streblosoma pmica (Fauvel) . (Fig. 229, Fig. 230, 
c—m) . 

streblosoma persica, Fauvel, 1930a, p. 68. 

Grymaea persica, Fauvel, 1911, p. 419, pi. XX, figs. 35-43. 

Prostomium rounded, with a transverse row of eyes. 
Tentacles few, long, stout, grooved. Three pairs of gills, 
each of numerous simple, coiled filaments. Smooth-tipped 
capillary setae on nearly all the segments. First foot on 
the first branchial segment. Tori from the 4th setigerous 
segment. Uncini avicular, in single rows, retrogressive, 
with several rows of denticles on the vertex and a knob 
at the end of the manubrium. Abdominal pinnules stand- 
ing well out. 20—25 ventral biannulate scutes. 

Length: 30-40 mm. by 2—2.5 mm. 



STREBLOSOMA 433 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, Pam- 
ban. 

Distribution: Gulf of Mannar; Persian Gulf. 




Fjg. i3.9.—Streblosoma persica (Fauvel) : side view XlO. 



414. Stretlosoma cespitosa (Willey) . (Fig. 230, a, b) . 

Grymaea cespitosa, WiUey, 1905, p. 305, pi. VH, figs. 164, 165; 
Fauvel, 1919, p. 457. 

(?) Phenacia exihs Grube, Michaelsen, 1892, p. 20. 

Prostomium with eyes. Tentacles stout, plainly groov- 
ed. Branchial filaments numerous, forming dense coils. 
Dorsal setae narrowly limbate. First foot rather large, 
on the first branchial segment. Uncini from the 4th seti- 
gerous segment; they are avicular with a button-like knob 
on the end of the manubrium. The thoracic tori gradu- 
ate insensibly into the abdominal tori which are sessile, 
not pinnuliform. The dorsal capillary setae are absent 
on the posterior half of the body. 

F.57 



434 



TEREBELLEDAE 



Length: 30 mm. by 3-4 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: India, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

Subfamily POLYCIRRINAE Malmgren. 

Cephalic lobe very large, foliaceous, bearing numerous 
grooved tentacles. Branchiae absent. Ventral scutes 
paired and narrow. Dorsal setae capillary, smooth or 
serrated. 

Genus POLYCIRRUS Grube. 

Branchiae absent. Cephalic tentacles very long, very 
numerous, filiform or swollen at the tips. Number of 
thoracic segments very variable. Uncini elongated toothed 
plates, all alike or of two kinds. Ventral scutes square, 
paired. Eyes absent. Nephridia well developed. Circu- 
latory apparatus absent. 

415. PoIycim«coccineas Grube. (Fig. 230, n-^) . 

Polyctrrus coccinem, Fauvel, 1919, p. 458, pi. XI; 1930a, p. 69. 
Anisodrrus dectpiens, Gravier, 1906, p. 225, pi. V, figs. 235—238. 





/ // ^ 



Fig. ZSa.—Streblosoma cespitosa Willey: a, anterior end, side view; 
b, hook (after Willey). Str. persica Fauvel : c, d, e, hooks, side 
and front view X 40O ; f, dorsal flattened bristle X 168 ; g, h, 
•winged dorsal bristles Xl68 ; i, ft, Z, m, hooks, side and front 
view X 400. Polycirrus coccineus Grube : n, tip of a capil- 
lary bristle X248 ; o, thoracic hook X400 ; *, q, abdo- 
minal hooks, side and front view X wO. 



LYSILLA 435 

Tentacular cirri very numerous, entangled, more or 
less enlarged at the tip into a tongue-shaped process. 16 
—20 thoracic setigerous segments bearing boldly serrated 
bristles. Thoracic uncini on the last thoracic segments, 
avicular with a broad short base. Abdominal uncini with 
a narrow elongated base. 

Length: 60—80 mm. 
Colour: Tentacular cirri yellow. 
Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Pamban, Krusadai Is- 
land. 

Distribution: India, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

Genus LYSILLA Malmgren. 

Branchiae absent. Dorsal setae capillary, very small. 
Uncini absent. 

416. Lysilla pamfcanensis Fauvel. (Fig. 226, i—l) . 

Lysilla pambanensis, Fauvel, 1928, p. 162, flg. 2, i—l; 1930a, p. 
59, fig. 16, i-l. 

Body often much swollen anteriorly, ventral side 
convex, dorsal concave; posterior region narrow, cylindri- 
cal. In the anterior region the skin is covered with small 
papillae, glandular, rounded, hemispherical or flattened 
and often little conspicuous. In the posterior region the 
superficial rings are often very distinct, even nearly moni- 
liform. There are 13—18 thoracic segments bearing dor- 
sal setae. A wide, frilled, prostomial lobe, eye-less and 
bearing numerous tentacular drri, some cylindrical slen- 
der, spirally twisted, others much stouter, strongly en- 
larged at the tip and grooved. A prominent upper lip, 
hollowed, spoon-like. A small triangular fleshy knob 
under the lower lip. First segment as a large Y-shaped pad 
with bent edges. The ventral shields are short, narrow, 
square, sunk into a ventral groove. They are not visible 
when the thoracic region is much swollen. Small pointed 
nephridial papillae on the three first setigerous segments, 
sometimes on the next seven; a swelling with a small cen- 
tral spot (nephridiopore?) is visible on the base of the 
foot. It appears to have 8—9 pairs of nephridia, the first 
4—5 pairs, often visible through the transparent teguments, 
being short and oval. The dorsal capillary setae, very 
slender and smooth, noticeably emerge from the long 
cylindrical foot which is slightly enlarged at the tip. Tori 
and uncini are utterly wanting, as well in the abdomen 
as in the thorax. Anus terminal, without papillae. 

Length: up to 90 mm. and more, by 2 mm. 



436 



TEREBELLIDAE 



Colour: in spirit, yellowish-white, more or less 
closely dotted with rusty brown. Tube unknown. 
Occurrence: Pamban, Rameswaram. 

Subfamily CANEPHORINAE Malmgren. 

A single branchia, quadripartite, pectinated. Ventral 
scutes absent. Dorsal setae smooth or striated. Uncini 
of two kinds. 



Genus TEREBELLIDES Sars. 

Cephalic lobe rounded-ovate with a dense series of 
grooved tentacles. A single dorsal gill with four pecti- 
nate divisions. Dorsal setae long, tapering and winged. 
Uncini uniserial, of two kinds: (1) elongated, acicular, 
thoracic; (2) pectiniform, abdominal. 

417. Terebeffidcs strocmi Sars. (Fig. 231, i-q) . 

Terebellides stroemi, Malmgren, 1865, p 396, pi. XX, fig. 48. 

Augener, 1926, p. 343: Fauvel, 1927a, p. 291, fig. 100, i-q 

(Synonymy); 1932m, p. 234. 
Terebellides ypsilon, Grube, 1878, p. 241, pi. XIII, fig. 6. 




Fig. iSh— Terebellides stroemi Sars: i, k, anterior region, side and 

ventral view X8 ; h, I, m, n, uncini, side and front view X600 ; o, 

ventral thoracic hook x400; p, kneed acicular bristle from the 

6th segment X150; g, dorsal bristle X150. 



TEREBELUDES 437 

Terebellides intoshi, CauUery, 1915, p. Ill, fig. 1. 
(') Terebellides sieboldi Kinberg, Ehlers, 1904, p. 61. 
Aponobranchus perrieri, Gravier, 1906, p 2S2, pl. V, figs. 239— 
242. r r s 

Body rather short, 50—60 segments. 18 thoracic seti- 
gerous segments. Eyes absent. A single gill, with a stout 
stem bearing four pectinate lobes with reniform lamellae. 
It is inserted on segments 3-4. Segments 3 to 6 have, ven- 
trally, a free anterior border. Dorsal setae commence 
on the 3rd segment. Uncini of the 6th setigerous segment 
are long, acicular, geniculate, unidentate hooks; those 
of the next twelve segments end in a blunt tip with small 
denticles above. Abdominal uncini avicular, with a short 
base and transverse rows of teeth above the main fang. 
Abdominal pinnules distinct. Tube membranous, coat- 
ed with mud. 

Remarks: The peculiar gill assumes very different 
appearances according to the more or less contracted con- 
dition of the organ, depending on preservation or regene- 
ration (it is sometimes easily deciduous) . 

Length: 30-60 mm. by 2-8 mm. 

Occurrence: Banka Strait; Andaman Islands; Off 
Akyab, Burma; Bay of Bengal; Ganjam Coast, Madras 
Coast; Laccadive Sea. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans; 
Mediterranean Sea, Arctic and Sub-Antarctic Oceans. 

Incertae sedis 

418. Polymnialatiata, Willey, 1905, p. 298, pl. VI, fig. 
143-145. 

The figures of the uncini are more sugestive of a 
Pista than of a Polymnia but the description of the unique 
specimen is too incomplete for an accurate identification. 

Occtirrence: Trincomalee Pearl banks. 

419. Ptyselia vitidis, Schmarda, 1861, p. 41, pl. XXV, 
fig. 201; from Ceylon, is perhaps a LoimiaQ) . 

420. Ncottis gracilis, Kinberg, 1855. 

From Singapore: is very likely a Thelepus or a 
Strehlosoma. 

Family SABELLIDAE Malmgren. 

Body somewhat cylindrical or slightly flattened; divid- 
ed into two regions: (1) thoracic consisting of a few 
segments, with dorsal capillary setae and ventral uncini- 



438 



SABELLIDAE 



gerous tori, and (2) abdominal, much longer, with dorsal 
uncinigerous tori and ventral capillary setae. Ventral 
glandular shields divided by a longitudinal groove. First 
segment with a more or less developed, entire or notched, 
collar. Gills forming a funnel surrounding the mouth, 
they are composed of two semi-circular, or spiral, lobes 
bearing a number of filaments or radioles, with two rows 
of barbules. Operculum absent. Tube formed of mucus, 
or membranous, or horny. 

Key to the genera of SABELLmAE. 



1. Thoracic tori with avicular un- 

cini 
Thoracic tori with long hooks .. 

2. Thoracic tori with a single row 

of avicular hooks. Pickaxe- 
shaped setae absent 

Thoracic tori with a row or avi- 
cular hooks and a row of 
pickaxe-shaped setae 

3. Dorsal setae of two kinds 

Dorsal setae of one kind 

4. Gill filaments with dorsal stylo- 

des 

Gill filaments without dorsal sty- 
lodes 

5. Gills filaments with subterminal 

eyes 

Gills filaments without subter- 
minal eyes 

6. Dorsal thoracic setae of one kind 

only 

Dorsal thoracic setae of two 
kinds 

7. Branchial lobes symmetrical, 

semi-circular 

Branchial lobes asymmetrical, 
spirally coiled 

8. Setae of the first thoracic seg- 

ment set in a tuft 

Setae of the first thoracic seg- 
ment set in slanting rows .. 



iMonome 

Malmgren, p. 446. 

4 

Dasychone 

Sars, p. 442. 

Sabellastai te 

Kroyer, p. 445. 

Branchiomma 

KoUiker, p. 443. 

6 

7 



Sabella 

Linnaeus, p. 439. 

Spirographis 

Viviani, p. 440. 

Potamilla 

Malmgren, p 448. 

Hypsicomus 

Grube, p. 447. 



SABELLA 439 

9. Abdominal long hooks .. Manayunkia 

Leidy, p. 452. 

Abdominal avicular uncini .. Jasmineira 

Langerhans, p. 450. 

Genus SABELLA Linnaeus. 

Two branchial lobes equal, semi-circulax, not spirally 
coiled. In the thorax, dorsal winged setae, ventral avicu- 
lar uncini and pickaxe-shaped hooks. In the adbomen, 
dorsal avicular uncini and ventral winged setae. A 
collar. Membranous tube coated with fine ooze. 

Key to the species of Sabella. 

On the base of the gills 4 glan- 
dular pads .. .. porifera Grabe, p. 439. 

Glandular pads absent .. melanostigma 

Schmarda, p. 439. 

421. Sabella porifera Grube. (Fig. 232, a-f) . 

Sabella porifera, Grube, 1878, p. 252, pi. XIV, fig. 3: Fauvel, 

1930, p. 260; 1940, p. 
Sabella fusca, Gravier, 1908, p. 71, pi. V, Egs. 243-245: Fauvel, 

1927, p. 302. fig. 104. 
Eurato porifera, WiUey, 1905, p. 309, pi. VH, figs. 1-3. 

Branchial fan well developed. At the base of the 
gills four stout, brown, glandular lobes form pads of a 
very peculiar kind. Body broad and short, bearing be- 
tween the two divisions of the feet small eye-spots, occa- 
sionally wanting. 

Length: 60-80 mm. by 7-8 mm. 

Colour: Body pink, gills pale, streaked with brown. 

Occurrence: Andaman Islands; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Australia; Indian Ocean, Red Sea. 

422. Sabella melanostigma Schmarda. (Fig. 232, A-n) . 

Sabella melanostigma, Johansson, 1927, p. 121 (Synonymy): 

Fauvel, 1939, p. 23; 1940, p. 
Sabella bipunctata Baird, Fauvel, 1914, p. 149, pi. VIH, figs. 

18-21; 1927, p. 301, fig. 103, h-n. 
Sabella guinensis, Augener, 1918, p. 565, pi. VII, figs. 247-249. 

Branchial filaments with several pairs of eyes on the 
dorsal side. Collar low, erect, broadly notched on the 
dorsal side. The ventral groove is missing or hardly cons- 



440 



SABELLIDAE 



picuous in the posterior part. A big, dark purple spot 
above either parapodium. Pickaxe setae very peculiar, 
ending in a very thin, transparent membrane curved in 
the shape of a shovel or coal scuttle. 




Fig. 2i2.—Sabella porifera Grube ; a, b, anterior region, dorsal and 

ventral view, enlarged ; c, pick-axe seta (after Gravier) ; d, dorsal 

thoracic bristle X80 ; /, thoracic hook Xl60 S. melanostigma 

Schmarda : h, anterior part, dorsal view (after Mcintosh) ; 

i, thoracic hook X170 ; k, I, shovel pick-axe setae quarter 

and front view X400; m, n, thoracic bristles X120. 

Length: 100-150 mm. 

Colour: in life, gills with violet brown stripes. Body 
greenish, thoracic tori lined with a violet or purple streak. 

Occurrence: Port Blair, Andaman Islands. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Japan, Malaysia; Anda- 
man Islands; Atlantic Ocean, West Indies; Gulf of Guinea. 



Genus SPIROGRAPHIS Viviani. 

Branchial lobes asyrametrical, one semi-circular, the 
other spirally coiled. Branchial filaments devoid of eyes 
and dorsal stylodes. Thoracic dorsal setae capillary, wing- 
ed. Ventral thoracic tori with avicular uncini and pick- 
axe-shaped setae. Dorsal abdominal uncini avicular; 
ventral setae capillary, winged. A quadrilobate collar. 
Tube membranous coated with fine ooze and algae. 



SPIROGRAPHIS 



441 



423'. Spirogfaptis spallanzanii Viviani. (Fig. 233, a— I) . 

Spirographis spallamanii, Fauvel, 1927, p. 309, fig. 105, a-h- 
Johansson, 1927, p. 133 (Synonymy). 

Spirographis tricyclia, Schmarda, 1861, p. 37, pi. XXIII, flg. 193. 

Body cylindrical, abruptly tapering behind. Branchial 
lobes very unequal; one is circular and the other 2-6 
times spirally coiled. Two short slender grooved palps. 




Fig. 233 —Spirographis spallanzanii Viviani : a, with branchial tuft 
expanded ; b, c, anterior region, dorsal and ventral view x2 (after 
Soulier) ; d, e, thoracic dorsal bristles Xl85 ; /, abdominal capil- 
lary bristle X185 ; g, h, pick-axe setae X132 ; i thoracic 
uncinus X185; k, I, abdominal uncini X185, 



Collar with two dorsal lobes and two ventral ones, thick 
and turned down. Pygidium with two small rounded 
papillae. Tube tough, erect. 

Length: 200—300 mm. by 8-10 mm. 

Colour: very variable. Gills more or less streaked. 
Body brown. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Indo-China, Malay Archipelago; Indian 
Ocean, India; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean- Sea. 

F. 58 



442 SABELLIDAE 

Genus DASYCHONE Sars. 

Body short. Both branchial lobes equal. Dorsal 
stylodes (appendages) on the branchial filaments, which 
also bear paired eye-spots. Subterminal eyes absent. A 
collar. Pickaxe-shaped setae absent. Abdominal dorsal 
uncini avicular and ventral setae winged. 

JSTey to the species of Dasychone. 

Dorsal stylodes long, narrow and 

free .. ■- cingulata Grube, p. 442. 

Dorsal stylodes small, short, ap- 

pressed, hardly raised . . serratibranchis 

Grube, p. 442. 

424. Dasychone cingttlata Grube. (Fig. 234, f-h) . 

Dasychone cingulata, Willey, 1905, p. 308, pi. VII. figs. 170-173: 
Augencr, 1914, p. 122 (Synonymy): Fauvel, 1930b, p. 1932, p. 
236. 

Branchiomma cingulata, Johansson, 1927, p. 61. 

Branchial lobes equal, semi-circular, not spiral. Gill- 
filaments with paired dorsal, long and slender, stylodes 
and pairs of small eyes. Lateral eye-spots between dorsal 
and ventral rami. 

Length: 10-30 mm. by 2-3 mm. 

Colour; Body with scattered dark spots. 

Occurrence: Burma coast, Mergui; Andaman Islands; 
Gulf of Mannar, Pamban. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Indian Ocean, Arabian 
Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

435. Dasychone scttatitfanchis Grube. (Fig. 234, i) . 

Dasychone serratibranchis, Grube, 1878, p. 262, pi. XIV, fig. 7: 
Ehlers. 1907, p. 28: Augener, 1926a, p. 257: Fauvel, 1932, p. 
236. 

Branchial lobes equal, semi-circular, not spiral. Dor- 
sal stylodes short, appressed, appearing as small triangular 
serrations of the branchial filaments. A few paired bran- 
chial eye-spots. Body with lateral eye-spots. 

Length: 15-30 mm. by 2—3 mm. 

Colour: Gills with white, yellow and purple bands. 

Occurrence: Mergui; Andaman Islands; Pamban, 



BRANCHIOMMA 



443 



Distribution: Philippine Islands, Indochina, New- 
Zealand, Australia; India. 




Fig. 234.—Branchiomma pacificum (Johansson) : a, gill-tip, with eyes ; 

b, thoracic hook x295 ; c, pick-axe seta X630 ; d, thoracic bristle 

X 295 (after Johansson). Br. intermedium Beddard : e, top of 

gill, with eye (after Beddard). Dasychone cingalata Grube: 

/, portion of a gill's radiole, with eyes and stylcSes ; g, dorsal 

thoracic bristle ; h, thoracic hook (after Willey). B. ser- 

ratibranchis Grube: «, part of a gill's radiole with 

stylodes. 



Genus BRANCHIOMMA KoUiker. 

Megalomma Johansson. 

Body elongated. Branchial lobes symmetrical, semi- 
circular, not spiral. Branchial filaments destitute of dor- 
sal stylodes. Subterminal compound eyes. A two- or 
four-lobed collar. Capillary setae winged. In the thorax 
avicular uncini and pickaxe-shaped setae. Tube coated 
with sand. 



444 SABELLlDAE 

Key to the species of Branchiomma. 

Collar low and very slanting. A 
double fold overlying the eyes 
near the tip of the gills . inlei medium 

Beddard, p. 444. 

Collar high, hardly slanting; tip 

of the gills without any fold pacificum 

(Johan5son), p. 444. 

426. BrancHomina pacificam (Johansson). (Fig. 234, 
fl— c). 
Megalomma paclfica, Johansson, 1927, p. 130, fig. 151. 
Branchiomma pacificum, Fauvel, 1932, p. 237. 
(?) Branchiomma quadrioculatum, Willey, 1905, p. 307, pi. VII, 

figs. 168-169. 
(?) Branchiomma acrophthalmos Grube, Willey, 1905, p. 306, pi. 
VII, figs. 166-167. 

Eight thoracic segments with short, elongated, narrow- 
winged dorsal setae, avicular uncini with a rather long 
base and pickaxe-shaped setae. Abdominal capillary setae 
slightly broader than in the thorax, but not paleae-like 
(in adult specimens; paleae-like in the very young) . 
Collar hardly slanting; dorsal lobes rather low; ventral 
lobes higher with two lateral and a median deep notches. 
Subterminal eyes very large, encircling about half of the 
filament and appearing as double eyes. 

Length: 20—30 mm, by 2 mm. 
Occurrence: Moscos Islands, Burma; Ceylon (?) . 
Distribution: Gilbert Islands, Pacific Ocean; Moscos 
Islands, India (?) . 

Remarks: Very dose to B. vesiculosum (Montagu) 
from Europe and very likely conspecific. 

42T, Branchiomma tQtewnediam Beddard. (Fig. 234, e) . 

Branchiomma intermedium, Beddard, 1887, p. 261, pi. XXI, figs. 
4-7: Fauvel, 1932, p. 237. 

Eight thoracic setigerous segments with long and 
short, narrow-winged, dorsal setae, avicular uncini and 
pickaxe-shaped setae. Abdominal capillary setae hardly 
broader, not enlarged into paleae-like structures. Collar 
very low and slanting to the 3rd setigerous segment. 
Branchial lobes borne on long stalks marked with a dark 
stripe. Gill filaments with a single subterminal eye. 
Towards the extremity there is a double fold, just over- 
lying the eye. Tube of considerable thickness, coated 
with mud and broken shells. 



SABELLAStARTE 445 

Length: 100 mm. 
Colour: pale brown, gills darker. 
Occurrence: Paway Island, Mergui Archipelago, 
Distribution: Mergui Archipelago. 

Genus SABELLASTARTE Kr6yer. 

Branchial lobes symmetrical. Branchial filaments des- 
titute of dorsal stylodes. Capillary setae winged, not 
paleae-like. In the thorax, only ventral avicular uncini; 
pickaxe-shaped setae absent. In the abdominal region, 
dorsal avicular uncini and ventral capillary setae. 

428. Saheliastarte indica Savigny. (Fig. 235, a—k) . 

Sabellastarte indica, Augener, 1914, p. 115, pi. I, fig. 20 (Syno- 
nymy). Pnivot, 1930, p. 85, pi. 11, figs. 39-50: Fauvel, 1932, 
p. 238: Monro, 1931, p. 45. 

Eurato notata, Willey, 1903, p. 310, pi. VII, figs 174-175. 

Eurato sancti-josephi, Gravier, 1903, p. 105, pi. VII, figs. 281—283. 

Sabella pottaei, Quatrefages, 1866, p. 436. 

(?) Sabella melanochlora, Schmarda, 1861. 

Body large, stout, dark. About 8 thoracic segments 
with dorsal capillary setae, all similar with a narrow 
wing, and ventral avicular uncini; pickaxe-shaped setae 
absent. Abdominal ventral setae with a broader wing. 
Collar well developed, with two dorsal lobes and a ven- 
tral lobe ending in two processes. Gill-filaments numer- 
ous and densely crowded, eyeless, and without dorsal sty- 
lodes. It differs from Sabella chiefly in the absence of 
pickaxe-shaped bristles in the ventral thoracic tori and by 
its very numerous and thickly crowded gill-filaments, which 
look as though set in two concentric rows in contracted 
specimens. Tube membranous, coated with fine mud. 

Length: 90—120 mm. 

Colour: in spirit, dark-violet or grey with scattered 
dark spots. 

Occurrence: Burma coast, Mergui, Akyab; Andaman 
Islands; Madras; Ceylon; Karachi. 

Distribution: Japan, China Sea, Malayan Sea, New 
Caledonia, Australia; Indian Ocean, Red Sea; Tropical 
Atlantic Ocean. 



446 



SABELLlDAfi 



Genus LAONOME Malmgren. 

Branchial lobes symmetrical, semi-circular, not spiral. 
Branchial filaments without dorsal stylodes No subter- 
minal eyes. A four-lobed collar. In the thorax dorsal 
capillary setae of two kinds; ventral unani, no pickaxe- 
shaped setae. In the abdomen, dorsal avicular uncmi and 
ventral capillary setae. 
^m. Laoaome indica Southern. (Fig. 235, d-h) . 

Laonome indica. Southern, 1921, p. 652, pi. XXX, fig. 20. 

Body slender. 6 thoracic segments with dorsal long, 
slender capillaries with narrow wing and long tapering 




Fig. Z35.—Sabellastarte indica Savigny: a, anterior part, dorsal view, 

enlarged; 6, collar, ventral view; c, thoracic hook X190 (after 

Pruvot). Laonome indica Southern: d, collar segment, ventral 

view X56 ; e, hook from the 2nd segment x800 ; /, hook from 

the 8th segment x800 ; g, spatulate thoracic bristles x560 ; 

h, capillary bristle from the 8th segment X600 (after 

Southern). 

tips and setae with spatulate tips terminating in a long 
fine point. Uncini with a stout rounded base and 4—5 
rows of teeth above the main fang. In the abdomen, dor- 
sal uncini, diflering very slightly from those of the thorax, 
with rounded base more oblique, and ventral capillary 



HYPSicoMus ■ 447 

setae with short and broad wings and a long and slender 
tip. The gills are unconnected by a membrane. There 
are two short jjalps and two ventral lobes projecting for- 
wards and ending in a pointed tip. No eyes observed. 
Tube unknown. 

Length: 28 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake. 



Genus HYPSICOMUS Grube. 

Body long and slender, Branchial lobes symmetrical. 
Gill-filaments with rows of eyes. Dorsal stylodes absent. 
A collar. Capillary setae of die first thoracic segment set 
in a slanting row. Thoracic dorsal setae of two kinds: 
(1) capillary, and (2) paleae-like. Ventral avicular un- 
cini and pickaxe-shaped setae. In the abdomen, dorsal 
avicular uncini and ventral capillary setae and paleae. 

430. Hypsicomtts phaeotaenia (Schmarda) . (Fig. 236, a- 

0- 

Hypsicomus phaeotaenia, Gravier, 1908, p. 84, pi. VI, figs. 255— 
259: Fauvel, 1927a, p. 312, fig. 108 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 238: 
Willey, 1905, p. 307. 

Hypsicomus pigmentatus, Gravier, 1908, p. 81, pi. VI, figs. 252— 
254. 

Hypsicomus marenzelleri, Gravier, 1908, p. 78, pi. VI, figs. 247— 

261. 
Sabella phaeotaenia, Schmarda, 1861, p. 35, pi. XXII, fig. 188. 
Sabella fusco-taeniata, Grube, 1874, p. 328. 

Branchial lobes borne on a long stalk. Gill-filaments 
bearing on their rachis two longitudinal rows of simple 
eye-spots, single, or in more or less numerous groups. 
Collar low and straight, entire or notched. Short setae of 
the first setigerous segment set in a sigmoid, slanting row. 
Paleae spoon-shaped with a rounded winged end, with, 
or without, a sharp tip; and capillary setae. In the ab- 
domen, dorsal avicular uncini and ventral capillary setae 
with broader paleae. Tube membranous, transparent. 

Length: 40—60 mm. 

Colour: Very variable; body dark with pale feet and 
tori. Gills banded with yellow, brown, red or violet. 

Occurrence: Mergui; Nankauri Harbour, Nicobar 
Islands; Great Coco Island; Ceylon; Gulf of Mannar, 
Pamban, Kilakarai; Maldive Archipelago. 



448 



SABELUDAE 



Distribution: Japan, China Sea, New Caledonia, Indo- 
China, Malay Archipelago, Australia, Indian Ocean, Persi- 
an Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean. 




Fig. 2S6.—Hypsicomits phaeotaenia (Schmarda) : a, (after Schmaida) ; 

h, anterioi part, donal view ; c, middle part of a gill-filament (after 

Gravier) ; d, e, bristle.'! from the first segment, front and side 

view ; /, thoracic winged seta X230 ; g, thoracic palea X230 ; 

h, abdominal palea X230 ; i, pick-axe seta ; k, thoracic 

hook X230; I, abdominal capillary bristle x400. 



Genus POTAMILLA Malmgren. 

Branchial lobes symmetrical. Gill-filaments witli or 
without eyes, without dorsal stylodes. Setae of the first 
setigerous segment in a tuft. Dorsal thoracic setae of two 
kinds: capillary and paleae; ventral uncini and pickaxe- 
shaped setae. In the abdomen, dorsal avicular uncini and 
ventral winged setae. Tube horny. 

Key to the species of Potamilla. 

1. Gill-filaments without eyes . . 2 

Gill-filaments with eyes . . ehlersi 

Gravier, p. 449. 



POTAMILLA 449 



2. Abdominal setae narrow, with a 

very long and slender tip . . leptochaeta 

Southern, p. 449. 
Abdominal setae spatulate, with 
unequal wings and a shorter 
tip . . . . ceylonica 

Augener, p. 449. 

431. Potamilla ehlefsi Gravier. (Fig. 238, g-i) . 

Potamilla ehlerst, Gravier, 1908, p. 87, pi. VI, figs. 60—64: 

Fauvel, 1930a, p. 62; 1932, p. 239. 
Potamilla ohgophthalmosj Augener, 1914, p. 109. 

A number of gill-filaments bearing one to 4—7 dorsal 
eyes set in a longitudinal row. Collar well developed, 
with four lobes. Straight, narrow winged, dorsal setae 
and paddle-shaped paleae with a slender tip. Abdominal 
setae with unequal wings and a very long and slender tip. 

Length: 10—40 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar. Krusadai Island; Ko- 
weit Harbour, Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Indochina, Malay Archipelago, Austra- 
lia (?) ; India, Persian Gulf, Red Sea. 

433. Potamilla leptochaeta Southern. (Fig. 238, a-f) . 
Potamilla leptochaeta. Southern, 1921, p- 651, pL XXXI, fig. 
28: Fauvel, 1932, p. 239; 1939, p. 26. 

Thoracic segments few, 6-7. 8-11 gill-filaments des- 
titute of eyes. Collar sloping backwards, deeply notched 
and bilobed ventrally. Thoracic and abdominal capillary 
setae with elongate narrow vrings and very long filiform 
tips. Thoracic spatulate setae have pear-shaped blades 
with finely pointed tips. Pickaxe-shaped setae with long 
slender tips. Tube membranous, coated with mud and 
sand. 

Length: 10-40 mm. 

Occurrence: Chingrighatta near Calcutta; Vizaga- 
patam. A brackish water species. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago; India. 

433. Potamilla ceylonica Augener. (Fig. 237, a-g) . 

Potamilla ceylonica, Augener. 1926, p. 470: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 61, 
fig. 17- 

Branchial fan with 7-10 gill-filaments ending in a 
long slender naked tip. They _ are without eye-spots. 
Collar very slanting, broadly gaping on the back and wth 
two flattened, reflected, acute ventral flaps. Palps broad 

F-59 



4S0 



SABELLIDAE 



and laciniate. Thoracic segments very numerous (15—23 
or more) . Dorsal thoracic setae o£ two kinds; (1) winged 
capillaries and (2) oboval oar-shaped paleae with a long 
and slender tip. Avicular unoini with a long manubrium. 




Fig. 2S1.~-PotamUla ceylonka Augener: a, thoracic avicular uncinus 

X400 ; b, abdominal uncinus X400 ; c^ thoracic oar-shaped palea 

X40O ; d, thoracic capillary bristle x400 ; e, f, pick-axe setae 

X^O ; g, abdominal spatulate seta X400. 

and pickaxe-shaped setae, having a long fine point. Dorsal 
abdominal uncini avicular, and ventral spatulate setae 
with unequal wings and a long, slender tip. 

Length: 30 mm. 

Colour: Dark yellowish-grey. 

Occurrence: Gulf o£ Mannar, Krusadai and Shingle 
Islands; Trincomalee. 

Genus JASMINEIRA l-angerhans. 

Branchial lobes symmetrical, semi-circular, not spiral. 
Branchial filaments destitute of eyes and dorsal stylodes. 
Otocysts present. A collar. Thoracic segments with 
capillary setae of two kinds: (1) limbate, (2) spatulate. 
Avicidar \ujcini. Pickaxe-Shaped setae absent. Dorsal 



JASMINEIRA 



451 



abdominal uncini avicular; ventral setae winged, slender, 
often geniculate. Tube membranous, transitory. 

434. Jasmineira cadiscihtanchiata. Willey. (Fig. 238, 

m~n) . 

Jasmineira caductbranchiata, WiUey, 1905, p. 312, pi. VII, fig. 

Body tapering posteriorly. 8 thoracic segments with 
dorsal capillary setae and a single row o£ rostrate uncini 
with long manubrium. Dorsal abdominal uncini avicu- 




Fig. 2S8.—Potamilla leptochaeta SoutRern • a, short capillary seta from 
an anterior abdominal se^ent X840; 6, ^»tulate seta ttom the 
6th thoracic segment X840; c, pick-axe seta X840; 4 abdominal 
hook X840 ; e, thoracic hook X840 ; /, tip of a gill (after 
Southern). P. ehlersi Gravier : g, tlroracic hook ; h, pick- 
axe seta; i, thoracic palea (after Gravier). Manaf^vmhia 
spongtcoTa Southern : k, thoracic hook x700 ; /,. abdo- 
minal hook X870 (after Southern). Jasmineira caduci- 
branchiata Willey: m, abdominal hook; n, thora- 
cic hook (after Willey). 

lar. Collar rounded, slightly projecting forwards below, 
with a median notch dividing the two low rounded lobes 
and a shallow impression on each side o* the ootch. 
About a dozen radioles om each branchial ilament. Ii»- 



452 SABELLTOAE 

side the gill-crown a pair of broad, pinkish laciniae, and 
below these a group of about 6 slender tentacular cirri 
attached to the lower ends of the gill-carriers. 

Length: 22 mm. by 1.5 mm. 

Occurrence: East side of Cheval Paar, Ceylon. 

Genus MANAYUNKIA Leidy. 
Haplobranchus Bourne. 
Body very small. Branchial lobes symmetrical, bran- 
chial filaments simple, unbranched. Two palps. A col- 
lar. Ventral scutes absent. Dorsal thoracic setae. Uncini 
with a long stalk; pickaxe-shaped setae absent. Abdomi- 
nal uncini elongated; ventral capillary setae. 

435. Manayanfcia spoi^icola Southern. (Fig. 238, k, t) . 
Manayunkia spongicola, Southern, 1921, p. 653, pi. XXXI, fig. 
29. 

Body cylindrical. 8 thoracic segments with dorsal 
capillary setae with short, flattened, blades and long slen- 
der tips. Ventral hooks stout, with three teeth above the 
main fang. In the three abdominal segments 1—2 capil- 
lary setae with very slight flattening of the blade and no 
wings; 9—11 dorsal hooks, rather small, with elongate 
shafts and numerous fine long teeth in several rows at 
one end. The gills consists of about 18—20 slender un- 
branched filaments on each side. Two clavate palps. 
Head conical in front, bearing two black eyes. A pro- 
minent collar, with an entire convex border ventrally. 
No otocysts. Pygidium spatulate, or pear-shaped, bearing 
two black eyes. Tube membranous, covered with floccu- 
lent mud. 

Length: 1.5 to 3 mm. 

Occurrence: Chilka Lake, brackish water. Tubes 
embedded in the sponge Laxosuberites Ictcustris Annan- 
dale, or amongst Algae. 

Remarks: The presence of eyes on the pygidium and 
a more developed collar are the principal features differ- 
entiating this species from M. aestuarina Bourne. 

Family SERPULIDAE Burmeister. 

Body divided into two regions: (1) thoracic, consist- 
ing of a few segments bearing dorsal and capillary setae 
and ventral uncinigerous tori; (2) abdominal, which is 
much longer, and has dorsal uncinigerous tori and ven- 



SERPULIDAE 453 

tral capillary setae. Ventral glandular shields divided 
by a longitudinal shallow groove. First segment with a 
more or less developed collar. A thoracic membrane. 
Gills forming a funnel suiTounding the mouth and com- 
posed of two semi-circular or spiral lobes bearing a num- 
ber of filaments or radioles with two rows of barbules. 
Usually an operculum. Tubes calcareous. 

Key to the genera of Serpulidae. 

1. Body symmetrical . . . . 2 
Body asymmetrical. Calcareous 

spirally coiled tube . . Spirorbis 

Daudin, p. 477. 

2. Opercular stalk smooth or wing- 

ed .. .. 3 

Operculum absent, or 1—2 oper- 
cula -with a stalk, bearing 
barbules . . . . 13 

3. First thoracic segment with only 

dorsal (collar) setae . . 4 

First thoracic segment without 
either dorsal (collar) setae or 
uncini .. .. Ditrupa 

Berkeley, p. 470. 

4. Collar setae bayonet-shaped, with 

two conical processes at the 
base . . . . 5 

Collar setae without basal coni- 
cal procesess . . . . 6 

5. Operculum simple, funnel shap- 

ed . . • • Serpula 

Linnaeus, p. 454 

Operculum compound, with a 

central crown of spines . . Hydroides 

Gunnerus, p. 456. 

6. Abdominal setae geniculate .. 7 

Abdominal setae trumpet-shaped; 

opercular stalk winged .. 10 

7. Collar setae bayonet-shaped, or 

deeply serrated • • 8 

Collar setae simple blades .. Vermiliopsis 

Saint-Joseph, p. 465. 

8. Collar setae serrated .. •• 9 
Collar setae bayonet-shaped, co- 
vered with fine hair-like pro- 
cesses ■ • •• Omphalopomopsis 

Saint- Joseph, p. 467. 

9. Operculum fig-shaped, smooth .. Ficopomatus 

^ ° "■ Southern, p. 473. 



454 SERPULIDAE 

Operculum covered with rows o£ 

homy spines . . . . Mercierella 

Fauvel, p. 474. 

10. Collar setae very small and fine U 

Collar setae bayonet-shaped and 
covered with fine hair-like 
processes . . . ■ 12 

11. Operculum flat, with winged pe- 

dicle . . . Pomatoleios 

Pixell, p. 461. 

Operculum conical. Pedicle 

winged and fringed . . Pomatoceros 



12. Operculum with several homy 

discs, or a spinulose cone . . Pomatostegus 

Operculum bearing generally a 

group of branched spines Spirobranchus 



PhiiUppi, p. 469. 

■atostegus 
Schmarda, p. 464. 

obranchas 
BlaJnville, p. 462. 



13. Tubes very slender, filiform, 

colonial'. Collar setae serrat- 
ed .. 14 

Tubes large, not colonial. Collar 

setae winged . . . 15 

14. Operculum spoon-like at the end 

of a branchial filament . . Filograna 

Oken. 

Operculum absent . . . . Salmacina 

ClaparMe, p. 476. 

15. Operculum globular . . . . AporruOus 

Philippi. 
No operculum . . . . ProtuUt 

Risso. p. 471. 

GenTO SERPULA Linnaeus. 

Collar setae bayonet-shaped, with two conical pro- 
cesses at the base of the blade. Operculum funnel-shaped, 
with numerous radii ending in serrations along the mar- 
gin. Uncini with only few stout teeth. Thoracic setae 
winged, abdominal setae trumpet-shaped. 

436. Serpala vcmMcalafh Linnaeus. (Fig. 23^, a—q) . 

Serpula vermicularis, Pixell, 1913, p. 71: FaMvel* 192.7a, p. 351, 
fig. 120 (Synonymy); 1932, p. 241. 

Collar setae with two large, conical, blunt processes 
at the base. Uncini with 4—7 teeth, the lower one more 
stout and blunt. Collar trilobed. Operculum concave, 
with numerous radii, symmetrical. Tube variable, cylin- 



5ERPULA 



455 



drical, wriHkled, with 5-7 longitudinal ridges, smooth or 
serrated or echinulate, rather bell-shaped at the mouth; 
more or less crooked and generally of a red or pink colour, 
more rarely white. 




Fig. 2S9.—Serpula vermicularis Linn, a, side view X2.5; b, tube, 

natural size; c, d, section o£ the tube; e, f, operculum; g, false 

-operculum ; h, lioracic bristle X105 ; i, bristle from the first 

setigerous segment (collar bristle) XlOS ; k, young collar bristle 

with denticles at the base of the prongs Xl05 ; I, capillary 

seta from the collar Xl05 ; m, abdominal bristle X3S0 ; 

n, o, thoracic uncini X350 ; p, abdominal undnus X350 ; 

q, another form of uncinus X350. 

Length: 50—70 mm. by 5—6 mm. 

Colour: in life very variable. Operculum with radi- 
ating red and white streaks. 

Occurrence: Moscos Islands, Burma; Orissa Coast, 
Madras Coast; Persian Gulf. 

Distribution: Magellan; Indian Ocean, Kerguelen, 
Persian Gulf, Red Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean 
Sea. 

var. granulosa Marenzeller. 

Serpula granulosa, Marenzeller, 1884, p. 215: Willey, 1905. p. 
316, pi. VII, figs. 186, 186A. 

"Operculum shallowly concave, with 46—52 rays 
which project as denticulations at the margin. The 



456 SERPULIDAE 

grooves which separate the rays do not all reach to the 
centre of the disc; they are superficial indications of dis- 
sepiments which project vertically with a free inner bor- 
der into the substance of the operculum. Minute tuber- 
cles are sparsely distributed on the concave opercular disc. 
Tube round, subcristate to cristate." (Willey) 

Occurrence: South-west Cheval Paar, Ceylon. 

Distribution: Japan; Ceylon. 

var. -watsoni Willey. 

Serpula watsoni, WiUey, 1905, p. 317, pi. VII, fig. 187; pi VIII, 
fig. 6. 

Characterised by the great length of the ampulla of 
the operculum, which is about twice the length of that 
portion of the style which rises above the collar. The 
collar is entire below, divided on each side by a lateral 
notch. 

Occurrence: Trincomalee. 

Genus HYDROIDES Gunnerus. 

Eupomatus Philippi. 

Collar setae bayonet-shaped, with two conical pro- 
cesses at the base of the blade. Uncini with a few coarse 
teeth, the lower one larger than the others. Thoracic 
setae winged, abdominal setae trumpet-shaped. Opercu- 
lum funnel-shaped with a crown of horny spines arising 
from the centre. 

Key to the species of Hydroides. 

1. Central crowa of the operculum 

with broad laceolate valves . . perezi Fauvel, p. 457. 
Central crown of the operculum 

with spines . . . . 2 

2. Opercular spines with lateral 

processes .. .. 3 

Opercular spines without lateral 

spines (Subgen. Eupomatus) . . exaltatus (Marenzellei). p. 461. 

3. AU opercular spines alike . . 4 
Opercular setae of two kinds .. 6 

4. More than one pair of lateral 

processes. Tips of spines sharp norvegica Gunnerus, p. 458. 
One pair of lateral processes only 5 



HYDROIDES 
of 



457 



5. Processes not terminal, tips 

the spines sharp .. homoceros Pixell, p. 438. 

Tips o£ the spmes half-moon- 
shaped .. . lunuUfeia (ClaparMe), p. 458. 

6. One spine only without lateral 
processes, large and curved . . 

Only one spine, with lateral 
processes 

7. The largest spine a compressed, 
oval lamina 



heteroceros (Grube), p. 439. 

7 
albiceps (Ehrenberg), p. 460. 

8 
minax (Grube), p. 460. 

monoceros Gravier, p. 460. 

437. Hydfoides pei-ezi Fauvel. (Fig. 240, a—j) . 

Hydroides perezi, Fauvel, 1918, p. 342, fig. 2; 1919, p 432, fie. 

xn. 

Operculum horny, gemmiform. Radii of the lower 
funnel with a pointed tip curved outwards. Central 



The largest spine a stout recurv- 
ed hook 
8. Central opercular crown symme- 
trical 

Central opercular crown asym- 
metrical 




Fig 240— Hydroides perezi Fauvel : a, bayonet brisfle from the first 

setigerous segment X350; b, c, capUlary thoradc bristles x350; 

d, thoracic and abdominal hooks X500; e, abdominal bristle 

X500 ; f, g, operculum X60 ; h, upper row of half opened 

operculum seen from above X60; », large leaf with inner 

curved hook X60 ; ;, upper opercular row flattened, seen 

from underneath X60; H. exaltatus var. vesiculous 

Fauvel: i (on the right), operculum. 

F. 60 



458 SERPULIDAE 

crown with 5—6 oval, concave valves, with a raised smooth 
border. One, slightly larger, ends in a long recurved hook 
turned inwards. The valves are connected at half-length 
by a membrane forming pockets. Tube whitish, encriist- 
ing, rough, more or less spiral or sinuous. 

Length: 5—6 mm. by 0.5 mm. 

Occurrence: Persian Gulf. Dredged on Avicula's 
shells. 

43S. Hydfoides homoccros Pixell. (Fig. 241, a) . 
Hydroides homoceros, Pixell, 1913, p. 74, pi. VIII, fig. 1. 

" The opercular funnel has about 17 teeth with lateral 
processes, and the central crown consists of 7 slender 
spines, each having a pair of lateral hooks about half-way 
and a median basal internal one. Tube slightly ribbed, 
not much bent, mouth simple." (Pixell) 

Length: 13-24 mm. by 2 mm. 

Occurrence: Maldive Archipelago. 

4S9. Hydroides norvegica (Gunnerus) . (Fig. 241, i) . 

Hydroides norve^ca, PixeU, 1913, p. 74: Fauvel, 1927a, p. 356, 
fig. 122, i-o; 1932, p. 242. 

Hydroides multispinosa, Marenzdler, 1884, p. 216, pi. IV, fi?. 2- 
Augener, 1914, p. 139. r . g 

Eupomatiis elegans, Haswell, 1883b, p. 633, pi. XII, fig. 1. 

Radii of the operculum forming rounded lobes on 
the edge of the funnel, spines of the central crown equal, 
with several sharp lateral processes. Tubes white, cylin- 
drical, faintly wrinkled and more or less erect or spirally 
coiled. ^ ' 

Length: 15-30 mm. by 1-2 mm. 
Occurrence: Madras. 

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red Sea: 
Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

440. Hydroides lontdifera (ClaparMe) . (Fig. 241, h) . 

Eupomatm lunulifera, Clapartfede. 1868, p. 441, pi. XXXI, fig. 3. 

pHaP^'?^ °? *^ operculum forming sharp lobes on the 
& Jt ^r""^^' 'P'''^' "'^ *« ^^'^tral crown equal with 
der whL ^i^^*'? ,°' ^chor-shaped tips. Tubes slen- 
der, white, cylindrical, more or less coiled. 



HYDROIDES 



459 



Length: 12—30 mm. by 1—3 mm. 
Occurrence: Madras. 

Distribution: Madras; Suez Canal; Mediterranean 
Sea. 

441. Hydroides hctefoceros (Grube) . (Fig. 241, c) . 

Hydroides heteroceros, Fauvd, 1911, p. 428: Pixell, 1913, p. 75, 

pi. vm, fig. 2. 

Hydroides uncinata (non Philippi), Gravier, 1908, p. 114, pi. VIII, 

286-287. 
Eupomatus heteroceros, Grube, 1868, p. 639, pi. VII, fig. 8: 

Willey, 1905, p. 313. 

Radii of the operculum with a terminal knob. Seven 
spines in the central crown, bent at the tip and with 




Kb 24l.-Hydroides operculum: a, H. homoceros (P'^^)J^^^',^' 

H exalmus (Maienzeller) XH ; c, H. heteroceros (Grube) Xl2 

/;fttv pl^rflV d e H. albice*s (Ehienberg), dorsal aaid^sjde 

(Oaparfede) X21 ; i, H, norvegica (Gunnerus) X4i. 

lateral hooks, the seventh is much l^Sf ^'^^"^^^g^J^J^- 
shaoed and destitute of lateral processes. Tubes tmcK, 
Sened oJ side of attachment, often coiled, marked by 
faint longitudinal lines, aperture circular. 

Length: about 40 mm. by 4 mm. 

Colour. Body dull yellowish; gills dark crimson at 
the base, light yeUow distally. 



460 SERPtJLlDAE 

Occurrence: Ceylon; Koweit Harbour. 

Distribution: India, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Zanzibar, 

443. Hydtoides monoceros Gravier. (Fig. 241, g) . 

Hydroides monoceros, Gravier, 1908, p. 115, pi. VIII, fig. 288: 
Pixell, 1913, p. 76: Fauvel, 1923, p. 48; 1930a, p. 63. 

The lower funnel of the operculm is oval and slant- 
ing, has teeth with enlarged extremities. The asymmetri- 
cal central crown has 6 very small spines and bears a very 
large one with a lateral triangular hook on each side and 
a strong curved terminal tip. Tubes thick, more or less 
curved, with longitudinal and transverse ridges. 

Length: about 15 mm. 

Occurrence: Rameswaran, Gulf of Mannar. 

Distribution: Gambler Islands; India, Red Sea, Zan- 
zibar. 

Remarks: Closely allied to H. minax (Grube) . 

443. Hydtoides minax (Grube). (Fig. 241, f) . 
Hydroides minax, Fauvel, 1939, p. 361. 

Serpula minax, Grube, 1878, p. 269, pi. XX, fig. 5. 
Eupomatus minax, Willey, 1905, p. 314. 

Radii of the inferior part of the operculum numerous, 
with a small terminal knob. Central crown symmetrical, 
with 6 short pointed spines bent outwards, the 7th, much 
larger, is erect, with a stout recurved hook, bent inwards 
and with two lateral accessory hooks. Tube round, show- 
ing coarse growth rings. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands, Annam; Ceylon. 

444. Hydtoides albiceps (Ehrenberg) . (Fig. 241, d, e) . 

Marginal teeth of the opercular funnel blunt. Cen- 
rd cxown with 7-8 nearly eWt, slightly curved virguke 

Lttr hi^^'^"l.'°"'P''''"-'*' °^"^' l^i°a dorsalis.^ the 
ifiwn^o^ ^ 'r^l' continuation of the columella and 
bearing a pair of broad dorso-lateral hamuli. Thoracic 
uncmi with about 7-9 teeth. Tube quadrila era! wfni^ 
mg round a tube of Ghaetopterus ramosus 

Length: 7 mm. 

Occurrence: Ceylon, Cheval Paar. 



fOMAtOLElOS 461 

445. Hydfoidcs exaltatas (Marenzeller) . (Fig. 241, b) . 
Eupomatus exaltatus, Marenzeller, 1884, p. 217, pi. IV, fig. 3- 

WiUey, 1905, p. 312, pi. VII. fig. 182; Pixell, 1913, p. 11. 

" The inner funnel of the operculum is raised on a 
short column and has 8-9 strong hook-like spines, with- 
out secondary processes, except at the base; the dorsal one 
is twice as large as the others and bends suddenly at a 
right angle over the top of them." (Pixell) . 

Length: about 20 mm. 

Colour: Body dull green. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Japan; India, Red Sea, Zanzibar. 

var. vesicalosos Fauvel. (Fig. 240, i). 

Hydroides exaltatus, var. vesiculosus, Fauvel, 1919, p. 342, fig. 1; 
1923, p. 40; 1939, p. 30: Monro, 1937, p. 316. 

A large hollow vesicle takes the place of the great 
unpaired hook. It is a connecting link between H. exal- 
tatus (Marenzeller) and H. albiceps (Ehrenberg) . 

Occurrence: Gambler Islands, Java; Zanzibar. 

Genus POMATOLEIOS Pixell. 

" Collar setae and eye-spots absent. Uncini with fair- 
ly numerous teeth, the most anterior being larger and 
gouged underneath. Abdominal setae trumpet-shaped 
with one side produced into a long spine. Operculum 
flat with winged pedicle. Tube with a flap over the en- 
trance." (Pixell) 

446. Pomatoleios crosslandi Pixell. 

Pomatoleios crosslandi, PixeH, 1913. p. 85, pi. DC, fig. ID. 

"All thoracic setae simple striated blades. Uncini 
with 10 or 11 teeth in both thorax and abdomen. Bran- 
chiae with very high inter-branchial membrane and long 
bare terminal aaments." (Pixell) 

Remarks: The operculimi of the Madras specimen is 
tipped with a hollow calcareous cup destitute of spines. 
The pedicle has thick lateral wings with straight edges. 

Neither Pixell nor I were able to detect any collar 
setae. The flap of the tube, mentioned by Crossland, has 
not been observed again. 



462 Sfi&PtJLlDAfi 

Length: 4—14 mm. 

Occurrence: Madras. 

Distribution: Madras; Red Sea. 

Remarks: Differs only from Pomatoceros caeruleus 
in the absence of collar setae, flat operculum and flap of 
the tube. 

Genus SPIROBRANCHUS Blainville. 

" Operculum with a calcareous plate generally bearing 
a group of branched spines. Pedicle with broad lateral 
wings. Collar setae bayonet-shaped and covered with fine 
hair-like processes. Abdominal setae trumpet-shaped, the 
edges compressed and toothed and produced at one place 
into a long fine point. Uncini with numerous teeth, the 
lower one larger and hoUowed out underneath like a 
gouge. Uncinigerous tori of the two sides widely separat- 
ed ventrally in front, and gradually approaching one 
another towards the end of the thorax, thus leaving a 
triangular depression " (Pixell) . 

Key to the species of Spirobranchus. 

1. Operculum without processes . . maldivensis Pixell, p. 464. 
Operculum with processes . . 2 

2. Opercular plate with two antler- 

like processes. Pedicle winged giganteus (Pallas), p. 462. 
Operculum with several much 
branched processes. Pedicle 
wing-less . . . jousseaumei (Gravier), p. 464. 

447. Spitobtanchas giganteas (Pallas) . (Fig. 242 a-g) . 

spirobranchus giganteus, Pixell, 1913, p. 80; Fauvd, 1923b, p. 52; 

1932, p. 244; Pruvot, 1930. p. 88. 
Spirobranchus multicomis Grube, Fauvel, 1911, p. 430. 
Spirobranchus tricornigerus Grube, Willey, 1906, p. 318. 
Spirobranchus cervicomis, Willey, 1905, p. 317, pi. VII, figs. 188— 

192. 
Spirobranchus tetraceros, Johansoon, 1918, p. 7. 

Spirobranchus semperi, Augener, 1914, p. 148: Willey, 1905, p. 
318. 

Cymospira gaymardi, Quatrefages, 1865, p. 539, pi. 16 bis fig. 13 

Pomatoceropsis coutierei, Gravier, 1908, p. 125, pi. VIII, figs. 294, 

Opercular plate with two antler-like processes, which 
sometimes, however, branch close to their base. Abdo- 
men about 11 times as long as its greatest breadth with 
numerous (200-300) segments. (Pixell) 



SPIROBRANCHUS 



463 



There xs a considerable range of variation to be found 
in the operculum whose antlers may be more or less 
developed and branched; but too often they are broken. 
The tube is pink, but generally more or less imbedded in 
the corals. 




Fig. 242.— Spirobmnchus giganteus (Pallas): a, bristles from the first 

setigerous segment X240; b, ventral abdominal trumpet-shaped bristle 

X240 ; c, thoracic hook X240 ; d, lower tooth of a thoracic 

hook X395 ; e, f, g, several kinds of operculum (after Grube 

and Quatrefages). Spir. jousseaumei (Gravier) ; h, operculum 

(after Gravier) ; Spir. maldivensis Pixell : x, operculum 

(after Pixell). Vermiliopsis glandigerus Gravier : k, 

operculum (after Gravier). 

Length: 100-120 mm. by 6-7 mm. 

Colour: Body yellow, with a deep blue thoracic mem- 
brane. The gills are blue at the base and with white, 
blue and pink stripes. 

Occurrence: Nankauri Harbour, Nicobar Islands; 
Great Coco Island; Ceylon. 

Distribution: Intertropical areas of Pacific, Indian 
and Atlantic Oceans, especially in coral reefs. 



464 SERPULIDAE 

448. SpitofctaQchas jocsseattmci (Gravier) . (Fig. 242, h) . 
Sphobranchus jousseaumei, Potts, 1928, p. 701: Fau-vel, 1932, p. 

244. 
Pomatoceropsts jousseaumei, Gravier, 1908, p. 130, pi. VIII, figs. 
292-293. 

Opercular plate with several distinct, much branched 
processes. Pedicle winged. Tube with several wavy rid- 
ges. 

Length: 30 mm. 

Colour: Gills of a deep violet-blue colour. 

Occurrence: Palan Biddang. 

Distribution: Palan Biddang; Red Sea, Suez Canal. 

449. Spirobtanchtts maldhrensis Pixell. (Fig. 242, i) . 
Spirobranchits maldivensis, Pixell, 1913, p. 84, pi. IX, fig. 9: 

Fauvel, 1932, p. 246: Monro, 1937, p. 318. 

" Operculum a thick calcareous plate, without pro- 
cesses, supported by a tall pedicle with thin lateral wings. 
Collar setae with a short, wide, finely striated, fin-like 
process at the base of the narrow anterior blade. Bran- 
chiae about 32 pairs with numerous long pinnae except 
at their distal ends, which are bare and filamentous. 
Thoracic uncini have about 15 teeth in addition to the 
large gouge-shaped one, and the abdominal 13. Abdomi- 
nal setae narrow compressed trumpets, with one side 
produced into a long process." (Pixell) . Tube with one 
or three coarsely serrated ridges. 

Length: 20—30 mm. 

Occurrence: Off Cape Negrais, Burma, 40 fms.: Gulf 
of Oman. 

Distribution: Burma; Maldive Archipelago, Arabian 
Coast, Gulf of Oman. 

Genus POMATOSTEGUS Schmarda. 

Collar setae bayonet-shaped and covered with hair- 
like processes. Operculum with a slanting calcareous 
plate or several homy discs united by a central vertical 
column. Opercular pedicle with lateral wings. Abdomi- 
nal setae trumpet-shaped or Salmacina-like. 

Key to the species of Pomatostegus. 

Operculum with a slanting plate. 
Abdominal setae trumpet-shap- 
ed . . . . polytrema Philippi, p. 465. 

Operculum with homy discs. 

Abdominal setae Solmacina-likc iteZ/attw Abildgaard, p. 465. 



VERMILIOPSIS 465 

460. Pomatostegas stellattts Abildgaard. (Fig. 248, a) . 
Pomatostegus stellatus, Gravier, 1908, p. 133; Pixell, 1913, p. 79: 
Johansson, 1918, p. 10, fig. 10-11: Fauvel, 1932, p. 246. 

Pomatostegas actinoceros, WiUey, 1905, p. 314, pi. VIII, figs. 34: 
Augener, 1914, p. 152. 

Operculum with several horny denticulated discs pil- 
ed up very close and strung on a hollow pillar with rows 
o£ star-like diverging spines and a cuxle of spines under 
each plate. Pedicle flat, with broad smooth wings. A 
high collar. Abdominal setae sickle-shaped (Salmacina 
setae) . 

Occurrence: Malacca Straits; Andaman Islands, Gulf 
of Mannar, Krusadai, Pamban, Ceylon, West Coast of 
India. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 

451. Pomatostegas polytfcma Philippi. (Fig. 245, l—q) . 
Pomatostegus polytrema, Rioja, I9I7, p. 87, fig. 25: Fauvel, 1927a. 

Operculum a membranous vesicle shaped as an inver- 
ted cone capped with a calcareous plate which may be 
level, convex or bluntly conical, smooth, or bearing 1, 2 
or 3, more or less developed prongs very variable in shape. 
Abdominal setae trumpet-shaped. Tube with characteris- 
tic alveoles and perforations. 

Distribution: Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

var, indica Fauvel. (Fig. 206, h, i). 

Pomatostegus polytrema var. indica, Fauvel, 1930a, p. 64, fig. 15, 
h-i. 

Lower bladder of the operculum capped with a rigid 
cone, somewhat arched and bearing a number of smaU 
spines on its concave side. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island. 

Genus VERHILIOPSIS Saint-Joseph. 
Vermilia pro parte. 

" Collar setae simple blades. Uncini with fairly nu- 
merous teeth, the most anterior are larger and blunter 
than the rest. Abdominal setae geniculate. Some tho- 
racic setae are bladed sickles (setae of Apomatus) , thus 
differing from the genus Vermilia with ordinary bladed 
setae only. Operculum with a homy somewhat cylindri- 
cal or conical cap" (Pixell) . 

F. 61 



466 



SERPULIDAE 



Ke"^ to the species of Vermiliopsis 
1. Gills swollen at the tip 



GOls not swollen at the tip 
2. Operculum without partitions 

Operculum with partitions 



pygidialis 

(Willey), p 
2 
acanthophora 

Augener, p 
glandtgerus 

Gravier, p. 467. 



466. 



467. 



453. Vemiiliopsis pygidialis (Willey) . (Fig. 243, a-b) . 
VermtliQpsis pygidialis, Pixell, 1913, p. 86, pi 9, fig. 11. 
Vermilia pypdialis, Willey, 1909, p. 318, pi. VII, figs. 194-196. 

Branchiae with ocelli and elongated, often with much 
swollen ends free from pinnae. Operculum with a coni- 
cal (sometimes truncated) chitinous cap. Uncini with 




Fig. ZiS.— Vermiliopsis pygidialis (Willey) : a, anterior region, dor- 
sal view, enlarged; b, thoracic hook (after Willey). V. acantho- 
phora Augener: Cj anterior part, dorsal view X14; d, operculum 
X23 ; e, tube, aperture somewhat damaged x2 (after Augener). 

13—14 teeth. Terminal dorsal gland generally present as 
an oval purplish-crimson cushion, with long hair-like 
setae on the obtuse last segments. Tube coiled, with 4— 
5 low longitudinal keels. 

Length: about 20 mm. 



OMPHALOPOMOPSIS 467 

Colour: Gills tipped with pink. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: India, Maldive Archipelago, Suez, 
Zanzibar. 

453. Vermiliopsis acanthophota Augener, (Fig. 243, c~ 
e). 

Vermiliopsis acanthophora, Augener, 1914, p. 155, pi. I, figs. 21— 
24; Fauvel, 1930a, p. 63; Monro, 1937, p. 318. 

The flat, smooth, wingless pedicle of the operculum 
bears a white hemisphere capped with a yellow cone, 
without chitinous partitions, ending in a horn-like hook. 
The thoracic segments bear Apomattis setae. Tube with 
traces o£ successive peristomes. 

Length: 20 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island. 

Distribution: Galapagos Islands, Australia, Gambler 
Island; India, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Coast. 

454. Vc«niIiopsis gian&getiss Gravier. (Fig. 242, k). 

Verrmliopsis elandieerus, Gravier, 1908, p. 121, pi. VIII, figs. 

290-291. 
Vermiliopsis glandigera, Augener, 1918, p. 602: Fauvel, 1930a, 

p. 63: Monro, 1937, p. 318. 

The wrinkled pedicle of the operculum bears a white 
opaque hemisphere, with a yellow horny cone, short or 
elongate, divided by 3—4 partitions and sometimes slight- 
ly hollowed at the tip in a small cup. Thoracic segments 
with Apomatus setae. Tube wrinkled, with 4—5 longitu- 
dinal keels and more or less conspicuous transverse peris- 
tomial ridges. 

Length: 15—20 mm. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai and Shingle 
Islands, Rameswaram. 

Distribution: Panama; India, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, 
Madagascar; Atlantic Ocean, West Africa, Gulf of Guinea. 

Genus OMPHALOPOMOPSIS Saint-Joseph. 

Operculum chitinous or horny, concave or funnel- 
shaped. Thoracic membrane very short. Setae of the first 
segment (collar setae) acicular, or geniculate. Thoracic 
setae winged capillaries and Apomatus setae. Abdominal 
setae geniculate and long slender capillaries. Uncini pec- 
tiniform, with lower tooth larger but not gouge-like. 



468 



SERPUUDAE 



455. Omplialopomopsis langeAansi (Maienzeller) . (Fig 
Z44, a-h). 
Omphalopomopsis langerhansl Fauvel, 1930a, p. 65, fig. 18 
Omphalopoma langerhansi, Marenzeller, 1884, p. 219, pi. IV, 
fig. 6. 

Operculum with a yellow rounded plate slightly de- 
pressed, saucer-like, with a single stout spike arising near- 
ly in the centre. It is borne on a huge thick pedicle, 
nearly as broad as the terminal plate, bulging in the 
middle and with edges thinned into lateral smooth wings, 
without any processes. Gills short, thick, crowded into 
dense semi-circular clusters, in-rolled, but not spirally 




rig. Za.— Omphalopomopsis langerhansi (Marenzeller): a, anterior part 
and operculum, dorsal view X4 ; b, anterior region, ventral view 
X4 , c, abdominal uncinus X400 ; d, thoracic uncinus X400 ; 
e, apomatus seta from the last thoracic segment_ Xl50; f, 
thoracic winged capillary bristle Xl50; g, abdominal geni- 
culate bristle X400; h, collar seta from the 
1st segment X300. 

coiled. The collar, widely open dorsally, has an irregu- 
lar serrated edge but no distinct flaps. Thoracic mem- 
brane very short. 7 thoracic segments. Collar setae 
minutely spinose. Other thoracic setae winged and ac- 
companied by Apomatus setae in the last thoracic segments. 
Thoracic tori very long, nearly meeting in the middle 



pomatoceros 



m 



o£ the ventral side. Abdominal setae somewhat genicu- 
late and serrated. Abdominal tori very long, with pecti- 
riiform uncini whose lower tooth is larger, but not gouge- 

Length: 35 mm. by 5 ram. 

Colour: pedicle o£ the operculum variegated with 
dark spots. Gills tinged with violet-brown. 
Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Rameswaram. 
Distribution: Japan; India. 

Genus POMATOCEROS Philippi. 

Operculum with a calcareous plate very variable, flat 
or conical, smooth or spinose, borne on a winged pedicle. 




Fig. 245.— Pomatoceros triqueter Linn: a, anterior part, ventral view, 

enlarged ; b, c, several shapes of operculum ; i, tube, natural size 

and section ; e, collar bristle X235 ; /, thoracic bristle X235 ; g, 

abdominal bristle X235 ; h, trumpet-shaped abdominal bristle 

X315; %, k, UBcini, front and side view. (P. coeruleus 

Schmarda is very likely but a mere colour variety of 

P. triqueter Linn.). Pomatostegus polytrema Philippi: 

;, operculum, enlarged ; m, n, tube with section X2 ; 

o, collar bristle X315 ; p. q, thoracic brisfles x315 ; 

r, Apomatus seta from the last thoracic se^ent 

X31S ; s, abdominal trumpet-shaped bristle 

X315 ; t, u, uncini, front and side view X315. 

A high collar. Collar setae very fine, short and few. 
Other thoracic setae winged capillaries. Abdominal setae 
compressed, trumpet-shaped with a long lateral point. 



470 SERPULtDAE 

Uncini pectiniform with lower tooth larger and gouge- 
like. Tube triangular in section, incrusting the support. 

456. Pomatoceros caetalccs (Schmarda) . (Fig. 245, a-A). 
Pomatoceros caeruleus Ehlers, 1907, p. 30: Fauvel, 1930a, p. 67. 
Pomatoceros strigiceps, Ehlers, 1904, p. 67, pL IX, figs. 11-19. 

Gills, collar and thorax bright indigo-blue. Other- 
wise hardly distinct from P. triqueter Linnaeus. _ Oper- 
culum probably variable, tube less regularly triangular, 
often coloured blue inside. 

Length: 15—25 mm. 

Occurrence: Ennur Backwater, Madras Harbour. 

Distribution: New Zealand, Australia; Indian Ocean. 

Genus DITRUPA Berkeley. 

Operculum an inverted cone with a homy plate. 
Pedicle smooth, wingless. A collar. Collar setae absent. 
Thoracic setae capillaries and winged setae. Abdominal 
setae capillary. Uncini pectiniform, with numerous teeth, 
the lower one gouged. Tube calcareous, frecj open at 
both ends, Dentalium-like. 

457. Ditrapa arictina O. F. MuUer. (Fig. 246, a-g) . 

Ditrupa arietma, Saint-Joseph, 1898, p. 443, pi. XXIII, figs. 249- 
254: Fauvel, 1927a, p. 374, fig. 128, a-g; 1932, p. 247. 

Operculum vesicular, opercular plate horny, thick, 
brown, flat or convex, often encrusted. Tube smooth, 
elephant tusk-shaped, curved and tapering, narrowed at 
the mouth, white or with brown rings; made of two cal- 
careous layers, the inner opaque white, the outer translu- 
cent. 

Length: 10-20 mm. by 1-2 mm. Tube, 25-40 mm. 
by 2—3 mm. 

Occurrence: Andaman Sea, 785 fms. 

Distribution: Philippine Islands; Andaman Sea, Red 
Sea; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. 

var. monilifef a Fauvel. (Fig. 246, h) . 

Ditrupa anetma var. monilifera, Fauvel, 1932, p. 247, pi. IX, 
fig. 12. 



PROTULA 



471 



The tubes show a number of more or less regular 
annular enlargements, giving them a moniliform appear^ 



ance. 




Fig. 246.—Ditrupa anetina O. F. Muller : a, ventral view X4 ; b, 

operculum X6 ; c, tube, natural size ; d, thoracic bristle X220 ; 

e, abdominal bristle XlOO ; f, g, hooks, front and side view 

X400 ; h, var. monilifera tube X2. 



Occurrence: Andaman Sea, 378 fms. 
Distribution: Kei Islands; Andaman Sea. 



Genus PROTULA Risso. 

Operculum absent. Collar setae simple tapered 
blades; thoracic setae winged capillaries and Apomatus 
setae; abdominal setae either sickle-shaped or bayonet 
shaped. Uncini bicuspid, with very numerous, very fine 
teeth and a long basal spine. Tube white, cylindrical, 
nearly smooth, often partly erect. 



472 



SERPULIDAE 



458. Protala toboIafSa (Montagu) . (Fig. 247, a-i) . 
Protula tubularia, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 382, fig. 130. 
Protulopsis palliata, Willey, 1905, p. 316, pi. VIII, figs. 183- 
185. 

Abdominal setae sickle-shaped. Collar trilobed. A 
very large thoracic membrane. Gills woolly. Branchial 
filaments with red eye-spots at the back. Tube white, 
nearly smooth, coiled at the base, then erect. 




Fig. 247 —Protula tubularia (Montagu) : a, with iti tube (after Qua- 
trefages) ; b, antenor region, ventral view (after Rioja) ; c, bran- 
chial funnel, from above, gills cut offi ; d, anterior part, side view 
X3 5 ; e, thoracic winged bristle X1S2; /, Apomatus seta xl32 ; 
g, abdominal bristle ; h, i, abdominal laristle before and after 
treatment with weak potash solution, curve inverted 
X220 ; k, I, uncini X350. Pr. intestinum (Lamarck) : 
m, anterior part, ventral view (after Rioja). 



Length: 20—50 mm. by 3—8 mm. 

Colour: Body red or orange, gills with white and red 
or orange streaks. 

Occurrence: Ceylon. 

Distribution: Japan, Australia, Malay Archipelago; 
Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf; Atlantic Ocean, Mediterra- 
nean Sea. 



FICOPOMATUS 



473 



Genus FICOPOMATUS Southern. 

" Modified setae present on the first thoracic segment, 
having blades provided with very stout teeth. Beneath 
the blades is a transverse row of more than two teeth. 
Uncini with relatively few teeth, the lowest of which is in 
the form of an elongate bifid spine. Ventral abdominal 
setae geniculate. Operculum fig-shaped, without any out- 
growths " (Southern) . 

459. Ficopomatas macrodon Southern. (Fig. 248, c—l) . 
Ficopomatus macrodon. Southern, 1921, p. 655, pi. XXX, fig. 27, 
a-m; Fauvd, 1932, p. 248. 

Operculum soft, vesicular, fig-shaped, flat or convex at 
the tip, without any outgrowtli; stem rather flattened. 
Branchial filaments 13—17 in number, bearing 18—20 
pairs of barbules. 7 thoracic setigerous segments. Collar 




Fig. t4S.—Pomatostegus stellatus Abildgaard : a, anterior end with oper- 
culum, dorsal view (after Willey). Spirorbis forammosus Moore : b, 
operculum filled with e^, front Yiew (after Moore). Ficopomatus 
macrodon Southern ; c, front view of the aperture of an attacher 
tube ; d, operculum, side view X32 ; e, modified seta from the 
first setigerous segment X400 ; /, thoracic capillary bnstle 
X400 ; g, simple capillary seta from the first segmentx400 ; 
h, I, thoracic hook, front and side view x640;fe, abdo- 
minal hook X640; /, ventral abdominal bristle X440 
(after Southern). 

F. 62 



474 SERPULIDAE 

high. Free margin of the thoracic membrane entire. 
Collar setae of two kinds: (1) stout setae with a series of 
very coarse teeth diminishing in size towards the smooth 
tip, beneath these teeth for some distance the shaft is 
smooth and this is followed by a transverse row of teeth; 
and (2) slender setae with finely tapering tips and minu- 
tely hispid edges. Thoracic setae capillary, flattened. 
Abdominal setae geniculate. Tube free or erect, circular 
in section, with a single dorsal ridge, or squarish with 
three dorsal ridges. 

Length: 8-10 mm. by 0.5-0.75 mm. 

Colour. Traces of blue pigment bands on the gills 
and thorax. 

Occurrence: Tal^h-Sap, Gulf of Siam; Sunderbans, 
Ennur Backwater. Madras Coast, Cochin Backwater, 
Chepparam. 

Genus HERCIERELLA Fauvel. 

Operculum non-calcareous, vesicular, crowned with 
concentric rows of simple horny spines. Opercular pedi- 
cle smooth, wingless. Branchial filaments without eyes. 
Interbranchial membrane absent. Collar entire. A tho- 
racic membrane. A pair of palps. Lowest tooth of the 
uncini stout and gouged. Collar setae with two rows of 
sharp teeth. Dorsal thoracic setae winged. Abdominal 
setae geniculate. Tube circular in section. 

460. Metcici-ella cnigmatica Fauvel. (Fig. 249, a-o) . 
Mercierella enigmatica, Fauvel, 1923d, p. 124, fig. 1; 1927a, p. 
360, fig. 123; 1932, p. 249: Monro, 1924, 155, fig. a-e: Rioja, 
1924, p. 160, figs. 1-30, pi. V, figs. 1-3. 

Seven thoracic segments. Branchial filaments stout, 
short, with a naked tip variable in length. Interbranchial 
membrane absent. Operculum somewhat fig-shaped, bear- 
ing concentric rows of simple, horny, sharp, blackish 
spines. Pedicle stout, thick, smooth, subtriangular in 
section, wingless, with a shallow dorsal groove. Two 
finger-shaped palps. Collar tall, erect, or turned down, 
without lateral notches, edges entire; it is continuous with 
the thoracic membrane which is very broad and termi- 
nates in a back flap. Collar setae of two kinds: (1) slen- 
der filiform capillaries, and (2) strongly serrated setae 
with two longitudinal rows of teeth; a few transverse rows 
at the base and without an intervening smooth part of 
the shaft. Other dorsal thoracic setae straight, or faintly 
bent, smooth or very fijiely hispid. Uncini with a single 



M£RClERELIA 



475 



row of 5—7 teeth, the lowest of which is larger and goug- 
ed. Abdominal uncini more triangular, with more nu- 
merous teeth. Abdominal setae long, geniculate, serrat- 
ed. Pygidium conical, with two rounded knobs. Tube 
calcareous, whitish, thin, cylindrical, wrinkled and bell- 
shaped at the entrance, the successive peristomes forming 
collars all along. It is coiled at the base, then erect. 




Re. 24:9.-Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel : a, tube X2.6 ; 6, side view 

X9; e, d, operculum, front and side view XlS; «, opercular spmes 

X62 ; /, section of the opercular stalk ; g, h, modified bristle of tie 

first setigerous segment, side and front view X516 ; i, capillary 

bristle from the first setigerous segment X344 ; k, thoracic 

bristle X344 ; m, n, thoracic uncini, front and side view 

X516; o, abdominal uncini X51o. 

Usually lives in brackish but sometimes in nearly fresh 
water; very rarely in pure seawater. 

Length: 6-25 mm. by 1-2 mm. 

Colour. Operculum chestnut, with a white or yellow 
ring. Gills greenish with brown spots. In spint, abdo- 
men uncoloured, thoracic tori chestnut, gills ringed with 
chestnut and chalky white. 

Occurrence: Ennur Backwater, on oyster shells. 

Distribution: Malay Archipelago Australia; India; 
Atlantic Ocean (France. Morocco, Uruguay), Mediter- 



476 



SERPULIDAE 



ranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, English Channel, 
estuaries and on ships' bottoms. 



In canals. 



Genus SALHACINA Claparfede. 

Operculum absent. Branchiae few; more or less en- 
larged at the tip. Prostomium rounded, with two eyes. 
A collar. Collar setae notched, with a broad fin-like ex- 
pansion at the base of the blade. Other thoracic setae 




Fig. 250.— Filograma implexa Berkeley: a, operculum; b, collar 
brisde X500. Salmacing dysteri (Huxley): c, ventral view, en- 
larged ; d, tip o£ a gill-iadioUe X40 ; e, collar bristle X500 ; /, 
thoracic bristle X600; g, abdominal bristle X500; h, posterior 
abdominal bristle X500 ; «, hook X500 ; k, clustered tubes, 
natural size. 

capillary, limbate, and sickle-shaped setae. Abdominal 
setae geniculate and serrated. Uncini pectiniform, 
with the lower tooth larger. Calcareous tubes, very 
small and slender, crowded in aggregate fenestrated 
masses. Hermaphrodite. Schiziparous, 



SPIRORBIS 477 

461. Salmacina dysteri Huxley. (Fig. 250, c—k) . 

Salmacina dysteri, Fauvel, 1927a, p. 377, fig. 129, e-k; 1930a, 
p. 67. 

Branchial filaments with spatulate enlargements at 
the tips. The triangular wing of the collar setae with 
numerous, more or less fine, teeth. Tubes forming large, 
white, colonial masses. 

Length: 4—7 mm. 

Colour: Orange or red. Gills pale or reddish at the 
base. 

Occurrence: Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, Ram- 
eswaram; Madras Harbour. 

Distribution: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 

Genus SPIRORBIS Daudin. 

Body asymmetrical. Thoracic segments less than five. 
Opercular peduncle without pinnules. Tubes spirally 
coiled, dextral or sinistral. 

463. Spiforbis foraminosos Moore. (Fig. 248, b) . 

Spirorbis foraminosus, Augener, 1926b, p. 472; Fauvel, 1930a, 
p. 68: 1932, p. 247. 

Collar setae smooth, without fin-like extensions, ac- 
companied by a few capillary setae. Abdominal setae 
with large falciform serrated blades. Operculuni cylindri- 
cal, transparent, dotted, and crowned with a rim, with 
longitudinal grated plates. Three thoracic segments. 
Tube dextral, keeled, wrinkled, more or less pitted with 
alveoli. 

Occurrence: Nankauri Harbour, Nicobar Islands; 
Gulf of Mannar, Krusadai Island, Rameswaram Beach. 

Distribution: Pacific Ocean; Nicobar Islands, Ceylon. 



LITERATURE 



Apstein, C, 1900, 
Arwidsson. I., 1899, 



-, 1907. 



Ashworth, J. H., 1901, 
Augener, H., 1906, 

,1913, 



— , 1914, 

— , 1916—1918, 

— , 1922a, 



— , 1922b, 



-, 1922c. 



■,1922d, 



Die Aldopiden und Tomopteriden det 
Plaakton Expedition. (Kiel, 1900, 62 p.) 

Studien Uber die Familien Glyceridae 
und Goniadidae. Bergens Mus. Aarkrg 
No. 11, pp. 1—70, pi. I— V. 

Studien fiber die skandinavischen und 
aiktischen Maldaniden. Zm/ JsM , 
Siippl. IX, pp. 1-308, pi. I— XII. 

The anatomy of Sctdihregma inflatum 
Rathke. Quart Jount. Micrusc Sci, N. 
S. XLV, pp. 237—309. pis. XIII— XV. 

Westindische Polychaeten. Bull. Mus- 
Comp. Zml. Harvard, XLin, pp. 91 
—196, pis. I— VIII. 

Polychaeta. I. Errantia. Tamt. 
SaJtoett'/futtraliens, IV, pp. 63 — 304, 
pis. I— II. Jena. 

Polychaeta. II Sedanteria. Faun- 
Sudtoest-Mstraliens, V, pp. I— 170, pi- 
I, Jena. 

Polychaeta. Beiirage zur Keminis 
der Meeres-Fauna West-Jfricas, 11. 
Hambuig, pp. 67—625, pis. II— VI. 

Australische Polychaeten des Ham- 
burger Zoolc^ischen Museum. Arcmv. 
Naturges. LXXXVIII, Abt. A, Pp. I 
—37. 

Reviaonder Anstralischen Pcdychae- 
ten Tjpen von Kinbei®. Ark. Zool, 
Stockholm, XIV, No. 8, pp- I— *2. 

litorale Polychaeten von Juan Fer- 
nandez. Nat. Mst. Juan Fernandez, 
eMted hj C. Shttsherg, III, PP- 161 
—218, pi. VII, UppsaU. 

Results of Dr. E. Mjosberg's Swedish 
Scientific Expeditions to Australia 
1910—13. XXXII, Polychaeten. Vit. 
Jkil Haodl. Stockholm, LXIII, No. 6, 
pp. 1—49. 
479 



480 

Augeaer, tl., t923a, 



-, 1923b, 



-, 1924, 



-, 1925, 



- 1926a, 



-, 1926b, 



-, 1927a, 



-, 1927b, 



-, t927c, 



, 1934, 



Baird,W., 1865, 



LITERATURE 

Polychaeten von Westpatagonien 
Goiehrg Vet, Eandl XXVII, pp. 
1-S. 

Polychaeta I. Polychaeten von den 
Auckland<und Campbell-Inseln, Videns. 
Medd^ Kjohenhavti, LXXV, pp. 1— 
115. 

Polychaeta 11. Polychaeten von 
Neuseeland. I. Etrantia. Widens. 
Medd. KJoben-havn, LXXV, pp. 241 
-441. 

Zoologiiclie Ergebnisse der ersten, 
Lehr-Expedition der Dr. P. Schott- 
landerschen Jubilaums-Stiftung. III. 
Polychaeta. Mitt. Zoo!. Mas. Berlin, 
Xn.pp. 105—116. 

Polychaeta III. Polychaeten von 
Neuseeland. II. Sedentaria. fide- 
mi. Medd, Kjobenhavn, LXXXI, pp. 
157—294. 

Ceylon. — Polychaeten. Jenaische Zei- 
tschr. Naturzoiss., LXII, pp. 4,33— 

472. 

Polychaeten von Siidost — ^und Stid- 
Australien. Viiinsk. Medd Kjoben- 
havn, LXXXIir, pp. 71-275. 

Polychaeten von Curacao. Mjdr 
tot Dierkund Amsterdam. XXV, pp. 
39-82. 

Polychaeten von Neu-Pommetn- 
Siizher Ges. Nat. Fremde, Berlin, pp. 
119—152, pi. I. 

Polychaeten aus den Zoologischen 
Museen von Leiden und Amsterdam. 
Rijh Museum Naturlijke Hist. Leiden, 
XVll,J/l. 1-2, pp. 177-410. 

Contribations towards a Monograph 
of the species of Annelids belonging to 
the Jpkroditacea, containing a list of 
the known species, and a description 
of some new species contained in the 
National Collection of the British 



LlTERATUliE 



481 



Baird, W., 1870a, 



1870b, 



Beddard, E., 1887, 



Benhatn, W. B.. 1915-15, 



BergstrSm E., 1914, 
Berkeley, E., 1927, 

Bindia, S. S., 1927, 
Buchanan, F., 1893, 



Museum. Joum. Proc. Ltnn. Soc , 
London (Zod.) Vlir, pp. 172-202. 

Contributions towards a monc^aph of 
the species of Annelids belonging to the 
Amphltomacea with a list of the known 
species and a description of several new 
species (belonging to the group) con- 
tained in the National Collection of 
the British Museum. Joum. Proc. Litm. 
Soc. London (Zot/.) X, pp. 215—250, 
pi. IV— VI. 

Remarks on several genera of 
jtnnelids, belonging to the group 
Eunicea, with a notice of such species 
as are contained in the collection of 
the British Museum, and a description 
of some others hitherto undescribed. 
Joum. Proc. Linn. Sac. London (Zool.) 
X, pp. 341—361. 

Report on Annelids from Mei^i 
Archipelago. Joum. Linn. Soc. London 
(Zool.), XXI, pp- 255—266, pi. XXI. 

Report on the Polychaeta obtained 
by the F. I. S. " Endeavour " on the 
coast of New South Wales, Victoria, 
Tasmania, and South Australia. Pt. 

I, pp. 173— 237, pis 38—45 (1915); Pt. 

II, pp. 127—152, pis. 46—48 (1916). 

Zur Systematik des. Polychaeten- 
Familie der Phyllodociden. Zool. Btdr. 
Uppsala, III, pp. 37-224. 

Polychaetous Annelids from the 
Nanaimo district, Pt. 3- Leodicidae 
fo Spionidae. Conir. Canad. Biol. 
Toronto (N. S-) III, pp. 405—422, pi. I, 

Fauna of Karachi. A study of the 
genus EurythoS. Mem. Dept. Zoology, 
Punjab University, I. pp. 1—18. 

Report on the Polychaetes collected 
during the Royal Dublin Sodety's 
Survey ofi the West Coast of Ireland. 
Pt. I, Deep-water forms. Sci. Proc. 
Roy. Dublin Soe. VIII, pp. 169—179, 
pis- IX~XI. 



p. 63 



482 

Buchanan, F,, 1894, 

Caullety, M., 1915, 

Chaiuberlin, R. V., 1919, 
Clapar&de, E., 1864, 

, 1868, 



Crossland, C„ 1903-04, 



. 1904, 



-, 1924, 



Ehlers, E., 1864—68, 



LIIERATURE 

A Polynoid with Branchiae {Eufo- 
lyodontes Cornishli), Quart, hunt. 
Micros. Set., XXXV, pp. 433—450, 
pi. XXVII. 

Notes pr^liminaires sur les Poly- 
chfetes du " Sihoga". Bull Sac. Zool. 
ie France, XXXIX, XL, pp. 44—53 
355-361. 

The Annelida Polyohaeta Mem. Mm. 
Comp. Zool. Harvard, XLVIII, pp. 1— 
514, pis. I-LXXX. 

Glannres zootomiques parmi les 
Annilides de Port Vendres Mem. 
Stc. PAys. Genkve, XVII. pp. 463— 
600, pis. I— vin. 

Les Ann^lides ChStopodes du Golfe 
de Naples. Mem. Soc. Pijs. Genhve, 
XIX— XX, pp. 1—500, pis. I— XXXL 

Or. the Marine Fauna of Zanzibar 
and British East Africa from collec- 
tions made by Cyril Crossland in the 
years 1901—1902. Polychtieta, Pt. I; 
Prec. Zool. Soc. London, I, pp. 169-— 
176, pis. XVI— XVII (1903) Pt. 11, 
id., pp. 129—144, pis. XIV— XV (1903) 
Pi. Ill, id., pp. 287—330, pis. XX- 
XXII, 1904. 

The Polyohaeta ol the Maldive Ar- 
chipels^o from the collections made 
by J. Stanley Gardiner in 1899. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, I, pp.- 270—286, 
pis. XVIII— XIX. 

Polychaeta of Tropical East Africa, 
the Red Sea and Cape Verde Islands 
collected by Cyril Crossland, and of 
the Maldive Archipelago collected by 
Professor Stanley Gardiner, M.A., 
F.R.S., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 
1—106. 

Die Borstenwtirtner. Annelida 
Chaetopoda I (1864), II (1868). Leip- 
zig. 



tXTERATUKE 483 

Ehlers. E., 1837, ... Report on the Annelids of the Dredging 

Expedition of the U- S. Coast Survey 
Steamer "Blalce". Florida Annehden. 
Mm. Mui. Cmp. Zosl. Harvard, XV, 
pp. 1-328, pi. I— LX. 



1 1897, ... Hamburger tnagalhaensische Sam- 

melreise. Polychaeten, Lief. II, Ham- 
burg, pp. 1—148, pis. I— IX. 

, 1898, ... Ueber Palolo {Eumee ohidii Gr.) 

Nacir. Ges. Wtss. Gdttingen Math. 
Php. Kl. 1898, Heft 4, pp. 400—415. 

-, 1901, ... Die Polychaeten des Magellanischen 

und Chilenisohen Strandes, Festschr. 
Ges. Gotttngen, pp. 1—232, pis. I— 
XXV. 

, 1904 — 07, ... Nenseelandische Annelidcn I, Abh. 

Ges. Wiss. Gottingett Math. TJqs. 
Kl. (N. F.), Ill, pt. I, pp. 1—79, pls- 
I— IX (1904); pt. n, id., V, No. 4, pp. 
1—31 (1907). 

,1905, ... Anneliden der SammluDg Schauinsland. 

Zoil. Mrb. von Pfr. Spengel, XXII, 
pp. 281—302, pi. IX. 

, 1908, ... Die bodensassigen Anneliden aus den 

Sammlungen der deutschen Tiefsee- 
Expedition. Wiss. Ergehn. d. D. 
Tiefsee-Exped. XVI, pp. 1—167, pis, 
I— XXIII. 

, 1917, ... Polychaete Anneliden von den Am 

—und Kei-Inseln. Abh. Sencken. Natrf. 
GeseU. Frankfurt, XXXV, pt. 2, pp. 
227— 250, pis. XV— XVII. 

. ^ 1920, ... Polychaeten von Java and Amboi- 

na. Ein Beitrag zut Kenntnis der 
malaiischen Strandfauna. Abh. Ges. 
Wiss. N. F. Goitingen, X, No. 7, pp. 
1—73, pis. i-ni. 

Eisie H., 1887, ... Monc^raphie det Capitelliden des 

Golfes von Neapel. Fauna mi Flora 
des Golfes vow Heapel, Monogr. XVI, 
pp. 1—906, pi. I— XXXVII. 



484 

Eisig, H., 1914, 

Essenberg, Ch., 1917, 
Fauvel, P., 1897, 



LITERAtURE 



-, 1901, 



-, 1911, 



-, 1914a, 



-, 1914b, 



-, 1914c, 



1916, 



Zur Systematik der Anatomie und 
Morphologie der Ariciiden nebst Beit- 
ragen zur generellen Systematik. Mitt. 
Zool. Stat. 'Neapel, XXI, pp. 153—600, 
pi. X— xxvir. 

On some new species of Aphroditidae 
from the coast of California, Calif. 
Univ. Publ. Zool, XVI, pi. 401-416, 
pis. XXXI-XXXVII- 

Recherches sur les Amphar^tiens, 
Ann^Iides Polychfetes S^dentaires. Mor- 
phologie, Anatomie, Histolc^ie, Phy- 
sioiogie. Butt. Sci. France et Belgi- 
qm, XXX, pp. 277—488, pis. XV— 
XXV. 

AnnSlides Polycli^tes de la Casa- 
mance, rapportte par M. Aug 
Chevalier. Bull. Soc. Linn. Nomattdie, 
V, s^r, 5, pp. 59—105. 

Ann^lides Polychfetes du GoIIe 
persique. JrcMv. Zool. Exper. Gen. 
Paris, VI, pp. 253—439, pis. XIX— 
XXI. 

Ann^lides Polychfetes de San Thom^, 
(Golfe de Guin^e) recueillies par M. Ch. 
Gravier, ArcBv. Zool Exper. Gen. 
Paris, LIV, pp. 105—155, pi. VII— 
VIII. 

Ann^lides Polychfetes non-p61agiques 
provenant des campagnes de 1' " Hiron- 
delle " et de la " Princesse Alice " 
(1885—1910). Ris Camp. Sci. 
Monaco, fasc. XLVI, pp. 1—432, pi. 
I— XXXI. 

Sur la classification des Aco^tin^s 
(Ann^lides Polychfetes), IXe Congr. 
InterMt. Zool Monaco, pp. 468—473, 

Ann^lides Polychfetes p^lagiques prove- 
nant des campagnes de I' " Hirondelle 
et de la "Princesse Alice" (1885— 
1910). Ris Camp. Sci. Monaco, fasc. 
XLVm, pp. 1—152, pis. I— IX. 



LlTEftATURE 



485 



Fauvel, P., 1917, 



-. 1918, 



-. 1919, 



-, 1921, 



-. 1922. 



-, 1923a, 
., 1923b, 



-, 1923c, 



-, 1923cl, 



-, 1925, 



-, 1927a, 



Annaides Polychfetes de 1' Australie 
mdridionale. JnhU). Zool, Exfer. 
Gen. Paris, LVI, pp 159—278, pis. 

rv— VI. 

Ann^Kdes Polych^tes nourelles do 
1' Afrique Orientale. BuU.Mus. Htst. 
Hat. Paris, XXIV, pp. 503—509. 

Annffides Polychfetes de Mada- 
gascar, de Djibouti et du Golfe Per- 
sique. Jrchiv. Zool. Exper. Gen. 
Paris, LVirr, pp. 315— 4T3, pis. XV— 
XVII. 

Ann^lides Polych&tes de Madagas- 
car du Museum R. d' Histoire Natu- 
relle recueillies pat M. fe Pr. W. 
Kajidern en 1912. Ark. Zool. Stock- 
Mm, XIII, No. 24, pp. 1—32, pi. I. 

Ann^lides Polych^tes de 1' Archi- 
pel Houtman Abrolhos (Australie 
0:cidentale) recueillies pjr M. le 
Prot. J. Dakin, F. L. S., Jottm. Linn. 
Sue., London (Zool.) XXXIV, pp. 
487—500. 

Polych^ta Erraotes in Taune de 
France, Paris, V. pp. 1—488. 

Anndlides Poljchfetes d^ lies Gam- 
bier et de la Guyane. Mem. Pont 
Attad. Nuovi Lincei, Roma, Ser. 2, 
VI, pp. 1—59. 

Sur quelques Polychfetes de 1' 
Angola Portugaise. GStehorg Vet. 
Handl., XXVI, F. 4, pp. 1—13. 

Un nouveau Serpulien d'eau douce, 
Menierella ag. eniematica n- //. Ball 
Soc. Zool- France, Paris, XLVII, pp. 
424—430. 



Sur. quelques espfepw du genre 
Afirodita. Bull. See. Zool France, 
Paris, L, pp. 131—150. 

Polychfetes S^dentaires, in Faune de 
Frtmce, Paris, XVI, pp. 1—494. 



486 

Fauvel, P., 1927b, 

, 1928, 

, 1929, 

■ , 1930a, 



-, 1930b, 



-, 1931, 



•^ 1932, 



-, 1933a, 



-, 1933b, 



-, 19344, 



-, 1934b, 



LITERATURE 

Rapport sur les Ann^lides Poly- 
chfetes Errantes. Zoological results o! 
the Cambridge Expedition to the 
Suez Canal 1P24. Trans. Zool. Soe. 
London, XXII, pp. 411—439. 

Ann^lides PolychStes de I' Inde, I. 
Bull. Mm., Hist. Nat. Paris, XXXIV. 
d' pp. 90—96 ; II, pp. 159—165. 

Polychfetes nouvelles du GoMe de 
Manaar (Inde). Bull. Sa. Zool. 
France, Paris, LIV, pp. 180—186. 

Annelida Polychaeta of the Madras 
Government Museum. Bali. Madras 
Gcvt. Mtts., r. No. 2,Pt. r, pp. 1—72 

... Ann^lides Polych&tes de Nouvelle 
Cal^donie recueillies par Mme A. 
Pruvot-Fol en 1928. ArcMv. Zool. 
Exper. Gen., Paris, LXIX, pp. 501— 
562. 

... Ann^lides Polychetes. Rdsultats 
Scientifiques du voyage aux Indeb 
Orientales N4er-!andais de L-L. A A. 
R R. le Prince et la Princesse Leopold 
de Belgique. Mem. Mus. Roy. Hist. 
Not. Belgique, 11, fasc. 7, pp. 1—28, 
pi. I— III. 

Annelida Polychaeta of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. Mem. Indian 
Museum, XII, No. 1, pp. 1.— 262, pis. 
I— IX. 

Ann^lides Polych&tes. Mission Robert 
Ph. DoUfus en Egypte. Mem. Inst. 
Egypte, XXI, pp. 31—83 (Cairo). 

Ann^Iides Polychfetes du Golfe du 
Pei-Tcheu-Ly de la collection du Mus^e 
Hoang-ho Paiho. Publ. Mus. Hoang- 
hoPei-hoTien-Tsin, No. 15, pp. 1—67. 

Sur quelques Syllidiens du japon, 
Jnnot. Zool. Japonenses, XIV, No. 3 
pp. 301—315. 

Ann^lides Polychetes de Rovigno^d' 
Istria. "Thalassia," I, No. 7, pp. 1—78. 



LITERATURE 



487 



Fauvel, P., 1935, 



-, t936a, 



->, 1936b, 



-, 1937, 



-, 1939, 



1940, 



-, 1943a, 



-, 19+3b, 



Gravely, F- H., 1927, 

Gravier, Ch., 1896, 
, 1900—08, 



Ann^lides Polychfetes de 1' Annanl. 
Mem, Pent, Aai. Set. Num Lyncaei, 
II, Set. 3, pp. 279—334. 

Contribution h, la Faune des Anc^lides 
Polychfetes du Maroc. Mem. Sec. Sci. 
Nat. du. Maroc, XLIII, pp. 1—143. 

Annfilides Polvcbfetes du Japon. Mem. 
Col. Sci. Kysto, Imp- University, Ser. 
B., XII, No. 1, pp. 41—92. 

Deux Nereidiens nouveaux d' Indo- 
chine. BulJ. Sec. Zool France, Paris 
LXn, Na 5, pp. 297—301. 

AnnSIides Polychfetes de 1' Irdochine 
recueillies par M. C. Dawydofi. Com- 
ment. Pmtif. Acad. Sci., Ill, No. 10, 
pp. 243 — 368. Cttta del Vatkano. 

On a small collection of Annelida 
Polychaeta of the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. Rec. Indian Museum 1940, 
XLII, pt. II, pp. 2S3-26S. 

Ann^Iides Polychdtes de Califomie 
recueillies par M. L. D^et. Mem. 
Mai. d' Hilt. Nat. Paris, N- S. XVIII, 
tasc. 1, pp. 1 -32. 

Deux Polychetes nouvelles. BulJ. 
Mus. d' Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, XV, 
No. 4, pp. 200—202. 

Chaetopoda. The Littoral Fauna 
of Krusad-ii Island in the Gulf of 
Manaar. Bu/i. Madras Govt. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. (N. S.), I, No. 1, pp. 1—32. 

Recherches sur les Phyllodociens- 
BuU. Sci. France et Belgijue, XXIX, 
pp. 1—97, pis. XV— XXIII (Separate). 

Contribution h. V 6tude des Ann^li- 
des Polychfetes de la Mer Rouge. 
Nouv. Jrchiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 
(4), 11, pp. 137—282, pis. IX-XIV 
(1900); id. (.4) III, pp. 147— 152, pis. 
VII-X (1901); /</. (4) VIII, pp. 123— 
272 (1906); id. (4) X, pp. 67—108 
(1908). 



488 



LITERATURE 



Giavier, Cb., 1901, 



1906, 



1909a, 



1909b, 



, et Daiitan J. S., 1934, 



Gteeff, R., 1876, 



-, 1879. 



-, 1879, 



-, 1882, 



Grube, Ed., igS6-57, 



■ , 1867, 



Sur une singuliere forme h^t^ron^- 
idefenne du Golfe de Californie. Bull. 
Mus. ^ Hist. Nat. Parts, VII, pp, 
177—182. 

Un Sabellarien vivant sur un 
Brachiopode {Kmgena akccki Jon- 
bin). Bull. Mus. d* Hist, Not. Paris. 
XII, pp. 540-543. 

Ann^lides des Polychfetes recueillies 
k Payta (Parous) par M. le Dr. Rivet. 
Archiv. Zool Exper. Gen. Paris (i), 
X, pp. 617—659, pis. XVI— XVIII. 

Contribution h V etude de la Mor- 
phologie et de 1' Svoluton des Sabe- 
Uariens. Ann. Set. Nat. (Zool.), Parts 
(9), IX. pp 287—305, pis. VII— VIII. 

Ann^lides Polychetes recueillies au 
cours de pfeches nocturnes k la lu- 
mike sur les cdtes d' Annam, Ann. 
hst. Ocdmogr. N. S., XlV, fasc. 3, 
pp. 37— 136. 

UntersuchuDgen iiber die Alciopi- 
den. Nov. Act. K. Leap. Carol, Deut- 
sch. Akad. Naturf. XXXIX, No- 2, pp. 
35—132, pis. II— VII. 

Uebei die Alciopiden des Mittel- 
meeres und insbesondere des Golfes 
von Neapel. Mitth. Zool. Stat. Neapet, 
1, fasc. 3. 

Ueber pelagische Anneliden von der 
Kiiste der Canarischen Inseln. 

teitschr, /. Wiis. Zool. XXXII, fasc. 2, 
pp. 237—283, pis. I— III. 

Ueber die rosettenlormigen Leuch- 
torgane der Tomopteriden und zwei 
neue Arten von Tomopteris. Zool, Ang. 
1882, pp. 384—388. 

Annalaia Oerstediana. Viiensk. 
Meddel. Nature. Foren, Kjotenhovu, 
pp. 44—62 (1856); pp. 158—166 (1857). 

Anneliden. Reise der oesterreichischen 
Frtgatte Novara um die Erde. Zoolo- 
gisther Theilll, pp. 1—46, pi. I— V. 



LITERATURE 



489 



Grube, Ed., 1868, 



-, 1869a, 



-, 186%, 



-, 1870, 



-. 1874, 



-, 1877, 



1878, 



-. 1879, 



Haase, P., 1914, 



Haswell, W. A., 1883a, 



-, 1883b, 



Beschreibungen einiger von Geo^ 
Ritter von Frauerfeld gesammelten 
Anneliden und Gephyreen des Rothen 
Meeres. Verhanil. Zool.—Bit. Gesell. 
Wien, XVIir, pp. 629—650, pis. 
VII— viir. 

Beschreibungen neuer oder wenig 
bekannter von Hrn. Ehrenberg gesa- 
mmelten Anneliden des Rothen Meeres. 
Monatsher, Kon. Preuss. Akad. Wtss. 
Berlin, pp. 484—621. 

Bemerkungen fiber die Familie 
Glycereen. Jairesh. Sckks. Gesell, 
XLVII, pp. 41—42. 

Bemerkungen iiber die Anneliden des 
Pariser Museums. Archtv. Kattirgei. 
XXXVI, pp. 281—352. 

Descriptiones Annulatorum novoram 
mare Ceylonicum habitantium ab 
honoratissimo Holdsworth collectorum. 
Proc. Zdol. Soc. Lmim, pp. 32S— 329. 

Anneliden Ausbeute S.M. S. "Gazelle.," 
Manatiber. Kon. Preuss. Akad. Wtss. 
Berlin, pp. 509—544. 

AnnuUta Semperiana. Beitr%e zur 
Kenntnis der Anneliden-Fauna der 
Philippinen nach den von Heim Prof. 
Semper mitgebrachten Sammlungen. 
Mem. Acad. Imp. Set. Si. Peters- 
bourg (7), XXV, pp. 1—300, pis. I— 
XV. 

Mittheilungen liber die Familie der 
Phyllodocien und Hesionen. lahres- 
ber. Sciles. Gesell. Faterl. Cult, INll, 
pp. 204—228. 

Boreale und Arktische Chlotaemiden, 
Wisi. Meeresunters. Kiel (N. F.), 
XVII, pp. 172—228. 

A Monograph of the Australian 
Aphraditea. Proc, Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, VII, pp. 250-299, pis. VI— XI. 

On some new Australian tubicolous 
Annelids. ProcLinn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
VII, pp. 633-638, pi. XII. 



F. 46 



490 

Haswell, W- A., 1886, 

Hessle, C, 1917, 
Hoagland, R. A., 1920, 



Horet,R., 1911, 



-, 1912—1924, 



-, 1918, 



--, 1922, 



Izulca, A., 1902, 



-, 1912, 



Johansson, K. E., 1918, 



LITERATURE 

Observations on some Australian 
Polychaeta. Proc. Linn. Sec. N. S. 
Wales, X, Pt., 4, pp. 733—756, pis. 
I— VI. 

Zur Kenntnis der Terebellomorphen 
Polychaeten. Zool. Sidr. Uppsala, V., 
pp, 39—258, pis- I— V. 

Polychaetous Annelids collected by the 
U- S. Fisheries steamer " Albatross" 
during the Philippine Expedition of 
1907—1909. Smifi- Insi. N S. Nat. 
Mas. Bull. 100, 1, pt. 9, pp. 603—635, 
pis XLVI— LIl. 

On a remarkable He/ertmereis from 
the North Coast of East Java. Notes 
Leyden Mus., XXXIir, pp. 113—116. 

Polychaeta Errantia of the " Siboga" 
Expedition, Part I, Amphinomidae, 
Sihogo-Expeditie, Leyden, XXIVa, 
pp. 1—43, pis. I— X ; (1912) ; Part II, 
Aphroditidae and Chrysopetalidae, Id , 
XXIVb,pp. 45—143, pis. XI— XXIX 
(1917); Part. Ill, Nereidae and 
Hesionidae, id., XXIVc, pp, 145—198, 
pis. XXX— XXXVI (1924). 

On a species of Lycastis and the 
aberrant forms of Nereidae from the 
Dutch East Indies, Zool. Meded. Lei- 
den, IV, pp. 246—250, 

... On three remarkable Annelida 
Polychaeta. Zml. Med. Rijks. Mus. 
Leiden, VII, Abt. 3—4, pp. 221—224 

On two new species of the famify 
Maldanidae from the Ss^ami Bay. 
Annoi. Zool Japan, IV, pp. 109— II 4, 

pi. in. 

The Errantia Polychaeta of Japan. 
Tokjo Journ. Coll. Set., XXX, pp. I— 
262, pi. I— XXIV. 

SerpuUmorphe Anneliden. Kungl. 
Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., LVIII, 
No. 7, pp. 1-14. 



LITERATURE 



491 



Johansson, K. E., 1926, 



-, 1927, 



Johnson, H. P., 1901, 
Johnston, T. H., 1908, 
Kinberg, J. G. H,. 1857-1910 ... 



-> 1864—66, 



Kiikenthal, W., 1887, 



-, 1887b, 



Langerhans, P., 1879, 
Levinsen, G., 1885, 



-, 1886, 



Bemerkungen uber die Kinbeigs- 
chen Arten der Familien Hermellidae 
und Sabellidae. Ark. Zoo/. Stockholm, 
XVIII No 7, pp. 1—28. 

Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Polychaeten- 
Familien Hermellidae, Sabellidae und 
Serpulidae. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala, Xf, 
pp. 1-184, pis. I- V. 

The Polychaela of the Puget Sound 
Region. Pnc, Bostm Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XXIX, pp. 381-437, pis. I-XIX. 

On a new species of Aphndita. Rec. 
Amiral. Mus., VII, pp. 241-245. pi. 
LXIX. 

Annulata Konglika Svenska Fregatten 
" Eugenies " Resa omkrmg Jorden. 
1851—1853. Zoohgi, III, Annulater 
(UppsalaSiockklm 1857—1910); pp. 
1—78, pis. I— XXIX. 

Annulata Nova. Offers. K. Vet. Akai. 
Forh Stockklm, XXI, pp. 559—574 
(1864); id, XXII, pp. 167—179 and 
239—258 (1865); id., XXIIl, pp- 97— 
103 and 337-357 (1866). 

Die Opheliaceen der Expedition des 
"Vettor Pisani." Jenaiscie Zeitschr. 
f. Natur., XXI. pp. 361—373. pi. I. 

Ueber das Nervensystem der Ophel- 
iaceen. Jetia Zeitschr-, XX, pp. 511— 
580, pis, XXXII— XXXIV. 

Die Wurmfauna von Madeira, Zeitschr. 
JFissensch. Zool., XXXII, pp. 513—292, 
pis. XXXI—XXXIXI. 

Spolia atlantica, Om nogle pelagiske 
Annulata. Fid. Selsk. sir. (6). Nat. 
og Mail Afd. Ill, pt. 2, pp. 321— 
344. 

Kara-Havets Ledorme (Annulata). 
^aerte of " DjimpMa-To^tets" Zool. 
Sot. TJdijtte, pp. 289—303. 



492 



LITERATURE 



Mclntosb, W. C , 1885, 



-, 1900—23, 



-. 1923, 



Malmgren, A. J., 1855, 



Malmgien, A. J., 1867, 



MarenzeUer, E. von, 1879—1902, 



Mes.na,F.,1896, 



et Fauvel, P., 1939, 



MJchadsen, W., 1892, 



Report on the Annelida Polychaeta 
collected by H. M. S. "Challenger" 
during the years 1873—1876. " CM- 
lenger "—Reports, XII, pp. 1—554, 
pis. I~LV and la— 39a. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids, 
The Ray Society, London I (1900); II, 
pt. 1 (1908); pt. II, (1910); III (1915); 
IV, pt. I (1922); pt. 11 (1923). 

On Amphtnme rostrata Pallas in the 
Atlantic and Indian Oceans. (Notes from 
the Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. 
Andrews, No. XLV.) Am. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. London (9), XII, pp. 90—94- 

Nordiska Hafs-Annulater. Ofvers, 
K. Fet.-Akad. Forhandl. Stockholm, 
Part I pp, 51—110, pis VIU— XV; 
Part II, pp. 181—192 ; Part III, pp. 355 
— 410 ; pis. XVIII— XXIX. 

Annulata Polychaeta Spetibei^iae, 
Groenlandiae, Islandlae et Scandina- 
viae hactenus cognita. Ofvers. K. 
Fet-Akad, Forhandl. Stockholm, pp. 
127—235, pi. I— XV. 

SUdjapanische Anneliden. Denkschr. 
Akai- Wissen, ^«b, Pt. I.XLI (11), 
pp. 109—152, pis. I— VI, (1879) ; Pt. 
II, id., XLIX (11). pp. 1—28 ; pis. 1— 
IV (1884) ; and Pt. Ill, id., LXXII, 
pp. 563—582, pis. I— III (1902), 

Etudes de Morphol(^c externe chez 
les Ann^lides. I. Les Spionidiens 
des c6tes de la Manche. Bidl. Sci. 
France et Bel^^ue, XXIX, pp. 110— 
287, pis. VII— XV. 

Maldanidae, Cirratulidae, Capitelli- 
dae, SabeUidae et Serpulidae. Poly- 
chfetes s6dentaires de 1' expedition du 
" Siboga " " Sihga "—ExpeiUtie Mono- 
grfl/>5w XXIV ^ pp. 1—42, 

Polychaeten von Ceylon. Jahresier, 
Hamburg Wissen. Aust., IX, pp. 91— 
113, pi. I. 



LITERATURE 



493 



Milne-Edwards, A,, 1949, 
Monro, C. C. A., 1924—26, 



-, 1928a, 



-, 1928b, 



-, 1931 



'. 1931a, 



-, 1931b, 



., 1933, 



', 1936, 



Regne Animal Illustt^, Ann^licles 
Paris. 

On the Polychaeles collected by H. 
M. S. " Alert ", 1881-82 : 1. FamiUes 
Polynoidae, Sigalionidae and Euniddae. 
Journ Lim. Soc. London, {Zool), 
XXXVt, pp. 37—77; 11- Families Hesio- 
nidae and Nereidae, id; XXXVI, pp. 
311—323 (1926). 

Polychaeta of the Families Poly- 
noidae and Acoetidae from the vicinity 
of the Panama Canal collected by Dr. C. 
Crossland and Dr. Th. Mortensen. Jourtt. 
Lim. Soc. London (ZooL), XXXVI, 
pp. 563—576. 

On the Polychaeta collected by Dr. Th. 
Mortensen off the coast of Panama. Papers 
from Dr. Th. Morsensen. Pacific Expedi- 
tion 1914—1916, LXXXV, pp. 75—108. 

Polychaeta, Ol^ochaeta, Echiuridea 
and Sipunculidea (Great Barrier Reef 
Expedition) Scientific Reports IV, No. 1, 
pp. 1—37. 

On a collection of Polychaeta in the 

RafHes Museum, Singapore, Bidl, 

Raffles Museum, Singapore. No. 5, 
pp. 33—46. 

A new Biackish-Wafer Polychaete from 
Rangoon. Nereis U^eantAes) meggiiti 
n. sp. Jan. Mag. Nat, Hist. Ser. 10, 
Vin, pp. 580—585. 

The Polychaeta Errantia collected by 
Dr. C. Crossland at Colon, m the Panama 
R^on and the Galapagos Islands 
during the Expedition of the S. Y. " St- 
Geo^e." Proceed. Zool. Soc. Lottdm, 
1933, Pt. I, pp. 1—96; R. IV, pp. 
1039—1092. 

On a Heteronereid of Plaijnereis 
ptdehella Gravier, a Polychaete be- 
longing to the family Nereidae. A 
preliminary note. Jan. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. London, Ser. 10. XVIII, pp. 380 
—384. 



494 
Monro, C. C. A., 1937a. 



-, 1937b, 



-, 1939, 



Moore, J, P., 1903, 



1904, 



-, 1905, 



-, 1906, 



1907, 



-, 1909, 



-, 1910—23, 



LITERATUBE 

On two new Polychaetes from the 
Indian Ocean. Jm, Mag. Nat. Hist. 
London, Ser. 10, XIX, pp. 531—538. 

Polychaeta. John Murray Ezf edi- 
tion 1933—34, Scientijk Reports, IV, 
No. 8, pp. 243—321. 

On some tropical Polychaeta in the 
British Museum mostly collected by 
Dr. C. Orossland at Zanzibar, Tahiti 
and the Marquesas. Nozritates Zoolo- 
gicae, XLI, pp- 383—405. 

... Polychaeta from the coastal slope of 
Japan and from Kamchatka and Bering- 
Sea. Proe. Acad. Nat. Set. Philadel- 
pUtt, LV, pp. 401—490, pis. XXIII— 
XXVII. 

New Polychaeta fiom Cafifornia, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. Philadelphia, 
LVI, pp. 484—503, pis. XXXVII— 
XXXVIII, 

New species of Polychaeta from the 
North Pacific, chiefly from Alaskan 
Waters. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phtla. 
delphia, LVII, pp. 525—554, pis, XXIV 
—XXVI. 

Additional New Species of Polychaeta 
from the North Pacific. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, LVIII, pp. 
217—260, pis. X— XII. 

... Descriptions of New Species of Spioni- 
form Annelids. Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci 
Philadelphia, LIX, pp. 195—207, pis. 
XV— XVI. 

Polychaetous Annelids from Monterey 
Bay and San Di^o, California. Proc, 
Acad. Nat. Sc. PhiiladelpMa, LXI, 
pp. 235—295, pis. VII— IX. 

The Polychaetous Annelids dredged by 
the U. S. S. "Albatross » oH the coast 
of Southern California in 1904- Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Pt. II, 
LXir, pp. 328—402 ; pis. XXVIU— 
XXXIII (1910) ; pt. Ill, id., LXIII, pp. 



LITERATURE 



495 



Nilsson, D., 1928, 



Okuda, S., 1937, 



Pixell, H. L. M„ 1913, 



Potts, F. A., 1909—10, 



1914, 



-, 1928, 



Piuvot, G., 1930, 



Pruvot, G. et Racovitza, E. G„ 
1895, 



234—318, pis. XV— XXI (1911); pt. 
IV, id., LXXV., pp 179—259, pls- 
XVII— XVIII (1923). 

Neu eund alte AmphJcteniden. Gste- 
horg Vetensk. Sank. Eanil. (4). 
XXXIII, pp. 1—95. 

Polychaetous Annelids from the 
Palan Islands and adjacent waters, the 
South Sea Hands. Bull. Bhg- Soc. 
Japan, Vll, No. 12. pp. 257—316. 
Tokyo. 

Polychaeta ol the Indian Ocean, 
tcgettier with some species from the 
Cape Verde Islands. The Serpulidae, 
with a classification of the genera 
Hydroldes and Eupmatus. Trans. 
Linn. Soc. London (Zool.) XVI, pp. 
69—92. pis. Vni— IX 

Polychaeta of the Indian Ocean. Part 
I. The Amphinomidae. Trans. Linn. 
Ssc. London (Ziol) 2nd- Ser. XII, pp. 
355—371, pis. XLV— XLVIIi Pat II, 
The Palmyrfdae, Aphroditidae, Poly- 
noidae, Acoetidae and Sigalionidae, td., 
Xin, pp. 325—353. pis. XVIII— 
XXI. 

Polychaeta from the N. E. Padfic. 
The Chaetopteridae. PrOC. ZooU Soc. 
London 1914, pp. 955—994, pi. I— 
VI. 

Report on the Annelida (Sedentary 
Polychaetes). Trans. Zool, Soc. London, 
XXn, pp. 693—705. 

Ann^lides Polychfetes de Nouvelle 
CalSdonie recaeillies par M. Francois. 
Avec une introduction et des notes de 
Pierre Fauvel. JreHv. Zool. Exptr. 
Gen. Paris, LXX, pp. 1—94, pis. 
I— III. 

Mat4riaux pour servir h. la faune 
des Annflides de Banyuls. Arehiv. 
Zool. Exper. Gen. Paris (3). Ill, 
pp. 339-494, pis. XV-XX. 



496 



LITERATURE 



Qufttrefages, A. de, 1365, 



Rioja, E., 1917, 



-, 1924, 



Rosa, D., 1908, 



Roule, L., 1896, 



-, 1907, 



Saint- Joseph, Baion 4e, 18S8i 



-, 1901, 



S»int-Jo8eph, Bwon 4e, 1906, 



^avigny. J- Q; 182Q, 



Histoire Naturelle des Annel& mar- 
ins et d'eau douce. Ann^ides et 
G^phyriens. 2 vols., pp. 1 — 588 and 
pp. 1—818, 20 pi. Paris. 

Nota sobre algunos Anelidos inter 
esantes de Santander. Bo/. Real. Soc 
Esp. Hist. Nat, Madrid, XVII, pp 
221—228. 

La Merclerella enigmatka Fauvel, 
Serpulido de ^ua Salobre, en Espana. 
Bol. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. Madrid, 
XXIV, pp. 160—169 

Raccolte Planctoniclie fatte delta R. 
Kfave "Liguria" nel Viaggio di circum- 
navigazione di S. A. R. Luigi di Savoia 
Duca degli Abruzzi. I. Tomopteridi. 
Pjihi. Real. Inst. Stud. Sup. Part 
Firenze, I, pp. 247—327. 

R&ultats scientiiiques de la campagne 
du "Caudan" dans le Golfe de Gas- 
ct^ne. Am. Uuif. Lyon, fast. III. 
pp. 439—469. 

Ann^lides et G^phyriens. Expedi- 
tions scientiiiques du "Travailleur" et du 
"Talisman" pendant les annSes 1880 — 
1883. Paris (Masson), pp. 1—102, 
pis. I— IX. 

Les Ann^Iides Polychltes des c6tes 
de Dinard, II. Am. Set. Nat. Zool. 
(7), V, pp 141—338, pis. VI— Xin. 

Les Ann^lides Folych^tes des cdtes 
de France (Manche et Oc^an). Ann. 
Set, Nat. Zool, (8), V, pp. 209—464, 
pis. XIII— XXIII. 

Sur quelques Invert^bres marlns des 
c6tes du S^nSgal. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 
(8), XII pp. 217—246, pis. I— H. 

Ann^lides Polychfetes des c6tes de 
France (Ocean et c6tes de Provence) 
Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (9), III, pp. 145- 
258, pis. I— V. 

Systfeme des Ann^lides. Description 
dt P Egypie Hist. Nat., XXI, Paris. 



LITERATURE 



497 



Sehmarda, L. IC, 1851. 
Seidler, H. J , 1922—23, 



-, 1924, 



Soderetrom, A., 1920, 



Southern, R, 1911, 



Southern, R., 1921, 



Stimpson, W-, 1853, 



Trejdwell A. L., 1901, 



-, 1903, 



Treadwell, A. L., 1920, 



-, 1929a, 



Neue wirbellose Thiere. II. Leipzig, 
pp. 1—164, pis. XVI— XXXVII. 

Beitrage zur Kennlnis dec Polynoi- 
den Zool. Jhz, pt. II, LV, pp. 74— 
80 (1922), pt. Ill, id., LVI, pp. 145— 
155 (1923). 

Beitrage znr Keimtnis der Polynoiden. 
I. j^uitv. Naturg., LXXXIX, A. Ht 
It, pp. 1^217, pis. I— 11. 

Studien liter die Polychaetenfamilie 
Spionidae. Inaugural-Disseriatm, 

Uppsala, pp. 1—286, pi. I. 

Polychaeta of the Coast of Ireland 
III. The Alciopinae, Tomopteridae and 
Typhloscolecidae. Fisheries, Ireland 
Set. hvest. in, 1910 (1911), pp. 
1—37, pi. I— III. 

Polychaeta ol the Chilka Lake, and 
also of Iresh and brackish waters in 
other parts of India. Mem. Ind. Mas. 
F, pp. 563-569, pis. XIX- XXXI. 

Synopsis of the Marine Invertetrata 
of Grand Manan, or the R^ion about 
the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, New- 
Brunswick. Smiti Cmtrih. Knmkdge 
VI, pp. 1—66, pis. I— III. 

The Polychaetons Annelids of Porto 
Rico. BuU. U.S. Fish. Cmm., XX, 
pp 183—210. 

Polychaetons Annelids of the Haw- 
aiian Island collected by the steamer 
"Albatross" m 1902. Suli. U.S. 
Ftii. Comm.,XXX. pp. 1147— IISl. 

Polycliaetous Annelids collected by 
the U. S. Fisheries steamer "Albatross" 
in the waters adjacent to the Philippine 
Islands in 1907—1910. Stxiti. Inst. 
U. S. Nat. Mus Bull. CI., pt. 8, pp. 
589—602 

Aoetes magnifoa, a new species of 
Polychaetons Annelid from Montego 
Bay, Jamaica, British West Indies. 
Jitier. Mus. Nev. No. 355, pp. 1—4. 



F. 65 



498 LITERATURE 

, 19291), ... Luwibrinerels Uckrata, a new Pofy- 

cbaetous Annelid from Puget Sound. 
Jmer. Mus. Nof,, No. 338, pp. 1 — 3. 

Watson, A. T., 1895, ... Observations on the tube-forming. 

habits of Pantkalis oerstedi. Trans. 

Liverpool Biol. Soc, IX, pp. 169—188, 
pis. IX— X. 

■, 1905, ... Note on Polydora ormata Lanhs. 

Ce^lm Pearl Oyster Tiskeries Suppl. 
Report, XXX, pt. IV, pp. 325—326. 

Willey, A., 1902, ... Polyhaeta. Nat. Hist. Collections 

" Southern Cross." London, pp. 262 
—283, pis. XLI—XLVI. 

' , 1904, ... The Littoral Polychaeta from the 

Cape of Good Hope. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. London {Zool.) (2), IX, pp, 255 
—268, pis. XII~X1V. 

, 1905, ... Report on the Polychaeta collected 

by Professor Herdman at Ceylon. 1902 
Roy. Soc. Rep. on Pearl Oyster 
Fisheries, Suppl. Rep., XXX, pp. 
"243—324, pis. I— Vin. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Names in italics are synonyms. 



Acoetes magntfica, 1Z 
ACOETINAE, 70 
Admetella longipedata, 54 
Aglaurides fulgida, SSO 
Aglaura, 250 
Aglaurides erythroensis, 260 

sym metrica, 260 

fulgida, 250 

ALCIOPIDAE, 132 
Alciopa cantrainii, 134 
Alctopma parasitica, 137 
Allmaniella ptycholepis, 53 
Amage bioculata, 410 
Ammochares assimilis, 391 

orientalis, 391 
AMMOCHARWAE, 390 
Ammotrypane aulogaster, 359 
AMPHARETIDAE, 406 
Amphicteis gunneri, 407 

■ japonica, 407 

^posterobranchiata, 408 

Amphictene crassa, 403 
AMPHICTENIDAE, 402 
Amphinome djiboutiensis, 85 

eucopochaeta, 83 

' .mdica, 83 

longictrra, 83 

.macrotricha, 83 

maldwiensis, 85 

pallasii, 82 

rostrata, 81 

AMPHINOMIDAE, 80 
AMPHITRITINAE, 416 
Anaitides dissotyla, 119 

madeirensis, 120 

tenuissima, 121 

Anaitis zeylanica, 119 
Ancistrosyllis constricta. 111 

rigida, 110 

Anisoceras, 298 
Anisocirrus decipiens, 434 
Anthostoma, 310 
Aontdes cirrata, 315 
APHRODITIDAE, 23 
Aphrodita aculeata, 24 

australis, 26 

castanea, 26 

haswelli, 26 

japonica, 24 

longipalpa, 26 

talpa, 26 

terrae-reginae, 26 

Aphroditella malayana, 26 



Aphrogenia alba, 27 

viUosa, 27 

Aponobranchus perrieri, 437 
Arabella iricolor, 274 

mutans, 275 

■ novecrinita, 275 

Aracoda multidentata, 274 

obscura, 275 

ARENICOLIDAE, 375 

Arete, 166 

Aricia chevalieri, 308 

■ cuvieri, 301 

persica, 302 

exarmata, 304 

■ laevigata, 310 

nuda, 303 

■ -perpapillata, 301 

persica, 302 

ARICIIDAE, 300 
Armandia lanceolata, 358 

leptocirris, 358 

Asterope Candida, 132 
Asychis disparidentata, 387 

gangeticus, 389 

gotoi, 387 

theodori, 386 

■ trifilosa, 388 

Audouinia anchylochaeta, 332 

iiligera, 331 

saxatilis, 330 

semicincta, 330 

Autolytus orientalis, 162 
Axiothea campanulata, 383 

obockensis, 380 

sp., 381 

Axiothella australis, 381 
obockensis, 380 



BarantoUa sculpta, 370 
Benthoscolex coecus, 93 
Bhawania cryptocephala, 79 

myrialepis, 79 

Brada mamillata, 362 

talehsapensis, 351 

Branchethus latus, 309 
Branchiocapitella singularis, 371 
Branchiomma acrophthalmos, 
444 

cingulata, 442 

intermedium, 444 

.pacificum, 444 

quadrioculatum, 444 



499 



500 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



CANEPHORINAE, 436 
Capithellethus dispar, 371 
CAPITELLIDAE, 362 
Capitelhdes dispar, 371 
Carobia castanea, 115 
Carrazia antennata, 316 

-kempi, 317 

Cenothnx mutans, 276 
Ceratonereis burmensis, 196 

.costae, 194 

Jakarta, 188, 189 

fasctata, 195 

.flagellipes, 199 

lapmigensis, 195 

microcephala, 198 

mirabilis, 200 

pachychaeta, 196 

pectintfera, 195 

tentaculata, 201 

.tripartita, 197 

Ceratocephale, 165 
CHAETOPTERIDAE, 336 
Chaetopterus appendiculatus, 
337 

cautus, 337 

longimanus, 338 

Jongipes, 338 

.variopedatus, 337 

CHLOIIAEMIDAE, 344 
Chloeia amphora, 96 

capiUatOj 96 

■ ceylomca, 96 

^flava, 96 

fusca, 97 

incerta, 96 

longisetosa, 97 

merguiensis, 96 

'parva, 96 

' rosea, 97 

-tumida, 96 

Tiolacea, 95 

CHRYSOPETALIDAE. 78 
Chrysopetalum eMersi, 78 
CIRBATULIDAE, 329 
Clrratulus anchylochaetus, 332 

cirratus, 334 

chrysoderma, 333 

complanatus, 333 

cylindricus, 331 

-dasylophius, 333 

— -filifoimis, 333 

semicinctus, 330 

Cirrosyllis incerta, 279 

• ■zealamca, 163 

Cistenides antipoda, 403 
Clymene axinadalei, 377 

gracilis, 380 

grossa, 378 



harai, 383 

insecta, 377 

montlis, 379 

^santanderensis, 379 

watsoni, 379 

Clymenella insecta, 377 
Corynocephalus albomaculatus, 

137 
Cymospira gaymardi, 462 



Dasybranchus caducus, 365 

cirratus, 365 

■ giganteus, 365 

Dasychone cingulata, 442 
• — - serratibranchis, 442 
Dendronereis aestuarina, 173 

arborifera, 172 

Dendronereides heteropoda, 174 
Diopatra ambqinensis, 252 

■ malabarensis, 281 

• — -neapolitana, 252 

-phyllocirra, 252, 281 

■variabilis, 252 

Bisoma orissae, 327 
DISOMIDAE, 327 
Diplocirrus glaucus, 353 
Ditrupa arietina, 470 

monilif^a, 470 

Dodecaceria fistulicola, 335 

joubmt, 335 

opulens, 335 

Doruillea gardineri, 280 
Drieschia pelagica, 54 
Drilonereis filum, 276 

^macrocephala, 276 

.major, 277 



Efalersia comuta, 153 

■ sexoculata, 153 

Eryphile, 231 
ERRANTIA, 23 
Eteone barantoUae, 127 
— omata, 128 
Euclymene annandalei, 377 

grossa, 378 

-insecta, 377 

santanderensis, 379 

watsoni, 379 

Eugrymaea, 432 
Eulalia albopicta, 123 

magalhaensis, 124 

pallida, 125 

^sanguinea, 125 

tenax, 124 

viridis, 122 



ALPHABETICAL IKDEX 



501 



Eumida communis, 125 

sanguinea, 125 

Eunice afra, 235 

amphiheliae, 23S 

antennata, 240 

aphroditois, 233 

Eunice australis, 240 

coccinea, 236 

elseyi, 234 

lioridana, 235 

gigantea, 233 

gracilis, 243 

^grubei, 237 

gunnen, 235 

mdica, 241 

investigatoiis, 239 

leucodon, 241 

' maren?elleri, 242 

mmtenst, 234 

micropion, 237 

■ murrayi, 240 

paupera, 236 

philocoralha, 235 

py.cnobranchiata, 234 

roussaeij 233 

savignyi, 238 

sialiensis, 241 

stragulum, 247 

tentaculata, 234 

teretiuscula, 280 

tubifex, 232 

EUNICIDAE, 228 
EUNICINAE, 229, 230 
Eunoe pallida, 39 
E«panLhalis edriophthalma, 76 
Euphione tenuisetosa, 36 
Euphrosyne ceylonica, 101 

foliosa, 102 

laureata, 102 

myrtosa, 101 

Eupomatus albiceps, 460 

elegans, 458 

exaltatus, 458 

heteroceros, 459 

lunulifera, 458 

minax, 460 

Eupompe australiensis, 73 

indica, 71 

Eurato notata, 445 

porifera, 439 

sancti-josephi, 446 

Eurythoe alcyonia, 83 

complanata, 83 

heterotncha, 85 

. karachiensis, 83 

lattssima, 83 

laevisetis, 83 

matthaei, 84 



pacifica, 83 

■ parvecarunculata, 85 

Eusigalion stylolepis, 66 
Eusyllis ceylonica, 159 
Euthalanessa djiboutiensis, 
Exogone spec, 163 



64 



Flabelligera diplochaitos, 344 
Ficopomatus macrodon, 473 



Gattyana deludens, 39 

■pallida, 39 

Gastrolepidia ambyphylltis, 51 

clavigera, 51 

Genetyllis castanea, 115 
Glycera alba, 292 

cmnamonea, 292 

cirrata, 297 

cochinensk, 292 

-decipiens, 297 

gigantea, S96 

goest, 297 

lancadivae, 291 

longipinnis, 291 

manorae, 298 

■ prashadi, 294 

nicobarica, 297 

rouxii, 297 

sagittariae, 295 

— —siphonostoma, 296 

traselata, 891 

GLYCEKJDAE, 881 
CLYCaiUNAE, 289 
Glycinde oligodon, 288 
Goniada agnesiae, 287 

annulata, 288 

■ australensis, 883 

echinulata, 28S 

emerita, 282 

eximia, 285 

incerta, 286 

japonica, 283 

longtcirrata, 283 

GONIADINAE, 281 
Goniadopsis agnesiae, 287 

incerta, 286 

Greeffia celox, 135 

bahuensis, 135 

Grymaea cespitosa, 433 
persica, 432 



Halla, 230 

Halosydna fulvovUtata, 52 

ceylonica, 50 

striata, 52 



502 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Haplobranchus, 452 
Haplosyllis spongicola, 147 
Harmothoe ampullifera, 43 

arabica, 46 

boholensis, 47 

■ dictyophora, 44 

holothuricola, 39 

^imbricata, 42 

.indica, 47 

. .iphionelloida, 41 

minuta, 43 

pallida, 39 

sinagawensis, 48 

.Hemipodus, 290 
Hermenia acantholepis, 38 
Hennione hystrix, 28 

malkata, 28 

Hermella bicomis, 
HERMELLWAE, 393 
HERMIONINAE, 28 
Hesione ceylonicay 104 

.ehlersi, 104 

eugeniae, 104 

genetta, 105 

intertexta, 105 

.pantherina, 104 

splendida, 104 

HESIONIDAE, 103 
Heterocirrus typhlops, 334 
Heteromastides bifidus, 368 
Heteromastus similis, 366 
HololepideUa commensalis, 59 
Hyalinoecia camiguina, 261 

tubicola, 261 

Hyperhalosydna striata, 52 
Hydroides albiceps, 460 
Hydroides exaltatus, 461 

heteroceros, 459 

homocexos, 458 

-lunulifera, 458 

-minax, 460 

monoceros, 460 

multispinosa, 458 

^norvegica, 458 

■ perezi, 457 

uncinata, 459 

vesiculosus, 461 

Hypsicomus maremelleri, 447 

phaeotaenla, 447 

pigmentattis, 447 



Idanthyrsus pennatus, 398 
llyphagus hlrsutus, 354 
Iphione muricata, 32 

-spinosa, 32 

Iphionella cimex, 43 
Ipbitime, 230 



Irma angustifrons, 109 

latifrons, 110 

limicola, 109 

Jasmineira caducibranchiata, 461 
Johnstonella aloysi-sabaudiae 
144 

^ducii, 143 

dunkeri, 145 

helgolandica, 1 43 

'rolasi, 143 

Kynephorus inermis, 110 

Labrorostratus, 230 
LACYDONINAE, 114 
Laetmatonice benthahana, 29 

producta, 29 

Lagisca flaccida, 41 

indica, 47 

minuta, 45 

Lanice socialis, 418 
Lagis abranchiata, 405 
Laonice cirrata, 315 
Laonome indica, 446 
Leanira japonica, 69 

sibogae, 69 

Leocrates chmensis, 106 

claparedii, 106 

-diplognathus, 107 

giardi, 106 

iris, 106 

Leocratides ehlersi, 107 

Leodice, 231 

Leonnates jousseaumei, 169 

decipiens, 171 

indicus, 

Lepidasthenia maculata, 58 

-microlepis, 57 

Lepidonotus acantholepis, 38 
Lepidonotus ampulliferus, 44 

cariaulatus, 34 

cristatus, 35 

^dictyolepis, 35 

fustcirrus, 38 

.hedleyi, 36 

indicus, 47 

jacksoni, 34 

jukesi, 37 

-melanogrammus, 37 

oculatus, 35 

.siriatus, 52 

. .tenuisetosus, 36 

■ trissochaetus, 37 

xuilleyi, 34 

Leprea ehrenbergi, 4gl 
inversa, 421 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



503. 



Loimia annuhfilis, 416 

crassifilis, 416 

medusa, 416 

. montagui, 416 

variegate, 416 

LOPADORHYNCHINAE, 114 
Lopadorhynchus uncinatus, 130 
LUMBRICdNEREINAE, 229. 

263 
Lumbriconereis bifilaris, 269 

ereciOj 268 

heteropoda, 268 

indica, 281 

^impatiens, 267 

]aponica, 266 

latreilli, 266 

' notocirrata, 271 

obtusa, 267 

^polydesma, 264 

■ pseudobifilaris, 269 

simplex, 264 

sphaerocephala, 267 

Lycastis indica, 167 

meraukensis, 166 

Lycoris heteromorpha, 193 

nuntta, 213 

quatrefagesi, 215 

Lygdamis indicus, 399 

muratus, 399 

porrectus, 400 

LYSARETXNAE, 229 
Lysidice coUaris, 248 

fallax, 248 

ninetta, 248 

sulcata, 248 

Lysilla pambanensis, 435 



Maclovia, 

Macroclymene monilis, 379 
Macrophyllum splendeus, 126 
Magelona obockensis, 329 
Magelona rosea, 329 
Magelona sp., 329 
MAGELONIDAE, 329 
Maldane coronata, 387 

sarsi, 382 

gotoi, 387 

disparidentata, 387 

cristata, 382 

■ cristagalU, 385 

Maldanella harai, 383 
MALDANroAE, 375 
Manayunkia spongicola, 452 
Marphysa chevalensis, 247 

corallina, 

faUax, 247 



furcellata, 245 

gravelyi, 246 

mcintoshi, 246 

' mossambica, 246 

sanguinea, 243 

■ stragulum, 247 

Mastigonerets longicirra, 216 
Mastobranchus indicus, 369 
Megalomma paciftcum, 444 
Melinna aberrans, 413 

dubita, 412 

Melinopsis dubita, 412 
MerciereUa enigmatica, 474 
Mesochaetopterus minutus, 342 
Myriochele heeri, 392 

picta, 392 

Mysta maculata, 128 

omata, 128 

Naidonereis, 310 
Nainereis laevigata, 310 
Nauphanta celox, 135 
novae-hollandiae, 246 



Neanthes albanyensis, 193 

■ capensis, 193 

■ latipalpa, 215 

meggitti, 194 

nuntia, 213 

Nectochaeta caroli, 64 

grimaldii, 56 

Nematonereis unicornis, 249 
Neottis gracilis, 437 
NEPHTHYBIDAE, 223 
Nephthys dibranclds, 225 

dussumieri, 228 

.gravieri, 226 

inermis, 224 

malmgreni, 226 

■ oligobranchia, 228 

.polybranchia, 227 

spinbranchis, 225 

NEREIDAE, 163 
Nereilepas brevicirris, 214 
Nereis abnormis, 222 

anchylochaeta, 177 

arenaceodentata, 180 

burmensis, 196 

capensis, 193 

cavifrons, 210 

chilkaensis, 185 

■ chingrighattensis, 179 

coenocirrus, 178 

costae, 194 

coutierei, 187 

cricognatha, 180 

. denhamensis, 189 

ehlersiana, S2S 



504 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



ezoensis, 186 

.falcaria, 188 

fasciata, 195 

festiva, 223 

flagellipes, 199 

foliosa, 223 

f usoo-rubida, 2 1 9 

• gisserana, 190 

glandicincta, 181 

heirissonensis, 189 

heteromorpha, 193 

indica, 186 

jacksoni, 189 

kaudeml, 188 

languida, 205 

• laptnigensis, 195 

longicirra, 215 

.longilingulis, 192 

' meggitti, 194 

microcephala, 198 

microdonta, 214 

mirabilis, 200 

mortenseni, 188 

■ nuntla, 212 

onychophora, 178 

pachychaeta, 196 

reducta, 190 

■ spec, 223 

■ talelisapensis, 184 

trifasciata, 183 

tripartita, 197 

unifasciata, 182, 183 

vallata, 215 

' vancaurica, 205 

■ zonata-persica, 187 

Nerine cirratulus, 312 
Nicidion gracilis, 243 
Nicolea gracilibranchis, 420 
NicoDiache truncata, 390 
Ninoe chilensis, 277 
Notocimis ttigonocephalvs, 281 
Notomastus giganteus, 365 

latericeus, 364 

zeylanieus, 364, 371 

NotophyUum imbrwattim, 126 

■ laciniatum, 126 

muUicirris, 125 

splendens, 126 

Notopygos gigas, 98 

hispidus, 100 

labiatus, 99 

variabilis, 100 



Odontosyllis gravelyi, 160 

nibtofasciata, 160 

Oenone ful^da, 260 
Oligognathus, 290 



Omphalopoma langerhansi, 468 
Omphalopomopsis langerhansi, 

458 
Oncoscolex microchaetus, 357 
ONUPHIDINAE, 229, 251 
Onuphis aucklandensis, 257 
- — basipicta, 258 

conchy lega, 255' 

■ . dibranchiata, 254 

eremita, 257 

furcatosetosa, 254 

holobranchiata, 256 

investigatoris, 258 

landanaensts, 258 

tenuisetis, 257 

tubicola, 261 

OPHELUDAE, 357 

Ophelina leptocirris, 358 

Ophryotrocha, 230 

Opisthosyllis australis, 156 

brunnea, 155 

.longicirrata, 154 

Owenia fusiformis, 391 

OWENIIDAE, 390 

Fallasia chrysocephala, 400 

indica, 399 

laevlspmis, 399 

murata, 399 

pennata, 398 

porrecta, 400 

Panthalis bicolor, 71 

edriophthalma, 76 

jogasimae^ 75 

• lacazei, 71 

marenzelleri, 75 

melanonotus, 72 

nigromaculatus, 76 

oerstedi, 74 

Paraheteromastus tenuis, 369 
Paralacydonia mortenseni, 129 

weberi, 129 

Paralepidonotus ampulliferus, 

44 

boholensis, 47 

Paramarphysa oiientalis, 247 
Paramphinome indica, 91 
Paranereis elegans, 215 
ParasphaerosylHs indica, 162 
Paraprionospio pmnata, 323 

tribranchiata, 323 

Parasclerocheilus branchiatus, 

356 
Pectinaria abranchiata, 405 

antipoda, 403 

capensis, 406 

crassa, 403 

panava, 406 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



505 



Felagobia longicirrata, 131 
Pelogenia anttpoda, 67 
Perinereis aibuhitensis, 209 

barbara, 204 

brevicirris, 214 

camigaina, 206 

cavifrons, 210 

cultrifera, 206 

floridana, 206 

-helleri, 206 

heterodonta, 214 

horsti, 205 

maindroni, 203 

marjorii, 210 

mictodonta, 214 

nankaurica, 205 

neocaledonica, 211 

' nigro-punctatai 210 

nuntia, 212 

obfuscatOj 206 

perspicillata, 206 

singaporiensis, 205 

striolata, 206 

suluana, 204 

vancaurica, 205 

yorkensis, 240 

Petaloproctus terricola, 385 
Petta, 402 
Phenacia exilis, 433 
Phyllochaetopterus aciculigerus, 
341 

dioti, 340 

gardineri, 341 

herdmani, 342 

pictus, 339 

spec., 

ramosuSj 339 

socialis, 339 

Phyllodoce castanea, 115 

dissotyla, 119 

foHosopapillata, 120 

fristedti, 118 

■ gracilis, 117 

macrolepidota, 118, 121 

madeirensis, 120 

malmgreni, 117 

multicirris, 126 

quadraticeps, 116 

sancti-josephi, 120 

sancti-vincentis, 120 

tenuissima, 121 

zeylanica, 119 

PHYLLODOCIDAE, 114 
PiraLLODOCINAE, 115 
Physelia fasdata, 425 

viridis, 487 

Pionosyllis spec, 163 
Pisione contracta, 77 

F. 66 



oerstedi, 77 

PISIONIDAE, 76 
Pista fasciata, 425 

herpini, 427 

indica, 422 

• macrolobata, 426 

pachybranchiata, 428 

robustiseta, 424 

typha, 424 

Platynereis abaonais, 222 

■ bengalensisj 218 

dumerilii, 218 

fusco-rubida, 219 

insolita, 218 

integer^ 221 

pulchella, 220 

polyscalma, 221 

Pleione tetraedra, 82 
Plotobia simplex, 139 
Podaike angustifirons, 109 

dtdymocera, 109 

latifrons, 110 

Polydora antennata, 316 

anuata, 321 

ciliata, 319 

coeca, 319 

flava, 321 

homelli, 318 

kempi, 317 

Polydorella prolifera, 322 
POLYCIRJUNAE, 434 
Polycirrus coccineus, 434 
Polymnia labiata, 437 

nebulosa, 419 

socialis, 418 

trigonostoma, 419 

tnplicata, 419 

Polynoe ampullifera., 43 

boholensis, 47 

cnnoidicola, 50 

dictyophora, 44 

fulvovittata, 52 

fusicirra, 38 

longicirra, 50 

minuta, 45 

platycirris, 52 

ptycholepis, 53 

POLYNOINAE, 31 
Polyodontes aculea, 71 

maxillosus, 71 

raelanonotus, 72 

oculea, 71 

sibogae, 72 

Polyophthalmus australis, 360 

ceylonensis, 360 

collaris, 360 

pictus, 360 

setasus, 360 



506 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Pomatoceropsis coutierei, 462 

jousseautnei, 464 

Pomatoceros coeruleus, 470 

strigiceps, 470 

triqueter, 469 

Poinatoleios crosslandi, 461 
Pomatostegus actinoceros, 465 

polytrema, 465 

stellatus, 465 

Pontogenia chrysocoma, 30 

indica, 29 

nuda, 30 

Potamilla ceylonica, 449 

ehlersi, 449 

leptochaeta, 449 

— —oligophthalmos, 449 
Praxillella gracilis, 380 

insecta, $TJ 

Prionognathus, 278 
Prionospio apicana, 323 

alata, 323 

cirrifera, 324 

' krusadensis, 326 

multibranchiata, 324 

. pinnata, 323 

polybranchiata, 324 

Protula iutestinum, 472 

• tubularia, 472 

Protulopsis palliata, 472 

Psammolyce antipoda, 67 

fijiensis, 67 

■ n^da, 67, 68 

zeylanica, 68 

magalhaensis, 124 

Pseudeurythoe acarunculata, 89 

ambigua, 90 

microcephala, 88 

paucibranchiata, 86 

Pseudonereis anomala, 217 

ferox, 215 

gallapagensis, 215 

rottnestiana, 217 

■ ■vmiegata, 215 

Pterocirrus brevicomis, 125 

Pterocirras ceylonicus, 125 

Pulliella annata, 374 



Rbamphobrachium chuni, 261 

diversosetosum. 262 

Rhynchonerella fulgens, 138 
Sabella bipunctata, 439 

fusca, 439 

fuscotaeniata, 447 

guinensis, 439 

melanochlora, 445 

- — tnelanostigma, 439 



phaeotaenia, 447 

porifera, 439 

pottaei, 445 



Sabellaria alcocki, 394 

btcomis, 398 

cementarium, 395 

intermedia, 397 

laevispmis, 399 

pectinata, 396 

spinulosa, 394 

SABELLARIIDAE, 393 
Sabellastarte indica, 445 
SABELLIDAE, 437 
Sacconereis sp., 163 
Salmacina dysteri, 477 
Samytha bioculatOj 410 
Scalibregma inflatum, 355 
SCALIBRAEGMIDAE, 354 
Scalisetosus longicirrus, 50 

pellucidus, 49 

Schistocomus hiltoni, 411 
Scolelepis indica, 313 
Scoloplos anniger, 

chevalieri, 308 

hexaphyllum, 310 

kerguelensis, 307 

latus, 309 

inarsupialis, 306 

Scyphoproctus djiboutiensis, 373 
SEDENTARIA, 300 
Serpula granulosa, 455 

minax, 460 

vermicularis, 454 

• ^watsoni, 456 

SERPULIDAE, 462 
SIGALIONINAE, 60 
Sphaerodoce quadraticeps, 116 
Spiochaetopterus spec, 342 
SPIONIDAE, 311 
Spionides japonicus, 315 
SPIONIFORMIA, 16 
Spirobranchus acroceros, 

cervicomis, 462 

giganteus, 462 

jousseaumei, 464 

maldivensis, 464 

muUicomis, 462 

semperi, 462 

tetraceros, 462 

tricomigerus, 462 

turbnatus, 

Spirographis spallanzani, 441 

tricyclia, 441 

Spirorbis foraminosus, 477 
STAUROCEPHALINAE, 229, 
278 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



507 



Staurocephalus australis, 279 

incertus, 279 

gardineri, 280 

Stauronereis australis, 279 

incerta, 279 

Sternaspididae, 401 
Sternaspis costata, 402 

• fossor, 402 

Steggoa brevicornis, 125 
— magalhaensis, 124 
STERNASPIDIDAE, 401 
Sthenelais boa, 61 

calcarea, 64 

idunae, 62 

orientaliSj 62 

.variabilis, 62 

zeylanica, 62 

Sthenolepis japonica, 69 
Streblosoma cespitosa, 433 

persica, 432 

Stylarioides bengalensis, 347 

bifidus, 349 

■ eruca, 347 

Stylarioides hamocarens, 345 

indica, 347 

ms, 346 

parmatus, 346 

SYLLIDAE, 145 
SYLLINAE, 146 
Syllis hrachychcBta, 150 

dosterobiancUa, 150 

compacta, 148 

comuta, 163 

djiboutiensis, 147 

exilis, 151 

gigantea, 158 

gracilis, 147 

hamata, 147 

hyalina, 160 

krohnii, 150 

longissima, 147 

okadai, 152 

prolifera, 149 

solida, 151 

spec., 160 

spongicola, 147 

.vancaunca, 

variegata, 148 



Talehsapia annadalei, 113 
Terebella ehrenbergi, 421 

jaiciata, 45,5 

gracilibrmichis, 

typha, 424 

TEREBELLIDAE, 415 
Terebellides intoshi, 437 



Terebellides sieboldi, 437 

stroemi, 436 

ypsilon, 436 

Tetreres laevispinis, 390 

Thalanessa digitata, 66 

Thalanessa djiboutiensis, 64 

styolepis, 66 

Tharyx multifilis, 334 

THELEPINAE, 430 

Thelepus cincinnatus, 431 

crispus, 430 

japonicus, 430 

plagiostoma, 430 

rugosus, 430 

setosus, 

Theodisca anierina^ 370 

hexaphyllum, 310 

Thormora jukesi, 37 

Ttmarete ancylochaeta, 332 

fecunda, 332 

TOMOPTERIDAE, 140 
Tomopteris aloysi-sabaudiae, 
144 

catharina, 143 

Tomopteris cavallii, 141 

■ducii, 143 

dunkeri, 145 

degans, 142 

hdgolandica, 140 

kefersteini, 142 

mortenseni, 141 

planctonis, 142 

Tolasi, 143 

Tradopia maculata, 281 
Travisia arborifera, 361 
Travisiopsis lobifera, 139 
Trophonia glauca, 363 
Trypanosyllis gigantea, 168 

misakiensis, 158 

- — richardi, 157 

zebra, 157 

Tylonereis bogoyawlenskyi, 168 

fauvdi, 169 

Tylorhynchus 

TYPHLOSCOLECIDAE, 139 
Typosyllis dosterobranchiata, 
ISO 

exilis, 151 

ktohnii, ISO 

Typosyllis okadai, 162 

prolifera, 149 

tapobranensis, 159 

variegata, 148 

Vanadis formosa, 135 
Vermilia pyffdialis, 466 
Vermiliopsis acanthophora, 467 

glandigera, 467 

pygidialis, 466 



LIST OF AGENTS IN INDIA FROM WHOM GOVERN- 
MENT OF INDIA PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE 



AGRA.- 

English Book Depot, Taj Road. 
National Book House, Jeomandi. 
Wadhwa 8c Co., Raja Mandi. 

AHMEDABAD.- 

Chandra Kant Chiman Lai Vera, 

Gandhi Road. 
Indradhanu Book House Ltd., 

Mission Road, Bhadra. 
New Order Book Co., Ellis Bridge. 

AJMER.- 

Banthiya & Co., Ltd., Station Road. 

AKOLA.- 
Bakshi, Mr. M. G. 

ALLAHABAD.- 

Central Book Depot, 44, Johnston 

Ganj. 
Kitabistan, 17-A, City Road. 
Law Book Co., Post Box No. 4, 

Albert Road, 
Ram Narain Lai, 1, Bank Road. 
Universal Book Agency (of Lahore), 

Post Box No. 63. 
Vidyarthi Book Depot, University 

Road. 
Wheeler & Co., M/s. A. H. 
Supdt. Ptg. & Stationery, U.P. 

ALWAR.- 

Jaina General Stores, Bazaza Bazar. 

AMBALA CANTT.- 
English Book Depot. 

AMRITSAR.- 
Sikh Publishing House Ltd., 
Court Road. 

BANARAS.- 

Banaras Book Corporation, 

University Road, P.O. Lanka. 
Students' Friends, University Gate. 

BANGALORE.- 

Book Emporium, M/s. S. S., 118, G. 

H. Extension Basavangndi, P.O. 
Vichra Sahitya Ltd., Balepet. 
Standard Book Depot, Avenue Road. 



BAREILLY.- 

Agarwal Bros., Bara Bazar. 
M/s. R. S. Vaish & Sons, Baia Bazar. 
National Book Depot, Behari Pur. 
Sahitya Niketan, Pulkazi. 

BARODA.- 

Good Companions. 

BIKANER.- 

Goyal & Co., 

Makhanlal Damani, Bookseller etc. 

BOMBAY.- 

Charles Lambirt & Co., P.O. Box 

No. 4087. 
Co-operatois Book Depot, 9, Bake- 
house Lane, Fort 
Current Book House, Hornby Road. 
Dutt & Co., P.O. Box No. 6014. Parel. 
International Book House Ltd., Ash 

Lane, Mahatma Gandhi Road. 
Lakhani Book Depot, Bombay 4- 
National Information & Publications 

Ltd., National House. 
New Book Co., Kitar Mahal, 188-90, 

Hornby Road. 
Popular Book Depot, Grant Road. 
Sarkari Pralkashan Ltd., 24-B Harnam 

Street, Fort. 
Supdt Govt Printing & Stationery, 

Queens Road. 
Taiaporevala Sons & Co., M/s. D. B. 

Thacker & Co., Ltd., Tripathi & Co., 

M/s. N. M. Princess Street, Kalba- 

debi Road. 
Wheeler & Co., M/s. A. H. 

CALCUTTA.- 

Chatteijee & Co., 30, Bacha Ram 

Chatterjee Lane. 
Chakervertty Chatterji & Co., Ltd. 

15, College Square. 
Hindu Library, e9-A, Bala Ram 

De St 
Lahiri & Co., Ltd. M/s. S. K.. 
M. C. Sarkar & Sons Ltd., 14 Bankim 

Chatterji Street 
R. Cambray fc Co., Ltd., Kant House. 

P. 33, Mission Row Extension. 
Roy Choudhury & Co.. M/s. N. M. 
- 72, Harrison Road. 



Sarkar & Sons Ltd., M/s. S. C. 1/1/lC 

College Square. 
Thacker, Spink 8e Co., (1933) Ltd. 

CHAMBA.- 

Chamba Stationery Mart. 

CHANDAUSI.- 
Mr. Madan Mohan. 

CUTTACK.- 

Press Officer, Orissa Secretariat. 

DEHRA DUN.- 

lugal Itishore & Co. 
Mr. Dharam Prakash, B.Sc., Banjiman 
Road, Ludtiana. 

DELHI.- 

Atma Ram k Sons, Publishers etc., 

Kashmere Gate. 
Bahaii Brothers, 188, Lajpat Rai 

Maiket. 
Federal Law Depot, Kashmere Gate. 
General Book Depot, 538/39, Egerton 

Road, P.O. Box No. 220. 
Imperial Publishing Co„ 3> xm. 

Bazar, Darya Ganj. 
Indian Army Book Depot, 3, Darya 

Ganj. 
Jaina & Bros. M/s. J. M. Mori Gate. 
M. Gulab Singh & Sons. 
Metropolitan Book Co., Delhi Gate. 
N. C. Kansil 8c Co., Model Basti, 

Lane No. 3. 
New Stationery House, Subzimandi. 
Youngman & Co. (Regd.), Egerton Rd. 

ETAWAH.- 

M/s. Ram Prasad & Bros. 

ERNAKULAM.- 

M/s. Bharat Stores, Broadway. 

FEROZPORE.- 
English Book Depot. 

GIRTDIH.- 
Popular Traders, 
Sain|»ut BuiUIn^ 

GORAKHPUR.- 
Halidial &hitya Ma&dir. 

GWAUOR.- 

Tain & Bros. M/1 M. B. Slrtafii ltd. 

Mr. P. T. Sathe, Law Books Dealer. 



HYDERABAD (DECCAN).- 
Hyderabad Book Depot. 

INDORE.- 

Student and Studies, Sanyogitaganj. 

JAIPUR CITY.- 
Garg Book Co, Tripolia Bazar. 
Vani Mandir, Sawai Mansingh High- 
way. 

JAMMU(TAWI).- 

Knshna General Stores, Raghunath 
Bazar. 

JHANSI.- 

Bhatia Book Depot, Sadar Bazar. 

JODHPUR.- 

Kitab Ghar, Sojati Gate. 

Mr. Dwarkadas Rathi. 

JULLUNDUR CITY.- 

Excelsior Book Depot, Baz Baharwala. 

MADRAS.- 

Devme Trading Co., 22, Namasivaya 

Mudali Street. Triplicane, 
Higginbothams. 

K. Krishnamurthy, Mount Road. 
Presidency Book Supplies, 8-C, 

Pycrofis Road, 0pp. Victoria Hostel, 

Triplicane. 
Supdt. Govt. Press, Mount Road. 
Varadachary & Co., M/s. P. 

BANGALORE.- 

U. R. Shenoy 8e Sons, Car Street. 

MASULIPATAM,- 

M/s. Triveni Publishers. 

MEERUT CITY.- 

Prakash Educations Stores, Near 

Tehsil. 
University Book Depot, Near Tehsil. 

MYSORE.- 

J. Nanumal 8e Sons, Lansdowne 

Buildings. 
M. VenkatttHinHah & Sons, 
Vedyanidhi Bo<* Depot, Hundred 

Feet Road. 

NAGPUR.- 

Sujictt. Govt Printitig Central Pro- 
vihca, 

NEW DELHL- 

Amrit Book Co., Cannau^t Circus. 



m 



Bhavnani & Sons, Cannaught Place. 
Bodh Raj Marwah, Shop No. 65. 
Pussa Road, Market, K.arol Bagh. 
Clifton & Ck)., Original Road, Kard 

Bagh. 
Empire Book Depot, 278, Aliganj, 

Lodhi Road. 
English Book Store, G-Block, Can- 
naught Circus. 
Harikishan Das Bedi, R. S. 22, Annexe 

Feroze Shah Road. 
J. Ray & Sons (India) Ltd., 2, Regal 

Budding. 
Jain Book Agency, Cannaught Place. 
Jayna Book Depot, Chapparwala 

Kuan, Karol Bagh. 
Navyug Traders, Original Road, 

Karol Bagh 
Oxford Book & Stationery Co., Scindia 

House. 
Ram Kishna &: Sons (of Lahore) 13/13, 

Cannaught Place. 
Saraswati Book Depot, 15, Lady 

Hardinge Road. 
Sikh Puhlishing House Ltd., 7-C, 
Cannaught Place. 

PATLVLA.- 

Jainco Booksellers etc., Bazzar Shaha, 
Nashin. 

KANPUR.- 

Advani & Co., The Mall. 

Sahitya Niketan. 

Universal Book Stall., The Mall. 

KOLHAPUR. 

Maharashtra Grantha Bhandar. 

LUCKNOW.- 

J. Ray & Sons (India) Ltd., Hazarat- 

ganj. 
Law Book Agency, 29-A, Kachery Rd. 
New Oxford Book Co., 4, St. Jasap's 

Building, Hazaratganj. 
Universal Publisher, Ltd., Plaza 

Building, Hazarat Ganj. 
Upper India Publishing House Ltd., 

Literature Place, Aminuddaula 

Park. 

LUDHUNA.- 
Lyall Book Depot. 

PUDUKKOTTAI.- 
P. N. Swaminathan Sivam & Co., 
Perumal Vilas, Bazar Street. 



RAJKOT- 

Mohan Lai Dosabhai Shah. 
RANCHL- 

Ideal Book Store. Near Paristhan 
Theatre, Main Road. 

ROORKEE.- 

Cambridge Book Depot. 

SHILLONG.- 

Supdt. Assam Secretariat Press. 

SIMLA.- 

J. Ray & Sons (India) Ltd., 
Azad Kitab Mahal, Stall No. 13. 
Minerva Book Shop, The Mall. 
Sunder Dass & Sons, 141, Lower 
Bazar. 

SIROHI.- 

National Tradmg Co. 

SURAT.- 

Shree Gajan Pustakalya, Tower Road. 

PATNA.- 

Sohan Smgh & Sons, Pirmohani, P.O. 

Kadm Kuan. 
Supdt. Govt Printing, Bihar, P.O. 

Gulzar Bagh. 

PATNA aTY.- 

Lakshmi Trading Co., Padri-Ki- 
Haveli. 

POONA.- 

Deccan Book Stall, Ferguson College 

Road. 
Express Book Service, East Street. 
International Book Service, Deccan 

Gymkhana. 

TRICHNOPOLY FORT.- 

Krishna Swami & Co., M/s. S. Tep- 
pakulam. 

TRIVANDRUM.- 

International Book House, Balia 
Chalal. 

UDAIPUIL- 
Newar Book Depot. 
UJJAIN.- 

Manakchand Book Depot, Patni 
Bazar. 

VELLORE.- 

Venkatasubban, Mr. S. Law Book- 
sdlers.